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Index

References are to document numbers

  • Abrams, Gen. Creighton W., 275
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 240, 244
    • Cambodia:
      • Assessment of the situation, 150
      • Chup Operation, 108
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 95
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 224
      • Losing Cambodia to the communists, U.S. concerns about, 84, 85
      • Snoul area, 212
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 98
      • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 231
    • Khe Sanh, military operations in, 171
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 125
      • Assessment of situation, 129, 150, 160
      • Bunker’s assessments, 143
      • Duration of operation, concerns/disputes about, 147, 149, 151
      • Kissinger-Bunker communications, 142
      • Kissinger-Laird communications, 162
      • Moorer’s diary entries, 127
      • Morale of South Vietnamese troops, 171
      • Nixon-Moorer communications, 134
      • Press briefing, 162
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above):
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 93
      • South Vietnamese operation to keep enemy forces in, 186
      • Tchepone Operation, 104, 112, 113
      • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Media, comments to the, 162, 186
    • Nixon’s lack of faith in, 211
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 91
    • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Vietnamization Program, 160
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops:
      • Haig, meetings with, 153
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Media, leaks to the, 255
      • 100,000 U.S. troops, Nixon’s plan to withdraw, 170
  • Agency for International Development (AID), 51, 61
  • Agnew, Spiro, 26, 64, 117, 131, 242, 259
  • Aiken, 118
  • Air operations/strikes/strategies:
    • Alternative air programs, 13
    • Cambodia:
      • Chup Operation, 110
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 1
      • Nixon lamenting lack of bombing in 1966, 256
      • Prevention of re-establishment of enemy sanctuaries, 104
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
    • Direct/indirect support for ground forces, 13
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 169
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 74
    • Guards for international aircraft, requirements concerning, 38
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 169
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 129
      • B-52 bombing, 125, 126, 130
      • 40 Committee, 172
      • Helicopter losses, 126, 128, 131
      • Moorer’s assessments, 144
      • Moorer’s diary entries, 127
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 131
      • Raven FACs, 126
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125, 126
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Survey of U.S. air support, 139
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 145
      • Weather conditions, 125, 126
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • B-52s, 4
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • 1972/1973, U.S. officials discuss appropriate air activities for, 244
      • Nixon lamenting lack of bombing in 1967, 256
      • Plain of Jars area, 241
      • Reduction in U.S. activity, 13
      • Senior Review Group, 103
      • Tchepone Operation, 104, 105, 109, 110, 121
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 283
    • 1972/1973, U.S. officials discuss appropriate air activities for, 240, 244
    • North Vietnam, bombing/operations against, 66, 75, 78, 79, 132, 256, 288
    • NSDM 77, 20
    • Paris Peace Talks, 245
    • Prisoners of war, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76
    • Reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam, U.S., 66, 75, 78, 79
    • Senior Review Group, 204, 291
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Cambodia, 270, 271, 281
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 278, 292
      • North Vietnam, bombing, 288
      • Proud Deep Alpha Operation, 278
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
    • Supply lines in North Vietnam, attacking, 66
    • Tail Wind Operation, 50
    • Thieu’s request for U.S. support, 220, 231
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 169, 173
  • Albert, 159, 169
  • Alsop, Joe, 169
  • Alsop, Stewart, 197
  • Anderson, Adm. George W., 10, 107, 155
  • An Quang Buddhists, 119, 254
  • Arbuckle, Tammy, 169
  • Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). See Air operations/strikes/strategies; Cambodia; Elections in South Vietnam; Laos; Nguyen Cao Ky ; Nguyen Van Thieu ; Paris Peace Talks ; U.S. officials/organizations .
  • Asahi Shimbun, 101
  • Assassinations of South Vietnamese civilians, 78
  • Atkins, Ollie, 2
  • Baker, William, 10
  • Belles, Col. Harold, 154, 155
  • Bennett, Gen. Donald V., 154, 155, 164, 167, 204
  • Berger, Samuel D., 118, 135, 243
  • Binh, Madame, 40, 41, 43, 106, 226, 233
  • Blackburn, Gen. Donald D., 66, 72
  • Blee, David, 172
  • Bogdan, 256
  • Boggs, 159, 169
  • Borman, Col. Frank, 12
  • Brady, Morris, 212
  • Bresnahan, Gen. Richard, 291
  • Brezhnev, Leonid, 239, 259, 293
  • Broe, William, 14
  • Brown, 107
  • Bruce, David K. E., 31
    • China, 274
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 2
    • Head of U.S. delegation, assuming role as, 2
    • Prisoners of war, 43, 106, 193
    • Resignation of, 236
    • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 47
    • Xuan Thuy, first private talks with, 75
  • Bui Diem, 76
  • Bunker, Ellsworth, 2, 33, 35, 209
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 220, 240
    • Assessment of Vietnam as of December 1970, 99
    • Assessment of Vietnam as of September 1971, 258
    • Cambodia, 95, 98, 151
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 44
    • Drugs/narcotics, U.S./South Vietnamese problems with, 220
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 220
    • Elections in South Vietnam:
      • Bunker’s assessments as of January 1971, 100
      • Bunker’s assessments as of September 1971, 258
      • Covert U.S. actions, 119
      • Duong Van Minh withdraws from the race, 249, 250
      • Irregularities, allegations of campaign, 225, 237, 250
      • Kissinger, communications with, 177
      • Ky-Duong Van Minh deal, 220
      • Ky’s application for candidacy is rejected, 251
      • Non-intervention, U.S. policy of, 225
      • Observer groups, U.S.-international, 220
      • Referendum, U.S. pushes for a national, 251, 265
      • Thieu’s reelection victory, 267
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 220, 231
    • Ky, meetings with, 55
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Assessment of the situation, 143
      • Duration of operation, concerns/disputes about, 147, 149, 151, 156
      • Haig’s assessments, 151, 158
      • Kissinger, communications with, 142
      • Morale of South Vietnamese troops, 171
      • Nixon’s belief in the success of, 220
      • Public policy/relations, 122, 168
      • Thieu’s efforts at maintaining a favorable public opinion, 176
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 93, 108, 113, 116, 120, 121
    • Le Duc Tho-Kissinger meetings, 233
    • Negotiating package proposal, Nixon’s instructions regarding, 37
    • Nixon, meetings with, 68
    • Nixon’s respect/admiration for South Vietnamese troops, 171
    • Nixon-Thieu meetings (proposed), 219, 220
    • Pacification Program, 100
    • Paris Peace Talks, 184, 207, 272, 294
    • Prisoners of war, 37, 82
    • Thieu, Bunker’s assessments as of September 1971 on, 258
    • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Vietnamization Program, 100
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 47, 55, 170, 173, 294
    • Xuan Thuy-Kissinger meetings, 233
  • Burchett, Wilfred, 194
  • Burrows, Gen. William C., 235, 266
  • Butterfield, Alexander P., 185
  • Cambodia (see also Lon Nol ):
    • Abrams’ assessments, 150
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies:
      • Chup Operation, 110
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 1
      • Nixon lamenting lack of bombing in 1966, 256
      • Prevention of re-establishment of enemy sanctuaries, 104
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 69
    • China supplying communist forces through, 42, 62, 107
    • Chup Operation:
      • Laird’s assessments, 104
      • Moorer’s assessments, 144
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 1
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 104, 109
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 105, 108, 110, 113, 114, 118, 120, 125
    • CIA/JCS’s assessments as of September 1970, 30
    • Communications equipment, 7
    • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 65
    • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese (see also Chup Operation above and South Vietnamese troops in below ), 95, 96, 104
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S.:
      • Fulbright amendment to the Defense Procurement Act, 52
      • Khmer Krom units, 7
      • Kissinger’s assessment of Cambodian strategy, 30, 60
      • Laird’s assessments, 224
      • NSDM 80, 23
      • NSDM 89, 61
      • NSSM 99, 39, 51
      • Rogers’ assessments, 224
      • Scrambling for funding, 7
      • Senior Review Group, 51, 212, 271
      • Shoring up the regime with, 1
      • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, 70
      • Thai troops, 7
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 7, 22
    • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 107
    • Fulbright amendment to the Defense Procurement Act, 52
    • Haig’s assessments, 151, 281
    • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90, 92
    • Helms’ Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 63
    • Indonesian military assistance to, 7, 36, 52
    • Khmer Krom units, 7, 52
    • Kissinger-Koun Wick meetings, 64
    • Kissinger’s assessments, 30, 60
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
    • Losing Cambodia to the communists, U.S. concerns about, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88
    • Military region studies for South Vietnam, 102
    • Morale of Cambodian troops, 146
    • Nixon-Cheng Heng meetings, 64
    • Nixon-Haig communications, 281
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 46, 157, 218
    • Nixon-Ky meetings, 76
    • Nixon-Sisowath Sirik Matak meetings, 242
    • Nixon-Souvanna Phouma meetings, 56
    • Nixon-Swank meetings, 32
    • North Vietnamese attack on airport near, 109
    • NSDM 89, 61
    • NSSM 99, 39, 40, 51, 60, 102, 103
    • Paris Peace Talks, 207, 223
    • Personnel levels, U.S., 212
    • Prairie Fire operations, 4, 7, 15, 36
    • Psychological campaign on, U.S. clandestine, 24
    • Redeployments of U.S. forces in Southeast Asia, 29
    • Rogers-Sisowath Sirik Matak meetings, 242
    • Route 4 Operation, 104, 105
    • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
    • Senior Review Group:
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 212, 271
      • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 179, 203, 204
      • NSSM 99, 51, 103
      • Personnel levels, 212
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • SNIE 57-70, 9
    • Snoul area, 212
    • South Vietnamese troops in (see also Chup Operation and Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese above ), 96, 98, 103, 104, 146, 150, 151
    • Special Guerrilla Units, 52
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 270, 271, 281
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 271
      • Nixon-Haig communications, 281
      • Senior Review Group, 271
      • Thompson’s assessments, 270
    • Stennis’ legislative proposal to keep U.S. troops out of, 67
    • Thai troops in, 7, 36, 52, 73, 103
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 91, 268
    • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Training for Cambodian forces, 22, 103
    • Walters’ assessment of communist attitudes regarding, 5
    • Washington Special Actions Group:
      • Chup Operation, 105, 108, 110, 113, 114, 118, 120, 125
      • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, 87
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 7, 22
      • Indonesian military assistance, 52
      • Khmer Krom units, 52
      • Lon Nol’s request for helicopters/armored cars, 7
      • Prairie Fire operations, 7, 36
      • Route 4 Operation, 105
      • Thai troops, 36, 52
      • Training Cambodian troops, 22
      • Weapons/ammunition, availability of, 7, 18, 36
  • Canada, 125
  • Carver, George, 40, 66, 103, 124, 125, 126, 128, 130, 136, 154, 155, 164, 167, 179, 192, 204, 212, 215, 235, 266, 291
  • Cease-fire proposal, U.S.:
    • Dry season, enemy’s strategic options for the, 69
    • Nixon asks for further analysis, 53
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 157
    • Nixon-Ky meetings, 76
    • Nixon’s assessments as of July 1971, 227
    • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 197
    • Nixon-Souvanna Phouma meetings, 56
    • Nixon’s televised address to nation on October 7, 1970, 46
    • Paris Peace Talks, 207, 223, 236, 254
    • Senior Review Group, 235, 265, 266
    • Thieu’s assessments, 44
    • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 265, 266
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 69
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (see also 40 Committee ; Helms, Richard M. ; Senior Review Group; Washington Special Actions Group), 73
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 13, 288
    • Cambodia:
      • Assessments as of September 1970, 30
      • China supplying communist forces in South Vietnam through, 42, 62
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 7
      • Khmer Krom units, 52
      • NSSM 99, 40, 51
    • China, 234
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 119
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 102
    • Hanoi’s short term intentions, analysis of, 59
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Air support, survey of U.S., 139
      • Black broadcasts, 163
      • Kissinger-Laird communications, 162
      • Logistics analysis, 166
      • Public relations, 136
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139
      • Supply movements, intelligence on North Vietnamese, 154, 155
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 145
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ): [Page 2]
      • Current military situation and short term prospects, 229
      • Long Tieng situation, 199
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 52
      • Tchepone Operation, 110, 111
    • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 10
    • Prisoners of war, 66
    • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit Program, 135
    • Psychological warfare operations, covert, 77
    • Shallow penetration raids against North Vietnamese targets, 103
    • Soviet Union, 234
    • Thieu and Ky, flare-up between, 28
  • Chamberlain, 70
  • Chapin, Frank M., 80, 172
  • Cheng Heng, 64, 187, 242
  • Chicago Tribune, 106
  • China:
    • Cambodia:
      • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 107
      • Nixon-Sisowath Sirik Matak meetings, 242
      • Supplying communist forces through, 42, 62, 107
      • Walters’ assessment of communist attitudes regarding, 5
    • Chou En-lai’s trip to North Vietnam, 157
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 124, 125, 138
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 111, 123, 264
    • Nixon-Chou En-lai meetings, 234
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 262, 278, 292
    • Nixon-Sisowath Sirik Matak meetings, 242
    • North Vietnam, military aid given to, 42, 62, 107, 234
    • Ping-pong diplomacy, 183
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Chinese involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 274
      • Kissinger’s China visit, 274
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 278, 292
      • Soviet Union’s influence on China, 292
  • Chou En-lai, 157, 234, 242, 257, 274, 278
  • Christian Science Monitor, 190
  • Chup Operation. See under Cambodia.
