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Index

  • Abdullah bin Abd al-Aziz al Saud, 156, 162, 165
  • Abedi, Agha Hassain, 34
  • Abshire, David M., 214
  • Abu Dhabi:
    • Air Force arrangements with Pakistan, 121, 122
    • BCCI established in, 34
    • CIA views toward, 122
    • Dubai, conflict with, 72, 117
    • Economic situation, 94
    • As FAA (or UAE) member, 72, 97, 100
    • Oil company agreements with, 94
    • Oil revenues, 140
    • Saudi Arabian territorial dispute with, 36, 88, 93, 95, 122, 125, 158, 159, 191
    • Saudi seizure of, possible, 101
  • Abu Musa dispute (see also Gulf islands dispute):
    • Agreement on, 107, 112, 122
    • British-U.S. talks on, 72, 84, 93
    • Iranian position, 86, 98
    • Kuwaiti position, 80
    • U.S. position, 88, 95, 96
  • Acland, Anthony, 97, 105
  • Adham, Kamal, 88, 116, 162, 182, 183, 188
  • Afshar, Amir Aslan, 72, 105, 107
  • Afshar, Hushang, 88
  • Agency for International Development, U.S. (AID)
    • Desalting, 9, 35
    • Emergency relief for Jordan, 326
    • Logo on arms shipment to rebels in Yemen PDR, 171, 183
    • Naval force development in Saudi Arabia, 145
    • Release in Yemen of workers from, 192
    • YAR economic aid projects, 184, 190, 198
  • Agnew, Spiro:
    • NSC Middle East meetings, 3
    • Saudi-U.S. relations, 131
    • Visits:
  • Agreements, international:
    • Chicago Convention, 71
    • Geneva Convention on the High Seas, 1958, 69
    • Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, 65
    • Soviet-Iraq Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, 122
    • Tokyo Convention on Offenses and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, Sept. 1963, 200
  • Agreements of the United States:
    • Air Defense Agreement with India, 46
    • Anglo-American BIOT Agreement (Dec. 1966), 37, 39
    • Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights with Oman, 1960, 87
  • Agriculture, U.S. Department of, 133
  • Ahmad ibn Ali al Thani, Shaykh, 36, 113
  • Ahmad, Shaykh of Qatar, 158
  • Ajman, 72, 90, 98, 107, 122
  • Akins, James, 164
  • Al-Aqsa Mosque fire, Aug. 1969, 10
  • Aldabra, 39, 49
  • Algeria:
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Oil company agreements with, 164
    • Release of officials by Israel, 235, 236, 246, 267, 268
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 140
    • Soviet military stockpiling in, 3
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 20
    • United States, relations with, 26, 193
  • Ali, Anwar, 133, 136, 140
  • Allon, Yigal, 3, 214, 299, 307, 308, 309, 311
  • Allon Plan, 3, 214
  • Ameen, Michael, 141
  • American Express, 34
  • American Friends of the Middle East (AFME), 184
  • American University, Beirut, 198
  • Amri, Hassan al-, 186
  • Anderson, George, 23, 25
  • Anderson, G. Norman, 16
  • Annenberg, Walter, 66, 84, 88, 105, 314
  • Antar, Ali, 172
  • Anti-American activities, 153
  • Anti-ballistic missile (ABM), 318
  • ANZUS, 46, 50, 161
  • Apartheid, 41
  • Arab American Oil Company (ARAMCO) (see also Oil):
    • Labor relations, 133
    • As largest single U.S. overseas investment, 169
    • Offtake problem, 128, 136
    • Production increase projections, 148
  • Arabian Peninsula, 158, 159
  • Arab-Israeli dispute:
    • Bahraini position, 81, 118
    • Israeli position, 2
    • NSC papers on, 1
    • Persian Gulf as affected by, 76, 82
    • Rhodes formula, 16
    • Saudi position, 127, 131, 149, 170
    • Settlement of, possible, 2, 15
    • Soviet position, 16
    • U.S. peace initiatives, 27
    • U.S. position, 1, 24
    • U.S.-Soviet note exchange on, 127
  • Arab League:
    • Gulf islands dispute, 110
    • Gulf states’ membership in, 112
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 263
    • Saudi-Yemen PDR border clashes, 175
    • Syrian military intervention in Jordan, 280
    • YAR-Yemen PDR mediation efforts, 196
  • Arab Summit, Cairo, Sept. 1970, 303, 304, 312
  • Arab Summit, Rabat, 1969, 18
  • Arab Summit, Rabat, 1970, 176
  • Arafat, Yasir:
    • Arab mediation between Hussein and, 263, 303
    • Casualties in Amman conflict, 313
    • Ceasefire agreement, 330
    • Jordanian army charged with ceasefire violations by, 328
    • Kuwaiti views toward, 118
    • Nasser’s relationship with, 271
    • Opposition to ceasefire in Jordan, 316
    • Return to Jordan of, 334
    • Soviet views toward, 265
    • Unification of Palestinian forces in Jordan, 248
  • Aram, Abbas, 72
  • ARAMCO. See Arab American Oil Company (ARAMCO).