  • Church, Frank, 70, 198, 222
  • CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency.
  • Clay, Gen. Frank, 55, 148, 216
  • Clifford, Clark, 217, 218
  • Cline, Ray, 154, 155, 167
  • Coalition government in Vietnam, 10, 11, 54, 94
  • Coerr, Wymberley, 14, 77, 119, 200
  • Colby, William E., 98
  • Colombia, 259
  • Communist Congress in South Vietnam, 27
  • Congress, U.S.:
    • Cooke/Stephens amendment for removing U.S. forces from Southeast Asia, 222
    • Cooper/Church amendment for removing U.S. forces from Southeast Asia, 222
    • Defense Appropriations Bill, annual, 241
    • Draft extension bill, military, 256
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 177
    • Fulbright amendment to the Defense Procurement Act, 52
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Mansfield amendment and the withdrawal of U.S. troops, 211
    • McGovern/Hatfield amendment for removing U.S. forces from Southeast Asia, 211, 222
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 262
    • Nixon’s worries concerning, 197, 198
    • Paris Peace Talks, 254
    • Prisoners of war, 194
    • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112, 120
    • Senior Review Group, 212
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Laos, 287
      • Spending limits, 283
      • Symington Subcommittee, 4
      • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 273
    • Stennis’ legislative proposal to keep U.S. troops out of Cambodia, 67
    • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, 70, 83
    • Terminal date for U.S. participation in Vietnam War, 169
  • Connally, John B., Jr., 117, 157, 169, 217, 246, 259
  • Cook, Maj. Curtis, 283
  • Cooke, 222
  • Cooper, Chuck, 55, 112, 198, 222
  • Corcoran, Thomas, 64
  • Court, John, 291
  • Crocker, Chester A., 214
  • Cronkite, Walter, 88
  • Cuba, 108
  • Cushman, Lt. Gen. Robert, 22, 51, 52, 66, 93, 105, 125, 128, 145, 164, 172, 211, 241, 266
  • Da Krong River-Northern Ashau Valley area, 181
  • David, 97
  • Davies, Richard, 200
  • Davis, Rennie, 124
  • Deaths, U.S. battle, 196, 198, 205, 259
  • Defector, The (Collingwood), 10
  • Defense Department, U.S. (see also 40 Committee ; Laird, Melvin ; Packard, David ; Senior Review Group; Washington Special Actions Group):
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 13, 20
    • Cambodia, 7, 39, 40, 51, 52
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 17
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Air support, survey of U.S., 139
      • Public relations, 136
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139
      • Supply movements, intelligence on North Vietnamese, 154, 155
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 52
    • Psychological warfare operations against North Vietnam, covert, 77
  • Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), 166, 167
  • Delmas, Chaban, 123
  • Dhep, Gen., 199
  • Dickerson, Nancy, 88
  • Digilio, Rodger, 204
  • Djakarta Conference (May, 16-17, 1970), 24
  • Dobrynin, Anatoliy F.:
    • Haig, communications with, 263
    • Kissinger, meetings with:
      • Chinese involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 274
      • Coalition government in Vietnam, 54, 94
      • Kosygin’s interview with a Japanese newspaper, 101
      • Lam Son 719 Operation, 138
      • Linkage theory, 94
      • Paris Peace Talks, 133, 165, 239, 277
      • Separating military and political issues, 101
      • Soviet behavior, 293
      • Soviet involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 260, 274
    • Kissinger-Gromyko meetings, 263
    • Nixon-Gromyko meetings, 58
  • Dole, Robert, 79
  • Donovan, Col. Paul, 235
  • Doolin, Dennis, 7, 22, 36, 81, 124, 125, 126, 128, 164, 167, 168, 179, 212, 235, 283, 291
  • Draft calls, cutback in, 55
  • Draft extension bill, military, 256
  • Drugs/narcotics, U.S./South Vietnamese problems with, 219, 220, 231
  • Duong Van Minh, 99, 100
    • Bunker’s assessments as of September 1971, 258
    • Elections in South Vietnam:
      • Irregularities, allegations of campaign, 225, 243, 250
      • Ky, deal struck with, 218, 220
      • Referendum, U.S. pushes for a national, 251
      • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
      • Withdraws from the race, 248, 249, 250, 251
    • Kissinger, meetings with, 232
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
  • Economic funds/policies, U.S.:
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 169
    • Bruce’s assessments, 2
    • Bunker’s assessment of Vietnam as of December 1970, 99
    • Cambodia:
      • Fulbright amendment to the Defense Procurement Act, 52
      • Khmer Krom units, 7
      • Kissinger’s assessment of Cambodian strategy, 30, 60
      • Laird’s assessments, 224
      • NSDM 80, 23
      • NSDM 89, 61
      • NSSM 99, 39, 51
      • Rogers’ assessments, 224
      • Scrambling for funding, 7
      • Senior Review Group, 51, 212, 271
      • Shoring up the regime in, 1
      • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, 70
      • Thai troops, 7
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 7, 22
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 119
    • 40 Committee, 200
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 168, 169, 220, 228, 231, 289
    • Kissinger’s assessments, 17
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 125, 172
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 4, 56, 241
    • NSDM 80, 23
    • Paramilitary operations, 15
    • Paris Peace Talks, 245, 254
    • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit Program, 135
    • Psychological warfare operations against North Vietnam, covert, 77
    • Redeployments of U.S. forces in Southeast Asia, 29
    • South Vietnamese economy, 55
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Cambodia, 271
      • Kissinger’s assessments, 286
      • Limits on spending, 283
    • State Department/NSC representatives take trip to Southeast Asia (September 20-26, 1971), 261
    • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 70, 83
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 91
    • Thieu’s request for, 220, 231
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 48
  • Eddins, Col. W. J., 215
  • Edmundson, Morris F., 192, 204
  • Ehrlichman, John, 217
  • Elder, Gen. John, Jr., 212
  • Elections in South Vietnam:
    • An Quang Buddhists, 119, 254, 258
    • Bunker’s assessments as of January 1971, 100
    • Bunker’s assessments as of September 1971, 258
    • Covert actions in support of U.S. objectives, 119
    • Duong Van Minh withdraws from the race, 248, 249, 250, 251
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 119, 200
    • Farmers-Workers Party, 14, 119
    • Irregularities, allegations of campaign, 225, 237, 243, 250
    • Kissinger-Bunker communications, 177
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Ky-Duong Van Minh deal, 218, 220
    • Ky’s application for candidacy is rejected, 249, 250, 251
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
    • Movement of Unity of the Highland Ethnic Minorities, 119
    • National Social Democratic Front, 14
    • NIE 53-71, 195
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 68, 131, 210, 245, 262
    • Nixon-Ky meetings, 76
    • Non-intervention, U.S. policy of, 225
    • Observer groups, U.S.-international, 220, 225
    • Pacification Attitude Analysis System, 220
    • Paris Peace Talks, 34, 207, 245, 246, 252, 254
    • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the North Vietnamese, 226
    • Progressive Nationalist Movement, 119
    • Referendum, U.S. pushes for a national, 251, 253
    • Revolutionary Social Humanist (Nhan Xa) Party, 119
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Social Democratic Front, 119
    • Thieu, reelection victory for, 267
    • Thieu goes forward unopposed with elections, 253
    • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Thieu’s post-election plans, 210, 211
    • Thompson’s assessments, 189
    • U.S. and presidential elections, 104
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 98
  • Eliot, Theodore L. Jr., 179
  • Fairbank, John, 210
  • FANK (Cambodian Armed Forces). See Cambodia.
  • Farmers-Workers Party (FWP), 14, 119
  • Fazio, 182
  • Feldman, Horace, 172
  • Flanagan, Adm. William R., 40, 51, 52, 87, 103, 139, 145, 192, 214, 241
  • Ford, Gerald R., 79, 155, 159
  • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (FIAB), 107
  • 40 Committee:
    • Covert operations in North Vietnam, 14, 15, 77
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 119
    • Farmers-Workers Party, 14
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 172
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 216
    • Media activities, covert, 200
    • Meetings:
      • August 7, 1970, 14, 15
      • March 31, 1971, 172
      • May 14, 1971, 200
      • June 11, 1971, 216
    • National Social Democratic Front, 14
    • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit Program, 135
    • Psychological warfare operations against North Vietnam, covert, 77
  • Foster, John S., 182
  • Fowler, George C., 81, 204
  • France, 34, 123, 207
  • Frankel, Max, 217
  • Freedom Bait Operation, 71, 74, 76
  • Fulbright, J. William, 4, 52, 56, 70, 83, 118, 125
  • Gardner, 131, 218
  • Gauntlet Operation, 50
  • Geneva Accords of 1954, 236
  • Geneva Accords of 1962, 207, 236, 264, 269
  • Getler, Michael, 108
  • Godley, G. McMurtrie, 4, 93, 103, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 120, 123, 125, 241
  • Goldwater, Barry, 112
  • Graham, Kay, 88
  • Gray, Gordon, 10
  • Greece, 259
  • Green, Marshall, 7, 22, 36, 40, 56, 81, 87, 105, 115, 212
  • Griffin, 79
  • Gromyko, Andrei A., 54, 57, 58, 263
  • Guhin, 97
  • Guthrie, D. Keith, 22, 36, 40, 51, 81, 87, 103, 136, 139, 145, 154, 155, 164, 167, 168, 172, 179, 192, 204, 212, 214, 215
  • Guyana, 259
  • Habib, Phillip, 47, 76, 106, 236
  • Hackett, James T., 266
  • Haig, Alexander M., Jr., 87, 128, 136, 168, 253
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 66, 288
    • Assassinations of South Vietnamese civilians, 78
    • Cambodia:
      • Assessments after Southeast Asia trip, 90, 92, 151
      • Chup Operation, 109, 110
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 212
      • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 107
      • Lon Nol, meetings with, 91
      • Lon Nol, resignation of, 187
      • Nixon, communications with, 90, 281
      • Nixon-Swank meetings, 32
      • Personnel levels, 212
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90, 92
      • South Vietnamese troops in, 96, 98, 104, 146
      • Thieu, meetings with, 91, 268
      • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
      • Weapons/ammunition, availability of, 18
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 197, 227
    • Deaths, U.S. battle, 196
    • Drugs/narcotics, U.S./South Vietnamese problems with, 219
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 71
    • Ground combat role for U.S., Laird’s statements on the termination of, 208
    • Ky, U.S. support for, 230
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Armed forces of North and South Vietnam, impact on, 164
      • Assessment of situation, 151, 158
      • B-52 bombing, 126
      • Helicopter losses, 126
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 126
      • Political future for South Vietnam, 164
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 126
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Thai troops, 126
      • Weather conditions, 126
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • Long Tieng situation, 199
      • Nixon, communications with, 281
      • Nixon-Souvanna Phouma meetings, 56, 264
      • North Vietnamese offensive in, 281
      • Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90, 92
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 96, 104
      • Tchepone Operation, 109, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 120, 121, 123
      • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Leaks within the U.S. government, 105
    • Le Duc Tho-Kissinger meetings, 233
    • Lord’s push for a negotiated settlement, 180
    • Nixon-Thieu meetings (proposed), 219
    • North Vietnam, operations against, 132
    • Paris Peace Talks, 2, 207, 226, 230, 233, 280
    • Police problem in South Vietnam, 98
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 91
    • Prisoners of war, 193, 194, 197
    • Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90, 92
    • South Vietnamese excursions into North Vietnam, encouraging, 78
    • Soviet Union, 263
    • State Department/NSC representatives take trip to Southeast Asia (September 20-26, 1971), 261
    • Thieu, meetings with, 91, 268
    • Thieu, U.S. support for, 230
    • Thieu and Ky, flare-up between, 28
    • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Tran Thien Khiem, North Vietnamese insistence on ending U.S. support for, 230
    • Troop levels in Vietnam, U.S., 16
    • Vietnamization Program, 112
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 91, 92, 151, 153, 169, 197
  • Haldeman, H. R. “Bob,” 93, 95, 157, 168, 262
  • Halperin, David R., 107, 131, 236
  • Hamlet Evaluation System (HES), 33
  • Hannah, John, 51
  • Harriman, 79
  • Hartman, Arthur, 40, 51, 179, 192, 214, 215, 235, 291
  • Hatfield, Mark, 198, 211, 220, 222
  • Hearst, William, 256
  • Helms, Richard M., 7, 40, 77, 81, 87, 136, 139, 154, 155, 166, 167, 168, 192, 235
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 13, 79, 291
    • Cambodia:
      • Chup Operation, 108
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 212
      • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 107
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • NSSM 99, 103
      • Personnel levels, 212
      • Psychological campaign on, clandestine, 24
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 63
      • Training Cambodian forces, 103
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 53
    • Coalition government in Vietnam, 11
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 179, 204, 214, 215, 291
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 19
    • Ky meeting with pro-communist Vietnamese front group, 76
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • B-52 bombing, 126, 130
      • Black broadcasts, CIA’s, 163
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125, 172
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 125
      • Helicopter losses, 126
      • Legal justifications for operation, 125
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125, 126
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 125
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Thai troops, 126
      • Weather conditions, 125
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 103
      • Assessments after Southeast Asia trip, 63
      • Clay Report, 216
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • NSSM 96, 103
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Tchepone Operation, 104, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123
      • Thai troops in, 4
    • Leaks within the U.S. government, 108
    • Media actions, covert, 200
    • Paris Peace Talks, 104
    • Prisoners of war, 66
    • Reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam, U.S., 79
    • Riot control agents, 19
    • Shallow penetration raids against North Vietnamese targets, CIA’s, 80
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Southeast Asia trip, assessment of situation after, 63
    • South Vietnamese capabilities, 291
    • SRG’s analysis of situation U.S. will face in Vietnam in 1971/1972, 179
    • Strategy alternatives for Southeast Asia (1970-1975), review/analysis of, 25
    • Symington Subcommittee, 4
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 174, 291
  • Henkin, Daniel Z., 118, 121, 123, 127, 136
  • Herbert, Edward F., 125
  • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 19, 97, 247, 279
  • Herzeberg, 220
  • Hill, Col. John G., 212
  • Hoang Xuan Lam, 158
  • Ho Chi Minh, 264
  • Ho Chi Minh Trail (see also Lam Son 719 Operation), 107, 109, 110, 154, 290
  • Holdridge, John H., 2, 7, 11, 22, 27, 33, 36, 40, 51, 65, 76, 81, 87, 99, 103, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128, 130, 136, 139, 154, 155, 164, 167, 179, 189, 193, 212, 214, 215, 216, 225, 241, 264, 283, 285
  • Home, Alec D., 189
  • Houdek, Robert C., 128, 208
  • Howe, Jonathan, 118
  • Hubbard, Jack, 190
  • Hughes, Gen. James, 193, 239
  • Huntington, Sam, 190
  • Huyen, 232
  • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 168, 169, 220, 228, 231, 289
  • India, 293
  • Indonesia, 7, 36, 52
  • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 193
  • International Control Commission (ICC), 3, 37
  • International Security Affairs (ISA), 39
  • Irwin, John N., 51, 52, 56, 76, 103, 110, 113, 128, 136, 179, 193, 212, 214, 215, 216
  • Ivory Coast Operation, 66
  • Jackson, 257
  • Japan, 242, 259
  • JCS. See Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  • Jefferson, R., 82
  • Jessup, Peter, 14, 77, 216
  • Johnson, Lyndon B., 68, 256
  • Johnson, U. Alexis, 7, 14, 22, 36, 40, 51, 52, 72, 77, 82, 93, 103, 139, 145, 154, 155, 167, 168, 192, 214, 229, 235, 283
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 291
    • Cambodia, 105, 108
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 266
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 119
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 179, 204, 291
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Armed forces of North and South Vietnam, impact on the, 164
      • B-52 bombing, 126, 130
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 125
      • 40 Committee, 172
      • Helicopter losses, 126
      • Legal justifications for operation, 125
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125, 126
      • Political future for South Vietnam, 164
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 125
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Thai troops, 126
      • Weather conditions, 125, 126
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • Clay Report, 216
      • Long Tieng area, 287
      • Plain of Jars area, 241
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Tchepone Operation, 105, 108, 110, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123
    • Leaks within the U.S. government, 108
    • Media activities, covert, 200
    • SRG’s analysis of situation U.S. will face in Vietnam in 1971/1972, 179
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 291
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) (see also 40 Committee ; Moorer, Adm. Thomas H. ; Senior Review Group; Washington Special Actions Group):
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 13, 240, 278
    • Cambodia, 30, 39, 40, 51, 52
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 139, 145
      • Public relations, 136
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139, 145
      • Supply movements, intelligence on North Vietnamese, 154, 155
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 52
    • Prisoners of war, 66, 72
    • Redeployments of U.S. forces in Southeast Asia, 29
    • Troop levels in Vietnam, U.S., 16
  • Jones, Norman, 291
  • Kalischer, Peter, 106
  • Karamessines, Thomas, 7, 14, 22, 36, 52, 119, 172, 216, 229, 283
  • Karhohs, Gen. Fred, 179, 192, 204, 215, 266
  • Kennedy, Col. Richard T., 7, 22, 36, 40, 50, 51, 65, 77, 81, 87, 103, 110, 113, 115, 118, 120, 121, 123, 136, 139, 145, 154, 155, 164, 167, 168, 172, 179, 192, 200, 215, 235, 241, 283, 285, 291
  • Khe Sanh, military operations in, 169, 171
  • Khmer Krom units, 7, 52
  • King Pin Operation, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76
  • Kissinger, Henry A., 51, 77, 81, 136, 139, 145, 154, 155, 167, 168, 192, 210, 235, 283
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies:
      • Alternative air programs, 13
      • 1971, air activity in Southeast Asia in, 20
      • 1972/1973, U.S. officials discuss appropriate air activities for, 240, 244
      • Nixon, communications with, 1, 278
      • North Vietnam, bombing, 256, 288
      • Reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam, U.S., 78
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Supply lines in North Vietnam, attacking, 66
      • Thieu’s request for U.S., 231
    • Assessment of Vietnam as of September 1971, 257
    • Assessment of Vietnam as of January 1972, 285
    • Bruce’s resignation, 236
    • Bunker’s assessment of Vietnam as of December 1970, 99
    • Bunker’s assessments of Vietnam as of September 1971, 258
    • Cambodia:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 150
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 1
      • Assessment of Cambodian strategy, 30, 60
      • Chinese military supplies delivered through, 42
      • Chup Operation, 105, 108, 109, 110, 114
      • CIA/JCS’s assessments as of September 1970, 30
      • Communications equipment, 7
      • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 65
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 95, 96
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 1, 7, 212, 224, 271
      • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 107
      • Haig’s assessments, 151
      • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90
      • Indonesian military assistance to, 7, 36, 52
      • Khmer Krom units, 7
      • Koun Wick, meetings with, 64
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Lon Nol, resignation of, 187
      • Losing Cambodia to the communists, U.S. concerns about, 83, 84, 85, 88
      • Morale of Cambodian troops, 146
      • Nixon, communications with, 46, 157, 218
      • Nixon lamenting lack of bombing in 1966, 256
      • Nixon-Lon Nol communications, 6, 26
      • Nixon-Sisowath Sirik Matak meetings, 242
      • Nixon-Swank meetings, 32
      • NSDM 89, 61
      • NSSM 99, 39, 40, 60, 103
      • Personnel levels, 212
      • Psychological campaign on, clandestine, 24
      • Route 4 Operation, 105
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • Snoul area, 212
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 96, 98
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 52
      • Stennis’ legislative proposal to keep U.S. troops out of, 67
      • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 70
      • Thai troops in, 7, 36, 103
      • Thieu, meetings with, 231
      • Thompson’s assessments, 270
      • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
      • Training Cambodian forces, 103
      • Walters’ assessment of communist attitudes regarding, 5
      • Weapons/ammunition, availability of, 18
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S.:
      • Alternative sets of ceasefire terms, 266
      • Dry season, enemy’s strategic options for the, 69
      • Nixon, communications with, 157
      • Nixon asks for further analysis, 53
      • Nixon’s assessments as of July 1971, 227
      • Thieu-Bunker communications, 44
      • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 265
    • China:
      • Assessments as of September 1971, 257
      • Nixon, communications with, 262, 278, 292
      • Nixon-Chou En-lai meetings, 234
      • Ping-pong diplomacy, 183
      • Trip to, 274
    • Clay Report, 216
    • Coalition government in Vietnam, 11, 54
    • Commanders, lack of faith in U.S. military, 211
    • Communist Congress in South Vietnam, 27
    • Congress, U.S.:
      • Cooke/Stephens amendment for removing U.S. forces from Southeast Asia, 222
      • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
      • McGovern/Hatfield amendment for removing U.S. forces from Southeast Asia, 222
      • Nixon, communications with, 262
      • Nixon’s worries concerning, 197, 198
    • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 93
    • Covert operations, 14
    • Deaths, U.S. battle, 198, 205
    • Dobrynin, meetings with:
      • Chinese involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 274
      • Coalition government in Vietnam, 54, 94
      • Kosygin’s interview with a Japanese newspaper, 101
      • Lam Son 719 Operation, 138
      • Linkage theory, 94
      • Paris Peace Talks, 133, 165, 239, 277
      • Separating military and political issues, 101
      • Soviet behavior, 293
      • Soviet involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 260, 274