  • Argov, Shlomo, 264, 311
  • Ariana, Bahram, 6
  • Arms control, 56, 57, 58, 59, 66, 67
  • Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), 69
  • Arthur, Geoffrey, 72, 86
  • Asnaj, Abdullah al-, 186
  • Assar, Nassir, 32, 33
  • Atassi, Noureddin Mustafa al-, 280
  • Atherton, Alfred L., Jr., 93, 109, 112, 115, 117, 124, 125, 158, 184, 188, 306, 311
    • Bahrain, 81
    • Hijackings, 223
    • Israeli air strikes on Syrian forces, 290
    • Syrian military intervention in Jordan, 281
  • Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 4
  • Australia:
    • Bahrain, relations with, 81
    • Fremantle/Cockburn naval base, 46
    • Indian Ocean role of, 41, 42, 45, 57
    • U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
  • Awlaqi, Muhammad Salih, 172
  • Ayni, Muhsin Ahmad al-, 118, 184, 186, 187, 193, 196, 198
  • Ayub Khan, 6
  • Badr al-Khalid, 72
  • Badr bin-Abdul Aziz, Prince, 162
  • Baghdad Pact, 20
  • Bahrain (see also Bahrain and Bahraini subentries under other subjects; Federation of Arab Amirates (FAA)):
    • Arab League membership for, 112
    • Assessment of situation in, 36, 117
    • Australia, relations with, 81
    • CIA views toward, 122
    • Economic situation, 94
    • As FAA (or UAE) member, 72, 78, 79, 81, 90, 98, 100
    • Independence for, 80, 81, 98, 99, 101, 102, 104, 158
    • Iranian claims to:
      • British-U.S. talks on, 72
      • Relinquishing of, 82
      • Saudi position, 127
      • Shah’s New Delhi statement, 127
      • U.S. position, 76, 77
    • Iraq, relations with, 81
    • As MIDEASTFOR home port, 43, 96, 99, 112, 113
    • Oil revenues, 94, 140
    • Pakistan, relations with, 81
    • Radical government in, prospects for, 96, 101, 122
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 81, 99
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 36, 81
    • United States, relations with:
      • Diplomatic recognition, 102, 113
      • Rogers’s visit, July 1972, 118
      • U.S. military presence, 81
    • UN membership for, 91, 98, 112
    • U.S. military aid and sales to, 163
    • U.S. naval facilities in, 46, 61, 82, 89
    • U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
  • Baker, Howard H., Jr., 4, 9
  • Baker, William, 23
  • Balance of payments:
    • Gulf states’ problems with, 94
    • Kuwaiti arms purchases and, 92
    • Persian gulf oil relations, 82
    • Positive U.S. levels due to U.S. oil companies, 13, 76, 77, 96, 130, 133, 146, 169
    • Saudi improvement in, 148
    • Saudi investments in oil facilities and, 164, 168, 169
    • U.S. arms sales to Saudi Arabia and, 156
    • U.S. trade surplus in Persian Gulf, 101
  • Bandaranaike, Felix D., 65
  • Bandaranaike, Sirimavo, 55, 59, 60, 61, 62
  • Bangladesh, 21, 34, 122
  • Bank of America, 34
  • Bank of Credit and Commerce International S.A. (BCCI), 34
  • Bara’kat, Ahmad, 173
  • Bar Lev Line, 214, 265
  • Bayhan, 182
  • Beam, Jacob D.:
  • Beaudry, Robert M., 236, 237, 243, 244, 245, 324
  • Bell Helicopter Co., 108, 111
  • Bennett, Lt. Gen. Donald V., 108
  • Bergus, Donald C., 280
  • Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali, 34, 122
  • Bishi, Ali al-, 172
  • Blee, David H.:
    • Hijackings, 222
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • Israeli military intervention in, 303
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 260
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in, 317
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Boisard, Marcel A., 241, 242, 244, 245, 268
  • Boissier, Leopold, 268, 324
  • Boumediene, Houari, 18
  • Bowley, Albert J., 22
  • Boyd, Col. Earl L., 323
  • Brandt, Willy, 225, 233
  • Brewer, William D., 78, 79, 127, 130, 135, 139, 175
    • Persian Gulf, British-U.S. talks on, 72
    • Prince Fahd’s visit to United States, 131
    • Saudi-U.S. relations, 147
    • Yemen PDR–U.S. relations, 171
  • Brezhnev, Leonid, 58
  • Brimelow, Thomas, 100
  • British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 83
  • British Council, 117, 198
  • British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT). See Diego Garcia.