    • Draft extension bill, military, 256
    • Drugs/narcotics, U.S./South Vietnamese problems with, 231
    • Dry season, enemy’s strategic options for the, 69
    • Duong Van Minh, meetings with, 232
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 17, 23, 231, 286
    • Elections in South Vietnam:
      • Assessments as of September 1971, 257
      • Bunker, communications with, 177
      • Duong Van Minh withdraws from the race, 248, 249, 251
      • Farmers-Workers Party, 14
      • Irregularities, allegations of campaign, 237
      • Ky-Duong Van Minh deal, 218
      • Ky’s application for candidacy is rejected, 251
      • National Social Democratic Front, 14
      • Nixon, communications with, 68, 131, 210, 245, 262
      • Non-intervention, U.S. policy of, 225
      • Observer groups, U.S.-international, 225
      • Paris Peace Talks, 246
      • Referendum, U.S. pushes for a national, 251, 253
      • Thieu, meetings with, 231
      • Thieu goes forward unopposed with elections, 253
      • Thompson’s assessments, 189
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 103, 179, 203, 204, 215, 291
    • Force deficits, alternatives for dealing with, 103
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 71, 74
    • Godley, meetings with, 4
    • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90
    • Hanoi’s short term intentions, CIA’s analysis of, 59
    • Helms’ Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 63
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 19, 97, 247, 279
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 169, 228, 231
    • Khe Sanh, military operations in, 171
    • Korean troops, 231
    • Ky, meetings with, 232
    • Ky, U.S. support for, 47
    • Ky’s planned trip to U.S., 41
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 129, 150, 160
      • Armed forces of North and South Vietnam, impact on the, 164
      • Assessment of situation, 159, 161
      • B-52 bombing, 126, 130
      • Black broadcasts, CIA’s, 163
      • Bunker, communications with, 142
      • Bunker’s assessments, 143
      • CIA’s assessments, 166
      • Dobrynin, meetings with, 138
      • Duration of operation, concerns/disputes about, 147, 149, 151, 156
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125, 172
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Final report on, 182
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 125
      • Haig’s assessments, 151, 158
      • Halperin’s assessments, 131
      • Helicopter losses, 126, 131
      • Laird, communications with, 162
      • Laird’s assessments, 131
      • Legal justifications for operation, 125
      • Moorer’s diary entries, 127, 137
      • Nixon, communications with, 131, 157
      • Nixon’s belief in the success of, 220
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
      • North Vietnamese mood after, appraising the, 201
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125, 126
      • Political future for South Vietnam, 164
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 125
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Thai troops, 126, 172
      • Thieu’s efforts at maintaining a favorable public opinion, 176
      • Tri, the loss of Gen., 209
      • Weather conditions, 125, 126, 131, 148
      • Westmoreland, communications with, 178
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 4, 13, 103
      • Assessments as of January 1972, 285
      • CIA’s assessments, 229
      • Clay Report, 216
      • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 65
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 4, 216, 285
      • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 4, 291
      • Gauntlet Operation, 50
      • Haldeman’s diary entries, 117
      • Ho Chi Minh Trail, U.S. efforts outside of the, 290
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Long Tieng area, 4
      • Meos people, fighting capacity of the, 4
      • Nixon lamenting lack of bombing in 1967, 256
      • North Vietnamese offensive in, 278, 282, 285
      • NSSM 96, 103
      • Peace initiatives related to, countries other than U.S. offering, 3, 4
      • Personnel (U.S.) limitations in, 4
      • Plain of Jars area, 241
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 93, 95, 96
      • South Vietnamese operation to keep enemy forces in, 181, 185, 186
      • Souvanna Phouma, meetings with, 264
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Stand down in Northern Laos, negotiating a, 214
      • Tail Wind Operation, 50
      • Tchepone Operation, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123
      • Thai troops in, 172
      • Thieu, meetings with, 231
      • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Leaks within the U.S. government, 105, 108, 155
    • Le Duc Tho, meetings with, 233, 237
    • Le Duc Tho’s China and Soviet Union trip, 218
    • Lord’s push for a negotiated settlement, 180
    • McGovern-Hatfield bill to end the war, 211
    • Media issues, 88, 190, 200, 291
    • Negotiating package proposal, Nixon’s instructions regarding, 37
    • Nixon-Ky meetings, 76
    • Nixon’s televised address to the nation on Oct. 7, 1970, 46
    • Nixon-Thieu meetings (proposed), 198, 205, 220, 231
    • Nixon-Thompson meetings, 49
    • North Vietnam, operations against, 132, 292
    • Pacification Program, 33, 69
    • Paris Peace Talks:
      • Bruce assumes position as Head of U.S. delegation, 2
      • Bunker, communications with, 184
      • Cambodia, 207, 223
      • Canceling meetings, discussions on, 272, 273
      • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 207, 223, 236, 254
      • Date for the next meeting, setting a, 34, 207
      • Dobrynin, meetings with, 133, 165, 239, 277
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 236, 245, 254
      • Elections in South Vietnam, 207, 245, 246, 254
      • France, keeping talks secret from, 34, 207
      • Laos, 207, 223, 236
      • Le Duc Tho’s possible arrival, 273
      • Neutral country, internment of prisoners in a, 175, 193
      • Nixon, communications with, 31, 206, 218, 254
      • Nixon-Porter meetings, 252
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the North Vietnamese, 226, 254
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the U.S., 207, 223, 236
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the North Vietnamese, 41, 43
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 245, 246, 254, 269, 284, 294
      • Peace Proposal (Nine Point) from the North Vietnamese, 223, 236
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 34, 223, 236, 254
      • Prisoners of war, 43, 45, 207, 236, 245, 254
      • Procedural points, 34
      • Rogers, communications with, 238
      • Secret talks made public by Nixon, 295
      • Stopping the talks, Nixon’s reasons for, 280
      • Thieu, meetings with, 231
      • Thieu, U.S. support for, 236, 254
      • Vietnamization Program, 34, 69, 223, 236
      • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 34, 35, 45, 207, 223, 236, 245, 254
      • Xuan Thuy and Bruce, first private talks between, 75
      • Xuan Thuy-McGovern meetings, 254
    • Police problem in South Vietnam, 98
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 233
    • Prisoners of war:
      • Assessments as of September 1971, 257
      • Borman appointed as Special Representative on Prisoners of War, 12
      • Ivory Coast Operation, 66
      • King Pin Operation, 71, 72, 73
      • Laird’s assessments, 213
      • Le Duc Tho, meetings with, 237
      • Neutral country, internment of prisoners in a, 175, 193
      • Nixon, communications with, 106, 191, 198
      • Paris Peace Talks, 43, 45, 207, 236, 245, 254
    • Protests/criticisms against U.S. policy, 185, 190, 191, 198
    • Redeployments of U.S. forces in Southeast Asia, 29
    • Riot control agents, 19
    • Saintenay, meetings with, 45
    • Shallow penetration raids against North Vietnamese targets, CIA’s, 80
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Soviet Union (see also Dobrynin , meetings with above), 58, 94, 257, 263
    • Special Review Group for Southeast Asia, 21
    • SRG’s analysis of situation U.S. will face in Vietnam in 1971/1972, 179
    • State Department/NSC representatives take trip to Southeast Asia (September 20-26, 1971), 261
    • Strategy alternatives for Southeast Asia (1970-1975), review/analysis of, 25
    • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 70
    • Thieu, Hearst’s criticisms in the media of, 256
    • Thieu, Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971 of, 257
    • Thieu, meetings with, 231
    • Thieu, U.S. support for, 47
    • Thieu and Ky, flare-up between, 28
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 268
    • Thompson’s assessments of situation in Vietnam, 189
    • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Troop levels in Vietnam, U.S., 16
    • Vietnamization Program, 69, 114, 161, 173, 231, 257
    • “War is over” conversation with Nixon, 188
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops:
      • Assessments as of September 1971, 257
      • Bunker/Smyser, meetings with, 55
      • China, trip to, 274
      • Draft calls, cutback in, 55
      • Elections in South Vietnam, 98
      • Haig-Abrams meetings, 153
      • Laird’s assessments, 48
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Media, leaks to the, 255
      • Negotiating package proposal, Nixon’s instructions regarding, 37
      • Nixon, communications with, 157, 192
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 169
      • Oberdorfer’s editorial in Washington Post, 210
      • 100,000 U.S. troops, Nixon’s plan to withdraw, 170, 173, 174
      • Paris Peace Talks, 34, 35, 45, 207, 223, 236, 245, 254
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 190
      • Private U.S. citizens attempt to negotiate, 217, 218
      • 70,000, troops, Nixon announces withdrawal of, 284
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Thieu, meetings with, 231
      • Thompson’s assessments, 189
      • Unilateral withdrawal not an option, 47
    • Xuan Thuy, meetings with (see also Paris Peace Talks above), 233, 237
  • Klein, Herbert G., 159
  • Knowles, Lt. Gen. Richard T., 15, 38, 77, 172, 216, 266
  • Korean troops, 192, 204, 231
  • Kosem, Lt. Col. Les, 62
  • Kosygin, Alexei N., 101, 115
  • Koun Wick, 64
  • Kraslow, David, 217
  • Krimer, William D., 58
  • Ky. See Nguyen Cao Ky .
  • Ladd, Col. Jonathan F., 18, 22, 83, 91, 187, 224
  • Laird, Melvin:
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies:
      • Alternative air programs, 13
      • 1972/1973, U.S. officials discuss appropriate air activities for, 240, 244
      • North Vietnam, bombing, 288
      • Proud Deep Alpha Operation, 278
      • Reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam, U.S., 79
    • Cambodia:
      • Chup Operation, 104
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 95, 96, 104
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 1, 7, 224, 271
      • Losing Cambodia to the communists, U.S. concerns about, 84
      • NSSM 99, 39
      • Route 4 Operation, 104
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 52
      • Stennis’ legislative proposal to keep U.S. troops out of, 67
      • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 70
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 53
    • Coalition government in Vietnam, 11
    • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 104
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 17, 83
    • Ground combat role for U.S., termination of, 208
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 19, 97, 247
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 169, 228, 289
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 129
      • Bunker’s assessments, 143
      • Kissinger, communications with, 162
      • Moorer’s diary entries, 137
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 131
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 96, 104, 116
    • Nixon, meetings with, 289
    • Nixon’s televised address to the nation on Oct. 7, 1970, 46
    • North Vietnam, operations against, 132
    • Pacification Program, 33, 49
    • Paris Peace Talks, 104, 226
    • Prisoners of war, 43, 66, 71, 82
    • Redeployments of U.S. forces in Southeast Asia, 29
    • Riot control agents, 19
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Strategy alternatives for Southeast Asia (1970-1975), review/analysis of, 25
    • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 83
    • Thompson, meetings with, 49
    • Troop levels in Vietnam, U.S., 16, 29
    • Vietnam, trip to, 275
    • Vietnamization Program, 208
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops:
      • Draft calls, cutback in, 55
      • Expedited troop withdrawals, 48
      • Media, leaks to the, 255
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 169
      • 100,000 U.S. troops, Nixon’s plan to withdraw, 170, 174
      • Southeast Asia and Paris trip, 104
  • Lam Son 719 Operation:
    • Abrams’ assessments, 129, 150, 160
    • Abrams’ press briefing, 162
    • Black broadcasts, CIA’s, 163
    • Bunker’s assessments, 143
    • CIA’s assessments, 166
    • Defense Intelligence Agency’s analysis, 166
    • Duration of operation, concerns/disputes about, 147, 148, 149, 151, 156
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125, 172
    • Final report on, 182
    • Haig’s assessments, 151, 158
    • Halperin’s assessments, 131
    • Helicopter losses, 126, 128, 131
    • Kissinger-Bunker communications, 142
    • Kissinger-Dobrynin meetings, 138
    • Kissinger-Laird communications, 162
    • Kissinger’s assessments, 159, 161
    • Kissinger-Westmoreland communications, 178
    • Moorer’s assessments, 144, 152
    • Moorer’s diary entries, 127, 137
    • Morale of South Vietnamese troops, 171
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 131, 157
    • Nixon-Moorer communications, 134
    • Nixon’s belief in the success of, 202, 220
    • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
    • North Vietnamese mood after, U.S. appraising the, 201
    • NSC’s assessments, 166
    • PT boats, 127
    • Public policy/relations, 122, 124, 136, 168
    • “Statement About the Situation in Laos,” 125
    • Thai troops, 125, 126, 139, 145, 168, 172, 176
    • Thieu’s efforts at maintaining a favorable public opinion, 176
    • Thompson’s assessments, 189
    • Tri, the loss of Gen., 209
    • Washington Special Actions Group:
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 139, 145
      • Armed forces of North and South Vietnam, impact on the, 164
      • B-52 bombing, 125, 126, 130
      • Congressional consultations, 124
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 124, 125
      • Helicopter losses, 126, 128
      • Legal justifications for, 125
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125, 126
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 164
      • PT boats, 125
      • Public policy/relations, 124, 136, 168
      • Refugees, Meo, 145
      • Search and rescue missions, 128
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 125
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125, 126
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139, 145
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Supply movements, North Vietnamese, 154, 155, 167
      • Thai troops, 126, 139, 172
    • Weather conditions, 125, 126, 131, 148, 158
  • Land, Edwin, 10
  • Land reforms in South Vietnam, 99
  • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation):
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies:
      • B-52s, 4
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • 1972/1973, U.S. officials discuss appropriate air activities for, 244
      • Nixon lamenting lack of bombing in 1967, 256
      • Plain of Jars area, 241
      • Reduction in U.S. activity, 13
      • Senior Review Group, 103
      • Tchepone Operation, 104, 105, 109, 110, 121
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 283
    • CIA’s assessments, 229
    • Clay Report, 216
    • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 65
    • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese. See South Vietnamese troops in and Tchepone Operation below .
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 4, 22, 285
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 203, 214, 291
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 71
    • Gauntlet Operation, 50
    • Geneva Accords of 1962, 264, 269
    • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90, 92
    • Haldeman’s diary entries, 117
    • Helms’ Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 63
    • Ho Chi Minh Trail, U.S. efforts outside of the, 290
    • Kissinger-Godley meetings, 4
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
    • Long Tieng area, 4, 125, 126, 199, 287
    • Meos people, fighting capacity of the, 4
    • Military region studies for South Vietnam, 102
    • Nixon-Godley meetings, 4
    • Nixon lamenting on lack of bombing in 1967, 256
    • Nixon-Souvanna Phouma meetings, 56, 264
    • Nixon-Stennis meetings, 118
    • North Vietnamese offensive, 282, 285
    • NSSM 96, 103
    • NSSM 99, 39, 102, 103
    • Paramilitary operations, 7, 22
    • Paris Peace Talks, 207, 223, 236
    • Peace initiatives related to, countries other than U.S. offering, 3, 4
    • Personnel (U.S.) limitations in, 4
    • Plan of Jars area, 241
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 164
    • Senior Review Group, 4, 103, 179, 203, 204, 214, 291
    • Sisavang Vatthana (King), 112, 125, 126
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • South Vietnamese operation to keep enemy forces in, 181, 185, 186
    • South Vietnamese troops in (see also Tchepone Operation below ), 93, 95, 96, 104, 151
    • Souvanna Phouma-Kissinger meetings, 264
    • Special Guerrilla Units, 4, 52, 139
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Ho Chi Minh Trail, U.S. efforts outside of the, 290
      • Kissinger’s assessments as of January 1972, 285
      • Long Tieng area, 287
      • Nixon-Haig communications, 281
      • North Vietnamese offensive, 281, 282, 283
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 283, 287
    • Stand down in Northern Laos, negotiations on a, 214
    • Tail Wind Operation, 50
    • Tchepone Operation:
      • CIA’s assessments, 110, 111
      • Four phase setup, 105, 113, 115
      • Haldeman’s diary entries, 117
      • Laird’s assessments, 104
      • Media issues, 114
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 109, 112, 116
      • Public relations, 120, 121, 122, 123
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 120
      • Souvanna Phouma, U.S. officials debate on how to inform, 108, 118
    • Thai troops in, 4, 7, 36, 52, 104
    • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Washington Special Actions Group (see also Tchepone Operation above ), 4, 7, 52, 241, 283, 287
  • Larkin, Tom, 5
  • Latimer, Thomas K., 155
  • Lavelle, Gen., 275, 287
  • Le Duan, 198
  • Le Duc Tho, 34, 207
    • China, 218, 234
    • Kissinger, meetings with, 233, 237
    • Paris Peace Talks:
      • Cambodia, 223
      • Canceling meetings, discussions on, 272
      • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 223, 236
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 236
      • Kissinger-Dobrynin meetings, 239
      • Laos, 223, 236
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 273
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the U.S., 223, 236
      • Peace Proposal (Nine Point) from the North Vietnamese, 236
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 223, 236
      • Prisoners of war, 236
      • Thieu, U.S. support for, 236
      • Vietnamization Program, 223, 236
      • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 223, 236
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 233
    • Prisoners of war, 237
    • Soviet Union, 218
  • Leutner, Frederick D., 235
  • Levin, Herbert, 145
  • Life Magazine, 5
  • Linker, Donald, 154
  • Lodge, Henry C., 191, 231, 236
  • Loeffke, Col. Bernard, 145
  • Long, Capt. Charles, 81
  • Lon Nol:
    • Agnew, meetings with, 26
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 1
    • Haig, meetings with, 91
    • Helicopters/armored cars, request for, 7
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 126
    • Nixon, communications with, 6, 26, 221
    • Nixon-Cheng Heng meetings, 64
    • Nixon-Sisowath Sirik Matak meetings, 242
    • Resignation of, 187
    • Stroke suffered by, 126, 146
    • Thieu, meetings with, 91
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 268
  • Lord, Winston, 34, 47, 48, 180, 207, 223, 231, 236, 254
  • Lukeman, Gen. Robert P., 40, 51, 52
  • Lynn, Laurence E., 17, 22
  • Mahn, Gen., 91
  • Mai Van Bo, 34, 45
  • Manor, Gen. Leroy, 72, 73
  • Mansfield, Mike, 70, 88, 112, 120, 259, 273
  • Mau, 232
  • McCain, Adm. John S., 1, 71, 73, 89, 150
  • McCloskey, Robert J., 121, 123, 124, 128, 136, 185
  • McGinnis, John J., 291
  • McGovern, George, 164, 174, 198, 211, 220, 222, 254, 256, 259
  • McGregor, Clark, 169, 211, 222
  • McManaway, Clayton E., 235
  • McNamara, Robert, 157
  • Media, the (see also Televised addresses listings under Nixon, Richard M. ):
    • Abrams’ comments to, 162, 186
    • Covert media activities, 200
    • Hearst’s criticisms of Thieu, 256
    • Kissinger unhappy with, 88, 190
    • Kosygin’s interview with Japanese newspaper, 101
    • Laos, 115
    • Leaks to the, 255, 291
    • Nixon unhappy with, 88
    • Prisoners of war, 5, 106
    • Tchepone Operation, 114
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 210, 255
  • Meo people, 4, 145
  • Mexico, 259
  • Meyer, Cord, 200
  • Meyer, Francis G., 77
  • Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, Studies, and Observation (MACSOG), 15
  • Military Assistance Program (MAP) (see also Economic funds/policies, U.S.), 1
  • Military region studies for South Vietnam, 102, 103
  • Miller, 191
  • Mitchell, John, 14, 117, 120, 216
  • Mondale, Walter, 138
  • Moorer, Adm. Thomas H., 7, 14, 22, 36, 40, 51, 52, 128, 136, 155, 167, 168, 169, 192, 210, 229, 235, 283
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 38, 125, 291
    • Cambodia:
      • Chup Operation, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 144
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 95, 96
      • Losing Cambodia to the communists, U.S. concerns about, 83, 84, 86
      • Nixon-Lon Nol communications, 6
      • Route 4 Operation, 104, 105
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 96, 98
    • Coalition government in Vietnam, 11
    • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 93
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 179, 215, 291
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 71
    • Khe Sanh, military operations in, 169
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 150
      • Armed forces of North and South Vietnam, impact on the, 164
      • Assessment of the situation, 144, 152
      • B-52 bombing, 126, 130
      • Diary entries, 127, 137
      • Duration of operation, concerns/disputes about, 148
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 125
      • Helicopter losses, 126
      • Nixon, communications with, 134
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125, 126
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 164
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 125
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Thai troops, 126
      • Weather conditions, 125, 126
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
    • Leaks within the U.S. government, 108
    • Paramilitary operations, 15
    • Paris Peace Talks, 104
    • Prisoners of war, 66, 71
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • SRG’s analysis of situation U.S. will face in Vietnam in 1971/1972, 179
    • Tail Wind Operation, 50
    • Vietnam, trip to, 275
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 104, 169, 255, 291
  • Movement of Unity of the Highland Ethnic Minorities, 119
  • Mudd, Roger, 106
  • Murphy, Franklin, 10
  • Murphy, Robert, 10
  • National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs):
    • NIE 53-71, 195
  • National Liberation Front (NLF) in South Vietnam, 68, 77, 91
  • National Security Agency (NSA), 195
  • National Security Council (NSC) (see also 40 Committee ; Haig, Alexander M., Jr. ; Senior Review Group; Washington Special Actions Group):
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 20
    • Cambodia, 36, 39, 52, 60, 103
    • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, 81, 87
    • Decision Memorandums:
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 22, 23
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 102
    • Force deficits, studying alternatives for dealing with, 103
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 19, 279
    • Interests and strategic thrusts, analysis of, 102
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 139, 145
      • Logistics analysis, 166
      • Public relations, 136
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139, 145
      • Supply movements, intelligence on North Vietnamese, 154, 155
    • Laos, 7, 22, 52, 103
    • Military region studies, analysis of, 102
    • Public relations, 128
    • Riot control agents, 19
    • Southeast Asia trip (September 20-26, 1971) by representatives of, 261
    • Special Review Group for Southeast Asia, 21
    • Strategy alternatives for Southeast Asia (1970-1975), review/analysis of, 25
    • Study Memorandums:
  • National Social Democratic Front in South Vietnam, 14
  • Negroponte, John, 204, 212, 235, 241, 253, 254, 266, 270, 283, 291
  • Nelson, William, 4, 7, 77, 87, 139, 145, 172, 214, 216, 283
  • Newsom, David D., 14
  • New York Times, 106, 220, 291
  • Nguyen Cao Ky:
    • Bunker, meetings with, 55
    • Bunker’s assessments as of September 1971, 258
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 55, 76
    • Elections in South Vietnam:
      • Bunker’s assessments as of January 1971, 100
      • Candidacy application rejected, 249, 250, 251
      • Duong Van Minh, deal struck with, 218, 220
      • Irregularities, allegations of campaign, 225, 237, 243
      • Nixon, meetings with, 76
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 68
      • Pacification Attitude Analysis System, 220
      • Referendum, U.S. pushes for a national, 251
      • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Kissinger, meetings with, 232
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 171
    • Nixon, meetings with, 76
    • Nixon-Bunker meetings, 68
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 76
    • Prisoners of war, 76
    • Pro-communist Vietnamese front group, meeting with, 76
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Thieu, flare up with, 28
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 91
    • U.S. support for, 34, 43, 47, 207, 230
    • U.S. trip (proposed), 41
  • Nguyen Thi “Madame” Binh, 40, 41, 43, 44, 106, 226, 233
  • Nguyen Van Thieu:
    • Air support, request for U.S., 220, 231
    • Bunker’s assessment of Vietnam as of December 1970, 99
    • Bunker’s assessments as of September 1971, 258
    • Cambodia:
      • Chup Operation, 118
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 95
      • Haig, meetings with, 91, 268
      • Kissinger, meetings with, 231
      • Lon Nol, meetings with, 91
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 98
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 44
    • China, 234
    • Drugs/narcotics, U.S./South Vietnamese problems with, 219, 231
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 220, 231
    • Elections in South Vietnam:
      • Bunker’s assessments as of January 1971, 100
      • Covert actions, U.S., 119
      • Duong Van Minh withdraws from the race, 249, 250
      • Irregularities, allegations of campaign, 225, 237, 243, 250
      • Kissinger, meetings with, 231
      • Ky-Minh deal, 218
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 68, 131, 210, 262
      • Pacification Attitude Analysis System, 220
      • Paris Peace Talks, 254
      • Post-election plans, 210, 211
      • Reelection victory, 267
      • Referendum, U.S. pushes for a national, 251, 253
      • Unopposed path to the elections, 253
      • U.S. presidential elections and, 104
    • Haig, meetings with, 91, 268
    • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 92
    • Hearst’s criticisms in the media, 256
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 231
    • Kissinger, meetings with, 231
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Korean troops, 231
    • Ky, flare up with, 28
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
    • Laird’s Vietnam trip, 275
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 150
      • Bunker’s assessments, 143
      • Duration of operation, concerns/disputes about, 147, 148, 149, 156
      • Haig’s assessments, 151
      • Morale of South Vietnamese troops, 171
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 138
      • Public opinion, efforts at maintaining a favorable, 176
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Thai troops, 172
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
    • Lon Nol, meetings with, 91
    • Lord’s push for a negotiated settlement, 180
    • Negotiating package proposal, Nixon’s instructions regarding, 37
    • Nixon, meetings with (proposed), 197, 198, 205, 219, 220, 231
    • Nixon-Bunker meetings, 68
    • Nixon-Ky meetings, 76
    • Paris Peace Talks:
      • Kissinger, meetings with, 231
      • Kissinger-Bunker communications, 184
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 294
      • Secret talks made public by Nixon, 294
      • U.S. support for Thieu, 34, 43, 207, 230, 236, 254
    • Police problem in South Vietnam, 98
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 91
    • Prisoners of war, 82
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • State Department/NSC representatives take trip to Southeast Asia (September 20-26, 1971), 261
    • U.S. support for, 47
    • Vietnamization Program, 231
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops:
      • Haig, meetings with, 91
      • Haig’s assessments, 151
      • Kissinger, meetings with, 231
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Nixon/Bunker/Smyser meetings, 55
      • 100,000 U.S. troops, Nixon’s plan to withdraw, 170
      • 70,000, troops, Nixon announces withdrawal of, 294
  • NIE. See National Intelligence Estimates.
  • Nixon, Richard M.:
    • Abrams, lack of faith in, 211
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies:
      • Alternative air programs, 13
      • Ineffectiveness of, 281
      • Kissinger, communications with, 1, 278
      • 1971, air activity over Southeast Asia in, 20
      • 1972/1973, U.S. officials discuss appropriate air activities for, 240, 244
      • North Vietnam, bombing, 256, 288
      • Proud Deep Alpha Operation, 278
      • Thieu’s request for U.S. air support, 220
    • Assassinations of South Vietnamese civilians, 78
    • Borman appointed as Special Representative on Prisoners of War, 12
    • Bruce’s resignation, 236
    • Bunker, meetings with, 68
    • Bunker’s assessment of Vietnam as of December 1970, 99
    • Bunker’s assessments of Vietnam as of September 1971, 258
    • Cambodia:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 150
      • Cheng Heng, meetings with, 64
      • Chup Operation, 104, 109
      • CIA/JCS’s assessments as of September 1970, 30
      • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 65
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 95, 96
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 1, 224
      • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 107
      • Haig, communications with, 281
      • Haig’s assessments, 151, 281
      • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90
      • Helms’ Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 63
      • Kissinger, communications with, 46, 157, 218
      • Kissinger’s assessment of Cambodian strategy, 60
      • Ky, meetings with, 76
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Lamenting lack of bombing in 1966, 256
      • Lon Nol, communications with, 6, 26, 221
      • Lon Nol, resignation of, 187
      • Losing Cambodia to the communists, U.S. concerns about, 83, 85, 86, 88
      • Morale of Cambodian troops, 146
      • NSDM 89, 61
      • NSSM 99, 39
      • Psychological campaign on, clandestine, 24
      • Route 4 Operation, 104
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • Sisowath Sirik Matak, meetings with, 242
      • Snoul area, 212
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 96, 98
      • Souvanna Phouma, meetings with, 56
      • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 70
      • Swank, meetings with, 32
      • Thai troops in, 52
      • Weapons/ammunition, availability of, 18
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S.:
      • Analysis asked for, additional, 53
      • Dry season, enemy’s strategic options for the, 69
      • Kissinger, communications with, 157
      • Ky, meetings with, 76
      • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 197
      • Souvanna Phouma, meetings with, 56
      • Televised address to nation on October 7, 1970, 46
      • Thieu’s assessments, 44
      • Turning 17 million people over to the communists, 227
    • China:
      • Chou En-lai, meetings with, 234
      • Kissinger, communications with, 262, 278, 292
      • Kissinger’s trip to, 274
      • Ping-pong diplomacy, 183
      • Sisowath Sirik Matak, meetings with, 242
    • Coalition government in Vietnam, 11
    • Commanders, lack of faith in U.S. military, 211
    • Communist Congress in South Vietnam, 27
    • Congress, U.S., 197, 198, 222, 262
    • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 65
    • Deaths, U.S. battle, 196, 198, 205
    • Draft extension bill, military, 256
    • Drugs/narcotics, U.S./South Vietnamese problems with, 219, 220
    • Duong Van Minh-Kissinger meetings, 232
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 17, 23, 220
    • Elections in South Vietnam:
      • Duong Van Minh withdraws from the race, 248, 251
      • Kissinger, communications with, 68, 131, 245, 262
      • Ky, meetings with, 76
      • Ky-Duong Van Minh deal, 218, 220
      • Ky’s application for candidacy is rejected, 251
      • Observer groups, U.S.-international, 220
      • Paris Peace Talks, 246, 252
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the North Vietnamese, 226
      • Referendum, U.S. pushes for a national, 251
      • Thieu goes forward unopposed with elections, 265
      • Thieu’s reelection victory, 267
      • Thompson’s assessments, 189
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 71, 74, 76
    • Ground combat role for U.S., Laird’s statements on the termination of, 208
    • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 90
    • Hanoi’s short term intentions, CIA’s analysis of, 59
    • Helms’ Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 63
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 19, 97, 247, 279
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 220, 228, 289
    • Khe Sanh, military operations in, 169, 171
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Ky, meetings with, 76
    • Ky, U.S. support for, 230
    • Ky-Kissinger meetings, 232
    • Ky’s U.S. trip (proposed), 41
    • Laird, meetings with, 289
    • Laird’s trip to Vietnam, 275
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Abrams’ assessments, 129, 150, 160
      • Briefing by U.S. officials on military situation, 138
      • Bunker’s assessments, 143
      • Duration of operation, concerns/disputes about, 147, 148
      • Final report on, 182
      • Haig’s assessments, 151
      • Halperin’s assessments, 131
      • Helicopter losses, 131
      • Kissinger, communications with, 131, 157
      • Kissinger-Bunker communications, 142
      • Kissinger-Laird communications, 162
      • Kissinger’s assessments, 159, 161
      • Laird’s assessments, 131
      • Moorer, communications with, 134
      • Moorer’s assessments, 144, 152
      • Moorer’s diary entries, 127, 137
      • North Vietnamese mood after, appraising the, 201
      • “Statement About the Situation in Laos,” 125
      • Success of, belief in the, 202, 220
      • Weather conditions, 131, 148
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 13
      • CIA’s assessments, 229
      • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 65
      • Dry season campaign plans, South Vietnamese, 96
      • Gauntlet Operation, 50
      • Godley, meetings with, 4
      • Haig, communications with, 281
      • Haldeman’s diary entries, 117
      • Ho Chi Minh Trail, U.S. efforts outside of the, 290
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Lamenting lack of bombing in 1967, 256
      • Long Tieng situation, 199
      • North Vietnamese offensive in, 281, 282
      • Peace initiatives related to, countries other than U.S. offering, 3
      • South Vietnamese forces in, 95, 96
      • South Vietnamese operation to keep enemy forces in, 181, 185, 186
      • Souvanna Phouma, meetings with, 56, 264
      • Stennis, meetings with, 118
      • Tail Wind Operation, 50
      • Tchepone Operation, 104, 108, 109, 111, 112, 116, 117, 118, 120
      • Thai troops in, 104
      • Three-phase military operational concept (U.S.), 89
    • Le Duc Tho-Kissinger meetings, 237
    • Le Duc Tho’s China and Soviet Union trip, 218
    • Lon Nol, communications with, 6, 26, 221
    • McGovern-Hatfield bill to end the war, 211
    • Media, unhappy with the, 88
    • Media actions, covert, 200
    • Moorer’s trip to Vietnam, 275
    • Negotiating package proposal, instructions regarding, 37
    • Nixon Doctrine, 104, 108, 223, 231, 242, 257
    • North Vietnam, operations against, 132
    • Pacification Program, 69
    • Paramilitary operations, 15
    • Paris Peace Talks:
      • Breaking off talks, thoughts on, 230, 280
      • Brezhnev, communications with, 239
      • Bruce assumes role as Head of U.S. delegation, 2
      • Canceling meetings, discussions on, 272, 273
      • Elections in South Vietnam, 246, 252
      • Kissinger, communications with, 31, 206, 218, 254
      • Kissinger-Dobrynin meetings, 165
      • Ky, meetings with, 76
      • Le Duc Tho’s possible arrival, 273
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the U.S., 207
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the North Vietnamese, 41, 43
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 246, 294
      • Porter, meetings with, 252
      • Prisoners of war, 45, 82, 175, 193
      • Secret talks made public, 294, 295
      • Xuan Thuy and Bruce, first private talks between, 75
    • Pentagon Papers, 223
    • Planning for Southeast Asia, 8
    • Police problem in South Vietnam, 98
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 76
    • Presidential Determination 71-2, 1
    • Prisoners of war:
      • Haig, communications with, 194
      • Ivory Coast Operation, 66
      • Joint South Vietnamese-U.S. initiative, 82
      • King Pin Operation, 71, 73
      • Kissinger, communications with, 106, 191, 198
      • Ky, meetings with, 76
      • Laird’s assessments, 213
      • Negotiating package proposal, instructions regarding, 37
      • Neutral country, internment of prisoners in a, 175, 193
      • Paris Peace Talks, 45, 82, 175, 193
      • Televised address to nation on October 7, 1970, 46
      • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops tied to, 217
    • Protests/criticisms against U.S. policy, 185, 190, 191, 196, 198
    • Reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam, U.S., 78, 79
    • Redeployments of U.S. forces in Southeast Asia, 29
    • Respect/admiration for South Vietnamese troops, 171
    • Riot control agents, 19
    • Rogers, communications with, 8
    • Shallow penetration raids against North Vietnamese targets, CIA’s, 80
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • South Vietnamese excursions into North Vietnam, encouraging, 78
    • Soviet Union, 58, 239, 260, 263, 293
    • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, 197, 198
    • Strategy alternatives for Southeast Asia (1970-1975), review/analysis of, 25
    • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 70
    • Televised addresses:
      • May 14, 1969, 47
      • June 3, 1970, 112
      • October 7, 1970, 46
      • December 11, 1970, 88
      • March 22, 1971, 168
      • April 7, 1971, 174
    • Terminal date for U.S. participation in Vietnam War, 169
    • Thieu, Hearst’s criticisms in the media of, 256
    • Thieu, meetings with (proposed), 197, 198, 205, 219, 220, 231
    • Thieu, U.S. support for, 230
    • Thieu and Ky, flare-up between, 28
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 91, 268
    • Thompson, meetings with, 49
    • Thompson’s assessments of situation in Vietnam, 189
    • Tran Thien Khiem, U.S. support for, 230
    • Vietnamization Program, 69, 112, 161, 190, 198
    • “War is over” conversation with Kissinger, 188
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops:
      • Briefing on military situation from U.S. officials, 169, 197
      • Elections in South Vietnam, 98
      • 45,000 troops, Nixon announces the withdrawal, 273, 276
      • Haig’s assessments, 151
      • Kissinger, communications with, 157, 192
      • Laird’s assessments, 48
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Mansfield amendment, 273
      • Media, leaks to the, 255
      • Oberdorfer’s editorial in Washington Post, 210
      • 100,000 U.S. troops, Nixon’s plan to withdraw, 170, 173, 174
      • Private U.S. citizens attempt to negotiate, 217, 218
      • 70,000, troops, Nixon announces withdrawal of, 284, 289, 294
      • Sisowath Sirik Matak, meetings with, 242
      • South Vietnam, the survival of, 190
      • Thompson’s assessments, 189
      • Unilateral withdrawal not an option, 47
    • Xuan Thuy-Kissinger meetings, 237
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 124
  • North Vietnam. See Air operations/strikes/strategies; Cambodia; Lam Son 719 Operation; Laos; Le Duc Tho ; Paris Peace Talks ; Xuan Thuy; U.S. officials/organizations .
  • NSC. See National Security Council.
  • NSDM. See Decision Memorandums under National Security Council.
  • NSSM. See Study Memorandums under National Security Council.
  • Nutter, G. Warren, 1, 51, 87, 97, 192, 212, 214, 215, 283
  • Oberdorfer, Don, 210
  • Oberemko, 79
  • Odeen, Philip A., 1, 286, 291
  • Office of Management and Budget (OMB) (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 17, 29, 40, 154, 155
  • Osborne, John, 185, 238
  • Owens, Col. T., 212
  • Pace, Frank, 10
  • Pacification Program, 33, 49, 99, 100, 261, 275
  • Packard, David, 7, 22, 36, 51, 77, 81, 87, 128, 136, 139, 145, 154, 155, 167, 168, 229, 235
    • Cambodia, 52, 103, 108, 110
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 266
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 286
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 204, 214, 215
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 279
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • B-52 bombing, 130
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125, 172
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 125
      • Legal justifications for operation, 125
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 164
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 125
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Weather conditions, 125
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
    • Leaks within the U.S. government, 105
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 169
  • Pakistan, 293
  • Paris Peace Talks:
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 75, 245
    • Bruce assumes role as Head of U.S. delegation, 2
    • Cambodia, 207, 223
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 207, 223, 236, 254
    • Date for next meeting, setting a, 34, 207
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 236, 245, 254
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 34, 207, 245, 246, 252, 254
    • France, keeping talks secret from, 34, 207
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 74
    • Geneva Accords of 1962, 207
    • Kissinger-Bunker communications, 184
    • Kissinger-Dobrynin meetings, 133, 165, 239, 277
    • Kissinger-Rogers communications, 238
    • Ky, U.S. support for, 34, 207
    • Ky meeting with pro-communist Vietnamese front group, 76
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia, 104
    • Laos, 207, 223, 236
    • Meetings:
      • September 7, 1970, 34
      • September 27, 1970, 45
      • December 7, 1970, 82
      • May 31, 1971, 207
      • June 26, 1971, 223
      • July 1, 1971, 226
      • July 26, 1971, 236
      • August 16, 1971, 245
      • September 13, 1971, 254
    • Nixon-Brezhnev communications, 239
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 31, 206, 218, 254
    • Nixon-Ky meetings, 76
    • Nixon-Porter meetings, 252
    • Nixon’s thoughts on breaking off talks, 230
    • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the North Vietnamese, 226, 233, 254
    • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the U.S., 207, 223, 236
    • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the North Vietnamese, 41, 43, 44
    • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 245, 246, 254
    • Peace Proposal (Nine Point) from the North Vietnamese, 223, 236
    • Pentagon Papers, 223
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 34, 223, 236, 254
    • Preconditions, North Vietnamese, 34, 35
    • Prisoners of war:
      • Joint South Vietnamese-U.S. initiative, 82
      • Neutral country, internment of prisoners in a, 175, 193
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 106
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the U.S., 207, 236
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 245, 254
      • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 43, 45
      • Xuan Thuy-McGovern meetings, 254
    • Procedural points, 34
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Canceling meetings, discussions on, 272, 273, 277
      • Kissinger-Dobrynin meetings, 277
      • Le Duc Tho’s possible arrival, 273
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 269, 272, 284, 294
      • Prisoners of war, 269, 280
      • Secret talks made public by Nixon, 294, 295
      • Stopping the talks, Nixon’s thoughts on, 280
    • Thieu, U.S. support for, 34, 207, 230, 236, 254
    • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Unproductive talks, 45
    • Vietnamization Program, 34, 223, 236
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 34, 35, 43, 45, 207, 213, 217, 223, 236, 245, 254
    • Xuan Thuy and Bruce, first private talks between, 75
    • Xuan Thuy-McGovern meetings, 254
  • Park Chung Hee, 231
  • Pentagon Papers, 220, 223
  • Perot, Ross, 38, 217
  • Pham Van Dong, 237, 278
  • Phan Hien, 34, 207, 223, 236, 254
  • Phu, Gen., 158
  • Pickering, Thomas, 7, 36, 192
  • Ping-pong diplomacy, 183
  • Police problem in South Vietnam, 98
  • Pompidou, Georges, 123, 125, 223
  • Porson, 242
  • Porter, William J., 209, 245, 252, 280
  • Pratt, Mark, 214, 216, 241
  • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB), 4, 10
  • Price, Ray, 175
  • Prisoners of war (POWs):
    • Borman appointed as Special Representative, 12
    • Cooke/Stephens amendment for removing U.S. forces from Southeast Asia, 222
    • Freedom Bait Operation, 71
    • Ivory Coast Operation, 66
    • JCS’s assessments, 38
    • King Pin Operation, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Laird’s assessments, 213
    • Le Duc Tho-Kissinger meetings, 237
    • Media, the, 5, 106
    • Negotiating package proposal, Nixon’s instructions regarding, 37
    • Nixon-Haig communications, 194
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 106, 191, 198
    • Nixon-Ky meetings, 76
    • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 197
    • Nixon’s televised address to the nation on Oct. 7, 1970, 46
    • Paris Peace Talks:
      • Joint South Vietnamese-U.S. initiative, 82
      • Neutral country, internment of prisoners in a, 175, 193
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 106
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the U.S., 207, 236
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 245, 254
      • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 43, 45
      • Xuan Thuy-McGovern meetings, 254
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops tied to, 213, 217
  • Progressive Nationalist Movement (PNM), 119
  • Protests/criticisms against U.S. policy, 185, 190, 191, 198, 259
  • Proud Deep Alpha Operation, 278
  • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit Program, 135
  • Proxmire, William, 126
  • Psychological warfare operations against North Vietnam, covert, 77
  • Pursley, Gen. Robert E., 66, 104
  • Rather, Dan, 117
  • Reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam, U.S., 66, 75, 78, 79
  • Reischauer, Edwin, 210
  • Resor, Stanley R., 38
  • Reston, 108
  • Revolutionary Social Humanist (Nhan Xa) Party, 119
  • Riland, 117
  • Riot control agents, 19
  • Roberts, Chalmers, 197
  • Robinson, R. C., 6, 93
  • Rogers, William, 217
    • Cambodia:
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 224
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Route 4 Operation, 104
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112
      • Sisowath Sirik Matak, meetings with, 242
      • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 70
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 53
    • Coalition government in Vietnam, 11
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 225
    • Gromyko, meetings with, 54, 57
    • Ground combat role for U.S., Laird’s statements on the termination of, 208
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 247, 279
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 129, 138, 143, 150
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
      • Long Tieng area, 287
      • Nixon-Souvanna Phouma meetings, 56
      • Strategy, review of general, 214
      • Tchepone Operation, 104, 108, 112, 116
    • Le Duc Tho-Kissinger meetings, 233, 237
    • Negotiating package proposal, Nixon’s instructions regarding, 37
    • Nixon, communications with, 8
    • North Vietnam, operations against, 132
    • Paris Peace Talks, 238
    • Planning for Southeast Asia, 8
    • Prisoners of war, 43, 71, 82
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Supplemental Foreign Assistance Appropriations, U.S., 83
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 104, 174
    • Xuan Thuy-Kissinger meetings, 233, 237
  • Roosevelt, Archibald, 14
  • Rostow, Walt, 157
  • Rusk, Dean, 102, 157
  • Russell, Richard, 70
  • Sachs, Dennis N., 51
  • Saintenay, Jean P., 45
  • St. John, Gen. Adrian, 103, 192, 204, 215
  • Sansom, Capt. Robert L., 40, 51, 103, 167, 179, 192, 204, 212, 215, 235
  • Scammon, Dick, 220
  • Schlesinger, James, 40, 51, 52, 103, 154, 155, 164, 167, 168
    • Cambodia, 212
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 179, 204, 215
    • Media activities, covert, 200
    • SRG’s analysis of situation U.S. will face in Vietnam in 1971/1972, 179
  • Scott, Hugh, 70, 79
  • Selden, Armistead, 103, 204, 235, 266, 283, 291
  • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 112, 120
  • Senior Review Group (SRG):
    • Analysis of situation U.S. will face in Vietnam in 1971/1972, 179
    • Cambodia:
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 271
      • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 179, 203, 204
      • Military assistance plan, 212
      • NSSM 99, 51, 103
      • Personnel levels, 212
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 235, 265, 266
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 103, 179, 192, 203, 204, 215, 235, 291
    • Interests and strategic thrust studies, 103
    • Korean forces, 204
    • Laos, 4, 103, 179, 203, 204, 214, 291
    • Meetings:
      • January 15, 1971, 103
      • April 13, 1971, 179
      • April 27, 1971, 192
      • May 20, 1971, 203
      • May 24, 1971, 204
      • June 7, 1971, 212
      • June 8, 1971, 214
      • June 9, 1971, 215
      • July 22, 1971, 235, 265
      • October 1, 1971, 266
      • January 17, 1972, 291
    • Military region studies for South Vietnam, 103
    • NSSM 96, 103
    • NSSM 99, 40, 51, 103
    • Organizations grouped into, 7
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • Assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Cambodia, U.S. security assistance for, 271
      • Media, leaks to the, 291
    • Thai forces, strengthening, 103
  • Sevareid, Eric, 190
  • Shultz, George P., 7, 46
  • Sieverts, Frank, 82
  • Sihanouk, Norodom, 64
  • Simons, Col. Arthur, 78
  • Sisavang Vatthana (King), 112, 125, 126
  • Sisouk na Champassak, 108
  • Sisowath Sirik Matak, 64, 90, 91, 187, 242
  • Smith, Gen. Foster L., 103, 214
  • Smith, Howard K., 157, 168, 198
  • Smith, K. Wayne, 39, 40, 60, 102, 103, 154, 155, 164, 166, 167, 179, 192, 203, 204, 212, 215, 235, 265, 266
  • Smyser, W. Richard, 11, 28, 31, 34, 55, 81, 98, 179, 183, 189, 192, 204, 207, 215, 223, 225, 226, 235, 236
  • SNIE. See Special National Intelligence Estimates.
  • Social Democratic Front (NSDF), 119
  • Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 102, 112, 124
  • Southerland, Gen., 158
  • South Vietnam. See Air operations/strikes/strategies; Cambodia; Elections in South Vietnam; Lam Son 719 Operation; Laos; Nguyen Cao Ky ; Nguyen Van Thieu ; Paris Peace Talks ; U.S. officials/organizations .
  • Souvanna Phouma:
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 103
    • Kissinger, meetings with, 264
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 124
    • Nixon, meetings with, 56, 264
    • Plain of Jars area, 241
    • South Vietnamese forces keeping enemy in Southern Laos, 181
    • Special Guerrilla Units, 4
    • Stand down in Northern Laos, negotiations on a, 214
    • Tchepone Operation, 108, 109, 111, 114, 118, 120, 123
  • Soviet Union (see also Dobrynin, Anatoliy F. ):
    • Cambodia, 5, 242
    • Coalition government in Vietnam, 94
    • Haig-Dobrynin communications, 263
    • Kissinger-Gromyko meetings, 263
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 124, 125
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 4, 111, 115, 123, 264
    • Le Duan’s trip to (proposed), 198
    • Nixon-Brezhnev communications, 239, 260, 293
    • Nixon-Gromyko meetings, 58
    • North Vietnam, military aid given to, 234
    • Paris Peace Talks, 239
    • Reconnaissance flights over North Vietnam, U.S., 79
    • Rogers-Gromyko meetings, 54, 57
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Soviet involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 260, 274
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • China influencing Soviet Union, 292
      • Kissinger-Dobrynin meetings, 277, 293
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 292
      • Soviet involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 274
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 58
  • Special National Intelligence Estimates (SNIE):
    • SNIE 57-70, 9
  • Special Review Group for Southeast Asia, 21, 25
  • Spong, William B., 125
  • SRG. See Senior Review Group.
  • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies:
      • Cambodia, 270, 271, 281
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 278, 292
      • North Vietnam, bombing, 288
      • Proud Deep Alpha Operation, 278
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
    • China:
      • Chinese involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 274
      • Kissinger’s China visit, 274
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 278, 292
      • Soviet Union’s influence on China, 292
    • Economic funds/policies, U.S.:
      • Cambodia, 271
      • Kissinger’s assessments, 286
      • Limits on spending, 283
    • Herbicides, U.S. use of, 279
    • Improvement packages for the South Vietnamese military, 289
    • Laird’s trip to Vietnam, 275
    • Laos:
      • Ho Chi Minh Trail, U.S. efforts outside of the, 290
      • Kissinger’s assessments as of January 1972, 285
      • Long Tieng area, 287
      • Nixon-Haig communications, 281
      • North Vietnamese offensive in, 281, 282, 283
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 283, 287
    • Media, leaks to the, 291
    • Moorer’s trip to Vietnam, 275
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 273, 278, 292
    • Nixon-Laird meetings, 289
    • Paris Peace Talks:
      • Canceling meetings, discussions on, 272
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 269, 272, 284, 294
      • Prisoners of war, 280
      • Secret talks made public by Nixon, 294, 295
      • Stopping the talks, Nixon’s thoughts on, 280
    • Senior Review Group:
      • Assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Cambodia, U.S. security assistance for, 271
      • Media, leaks to the, 291
    • Soviet Union:
      • China influencing Soviet Union, 292
      • Kissinger-Dobrynin meetings, 277, 293
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 292
      • Soviet involvement in Vietnam diplomacy, 274
    • Thompson’s assessments of situation in Vietnam, 270
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops:
      • 45,000 troops, Nixon announces the withdrawal, 273, 276
      • Kissinger’s China trip, 274
      • Mansfield amendment, 273
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 292
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 284
      • 70,000, troops, Nixon announces withdrawal of, 284, 289, 294
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Thompson’s assessments, 270
  • State Department, U.S. (see also Bunker, Ellsworth ; 40 Committee ; Johnson, U. Alexis ; Rogers, William ; Senior Review Group; Washington Special Actions Group), 7
    • Cambodia, 40, 51, 52
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 139
      • Public relations, 136
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139
      • Supply movements, intelligence on North Vietnamese, 154, 155
    • Southeast Asia trip (September 20-26, 1971) by representatives of, 261
  • “Statement About the Situation in Laos,” 125
  • Stennis, John C., 67, 79, 112, 118, 120
  • Stephens, 222
  • Stern, Ernest, 51
  • Stevenson, Adlai, 177, 220
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), 197, 198
  • Suharto, 7
  • Sukhodrev, Viktor, 58
  • Sullivan, William H., 76, 105, 128, 136, 139, 145, 154, 167, 168, 172, 192, 235, 283
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 291
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 266
    • Enemy strategy and capability studies, 214, 215, 291
    • Lam Son 719 Operation, 209
      • B-52 bombing, 130
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 125
      • Helicopter losses, 126
      • Legal justifications for operation, 125
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 164
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Weather conditions, 125, 126
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 123, 216, 241, 291
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 291
  • Swank, Emory C., 22, 32, 118
  • Symington, Stuart, 4, 56, 125
  • Tail Wind Operation, 50
  • Tass, 115
  • Tchepone Operation. See under Laos.
  • Teague, Olin, 169
  • Terrell, Capt. Fred W., 145
  • Thailand:
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, U.S., 13
    • Cambodia, Thai troops in, 7, 36, 52, 73, 103
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Favorable public opinion, efforts at maintaining a, 176
      • 40 Committee, 172
      • Public policy, 168
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 125, 126, 139, 145
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ):
      • Long Tieng situation, 199
      • Plain of Jars area, 241
      • Thai troops in, 4, 7, 36, 52, 104
    • NSSM 99, 103
    • Senior Review Group, 103
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 173
  • Thanat Khoman, 102, 241
  • Thanom Kittikachorn, 283
  • Thant, U, 118, 125
  • Thieu. See Nguyen Van Thieu .
  • Thompson, Robert, 49, 70, 98, 189, 243, 270
  • Tillman, Frank, 210
  • Timmons, 222
  • Ton That Thien, 243
  • Toumayan, A., 264
  • Tran Buu Kiem, 43
  • Tran Thien Khiem, 34, 43, 47, 98, 207, 230, 231
  • Tri, Gen., 104, 164, 209, 210, 211
  • Troop levels in Vietnam, U.S. (see also Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops), 16, 22
  • Trung, Gen., 89
  • Valtin, Fred, 14, 200
  • Vance, 79
  • Vang Pao, Gen., 4, 199, 229, 241, 259
  • Vien, Gen., 89, 113, 143, 259
  • Vietnamization Program:
    • Abrams’ assessments, 160
    • Bunker’s assessments as of January 1971, 100
    • Haig’s assessments, 112
    • Kissinger-Bunker communications, 173
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Laird’s assessments, 208
    • NIE 53-71, 195
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 69, 161
    • Paris Peace Talks, 34, 223, 236
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
    • Washington Special Actions Group, 114
    • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 190, 198
  • Vietnam Special Studies Group (VSSG), 22, 25, 103, 265, 266, 271
  • Vogt, Gen. John, 7, 15, 36, 50, 81, 87, 112, 124, 125, 128, 130, 136, 139, 148, 154, 155, 164, 179, 241, 283
  • Voice of America (VOA), 64, 124
  • Vo Nguyen Giap, 265
  • Vorontsov, Yuli M., 277
  • Vo Van Sung, 207, 223, 236, 254, 272, 295
  • Walker, Charles E., 291
  • Walsh, Paul, 51, 154, 155, 167, 179, 192, 204, 215
  • Walters, Lt. Gen. Vernon A., 5, 34, 207, 223, 236, 254, 269, 272, 295
  • Wandler, Mark, 204, 214, 215, 235, 241, 266, 283, 291
  • Washington Post, 101, 106, 186, 190, 210
  • Washington Special Actions Group (WSAG) (see also Tchepone Operation under Laos):
    • Cambodia:
      • Chup Operation, 105, 108, 110, 113, 114, 118, 120, 125
      • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, 87
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 7, 22
      • Indonesian military assistance to, 52
      • Khmer Krom units, 52
      • Lon Nol’s request for helicopters/armored cars, 7
      • Prairie Fire operations, 7, 36
      • Route 4 Operation, 105
      • Thai troops in, 36, 52
      • Training Cambodian troops, 22
      • Weapons/ammunition, availability of, 7, 18, 36
    • Contingency planning for Southeast Asia, U.S., 81, 87
    • Enemy threat in 1971-1972, assessing the, 167
    • Lam Son 719 Operation:
      • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 139, 145
      • Armed forces of North and South Vietnam, impact on the, 164
      • B-52 bombing, 125, 126, 130
      • Congressional consultations, 124
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 125
      • Enemy reaction, lack of, 125
      • Enemy resistance, heavy, 130
      • Foreign nations, reaction of, 124, 125
      • Helicopter losses, 126, 128
      • Legal justifications for, 125
      • Personnel limits, U.S., 125, 126
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 164
      • PT boats, 125
      • Public relations/policy, 124, 136, 168
      • Refugees, Meo, 145
      • Search and rescue missions, 128
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 125
      • Sisavang Vatthana, evacuation of, 125, 126
      • Special Guerrilla Units, 139, 145
      • Start of operation, 124
      • Supply movements, North Vietnamese, 154, 155, 167
      • Thai troops, 126, 139, 172
      • Weather conditions, 125, 126
    • Laos (see also Lam Son 719 Operation above ), 4, 7, 52, 241, 283, 287
    • Logistical performance, assessment of North Vietnamese, 167
    • Long-term U.S. strategy in Southeast Asia, 22
    • Meetings:
      • August 4, 1970, 7
      • August 13, 1970, 22
      • September 11, 1970, 36
      • December 2, 1970, 81
      • December 11, 1970, 87
      • January 19, 1971, 105
      • January 21, 1971, 108
      • January 26, 1971, 110
      • January 28, 1971, 113
      • February 1, 1971, 114
      • February 2, 1971, 115
      • February 3, 1971, 118
      • February 4, 1971, 120
      • February 5, 1971, 121
      • February 8, 1971, 124
      • February 9, 1971, 125
      • February 12, 1971, 128
      • February 18, 1971, 131
      • February 23, 1971, 136
      • February 26, 1971, 139
      • March 4, 1971, 145
      • March 16, 1971, 154
      • March 18, 1971, 155
      • March 23, 1971, 164
      • March 26, 1971, 167, 168
      • August 11, 1971, 241
      • December 23, 1971, 283
      • January 3, 1972, 287
    • Progress chart on Vietnam War, 167
    • Public relations, 128
    • Vietnamization Program, 114
    • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 22
  • Welander, Adm. Robert O., 215, 235, 283
  • Wells, William, 14, 22, 36, 52, 81
  • West, Francis J., 212
  • Westmoreland, Gen. William C., 29, 87, 89
  • Weyand, Gen., 91, 104, 275
  • White, David, 7
  • Whitehouse, Charles, 204, 241
  • Williams, Maurice, 103
  • Wilson, James, 36, 51, 52, 87, 103
  • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 34, 35, 37
    • Air operations/strikes/strategies, 169
    • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 69
    • Draft calls, cutback in, 55
    • Elections in South Vietnam, 98
    • Haig-Abrams meetings, 153
    • Haig’s assessments, 151
    • Haig’s Southeast Asia trip, assessments after, 92
    • Kissinger/Bunker/Smyser meetings, 55
    • Kissinger’s assessments as of September 1971, 257
    • Laird’s assessments, 48
    • Laird’s/Moorer’s trip to Southeast Asia and Paris, 104
    • Mansfield amendment, 273
    • Media, leaks to the, 255
    • Negotiating package proposal, Nixon’s instructions regarding, 37
    • NIE 53-71, 195
    • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 157
    • Nixon’s briefing on military situation by U.S. officials, 169, 197
    • Nixon-Sisowath Sirik Matak meetings, 242
    • Oberdorfer’s editorial in Washington Post, 210
    • 100,000 U.S. troops, Nixon’s plan to withdraw, 170, 173, 174
    • Paris Peace Talks, 34, 35, 43, 45, 207, 213, 217, 223, 236, 245, 254
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 190
    • Prisoners of war tied to, 213, 217
    • Private U.S. citizens attempt to negotiate, 217, 218
    • Situation report/meeting with Nixon/top U.S. officials on September 20, 1971, 259
    • Soviet Union, 58
    • Stalemate (Oct. 11, 1971-Jan. 26, 1972) in Southeast Asia, military/diplomatic:
      • 45,000 troops, Nixon announces the withdrawal, 273, 276
      • Kissinger’s China trip, 274
      • Mansfield amendment, 273
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 292
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 284
      • 70,000, troops, Nixon announces withdrawal of, 284, 289, 294
      • SRG’s assessment of Vietnam as of January 17, 1972, 291
      • Thieu-Kissinger meetings, 231
      • Thompson’s assessments, 270
    • Thieu-Haig meetings, 91
    • Thompson’s assessments, 189
    • Unilateral withdrawal not an option, 47
    • Vietnamization Program, 190, 198
  • Wolf, Joseph, 215
  • WSAG. See Washington Special Actions Group.
  • Xuan Thuy:
    • Kissinger, meetings with, 233, 237
    • Paris Peace Talks:
      • Bruce, first talks with, 75
      • Cambodia, 207, 223
      • Cease-fire proposal, U.S., 207, 223, 236, 254
      • Date for next meeting, setting a, 34, 207
      • Economic funds/policies, U.S., 236, 245, 254
      • Elections in South Vietnam, 207, 245, 254
      • France, keeping talks secret from, 207
      • Laos, 207, 223, 236
      • McGovern, meetings with, 254
      • Nixon-Kissinger communications, 206
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the North Vietnamese, 254
      • Peace Proposal (Seven Point) from the U.S., 207, 223, 236
      • Peace Proposal (Eight Point) from the U.S., 245, 254, 269
      • Peace Proposal (Nine Point) from the North Vietnamese, 223, 236
      • Political future of South Vietnam, 223, 236, 254
      • Preconditions, North Vietnamese, 34, 35
      • Prisoners of war, 207, 236, 245, 254
      • Procedural points, 34
      • Thieu, U.S. support for, 207, 236, 254
      • Unproductive talks, 45
      • Vietnamization Program, 223, 236
      • Withdrawal schedule for U.S. troops, 34, 35, 207, 223, 236, 245, 254
    • Political future of South Vietnam, 233
  • Zais, Lt. Gen. Melvin, 36, 51, 52, 145
  • Ziegler, Ronald L., 117, 121, 123, 136, 288
  • Zion, Roger, 38
  • Zorin, 79
  • Zumwalt, Tom, 186