  • British Petroleum (BP), 112
  • Brosio, Manlio, 11, 323
  • Brown, Elizabeth, 72, 307
  • Brown, L. Dean:
    • Appointment as ambassador to Jordan of, 246, 262
    • Ceasefire agreement, 330
    • Emergency relief for Jordan, 332
    • Establishment of “branch” U.S. embassy in Amman, 332
    • Hussein’s conversations with, 260
    • Hussein’s reaction to Israeli ground forces in Jordan, 300, 315, 316
    • Hussein’s request for assistance against Syrians, 280, 282, 284
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304, 313, 315
    • Release of last hostages, 333
    • Syrian threat to Jordan, 252
    • UAR role in Jordan conflict, 281
    • UNSC meeting on Syrian intervention in Jordan, 276
    • U.S. military aid to Jordan, 254, 332
    • U.S. or Israeli intervention in Jordan, possible, 271, 307, 309
  • Buck, Stephen W., 198
  • Buffum, William, 72
  • Bunche, Ralph, 16
  • Bunker, Ellsworth, 177
  • Buraimi oasis dispute, 72, 96, 122, 140, 159
  • Burchinal, Gen. David A., 281
  • Buttes Oil Company, 107
  • Caglayangil, Ihsan Sabri, 21
  • Cairo Agreement, Sept. 27, 1970, 303, 330, 331, 332, 333
  • Cambodia, 21, 267, 290, 298, 326
  • Campbell, Stephen J., 251
  • Cam Ranh Bay, 40
  • Canada, 83, 168
  • Cargo, William I., 9, 22
  • Carolan, Thomas, 72
  • Carrington, Lord Peter, 49, 53
  • Case, Clifford P., 118
  • Catholic Relief Services, 184
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA):
    • Bahrain, 122
    • Cairo Agreement, Sept. 1970, 331
    • Hijackings, 272
    • Indian Ocean, 45, 50, 69
    • Jordan, 254, 274, 286
    • Papers:
      • ER IM 71–43 “Some Revenue Implications of the 14
        • February Oil Settlement with the Persian Gulf States,” 94
      • ER IM 71–70 “Saudi Arabia’s Changed Financial Outlook,” 148
      • On prospects for post-Faisal Saudi Arabia, 153
      • “The Persian Gulf: The End of the Pax Brittanica,” 122
    • Persian Gulf, 75, 96, 99, 122
    • Soviet covert activity in Middle East, 31
  • Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), 50
    • Assessment of situation in area of, 36
    • British role in, 86
    • British-U.S. talks on, 28
    • Dissolution of, 28
    • Economic, Technological, and Scientific Cooperation Meeting, Tehran, Mar. 1971, 58
    • Future of, 8
    • Iranian withdrawal from, possible, 101
    • MIDLINK naval exercises, 107
    • Multilateral Industrial Fund proposal, 28
    • Nixon’s meetings with officials of, 6, 21
    • Political guidelines for military planning, 33
  • Ceylon. See Sri Lanka.
  • Chaban-Delmas, Jacques, 334
  • Chafee, John H., 40, 41
  • Chagos Archipelago. See Diego Garcia.
  • Chapin, Dwight, 134
  • Chapman, Christian, 78
  • Chase, Robert W., 33, 35, 68
  • Chicago Sun Times, 261
  • Childs, Timothy W., 93, 271
  • Chile, 232
  • Clarke, Bruce C., 50
  • Cline, Ray S., 176
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands, 43
  • Commerce, U.S. Department of, 78, 133, 149
  • Commonwealth Prime Ministers Conference, 1971, 48
  • Communism:
  • Congdon, Capt. Robert N., 22
  • Congress, Acts of:
    • Foreign Assistance Act (1961), 35
    • Foreign Assistance Authorization Act (1969), 12
    • Foreign Military Sales Act (FMSA), 78, 92
    • Military Construction Appropriations Bill (1971), 44
    • P.L. 480, 198
  • Congress, U.S. (see also House of Representatives, U.S.; Senate, U.S.):
    • Diego Garcia base hearings, 37
    • Israeli military intervention in Jordan, 291, 299, 303, 315
  • Connally, John, 169, 170
  • Controlled tension, 16
  • Conway, Gen. Theodore J., 6
  • Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, 133, 152
  • Coyne, J. Patrick, 23
  • Crawford, Stewart, 72, 100
  • Crawford, William R., 198
  • Crocker, Chester A., 61, 70
  • Cronkite, Walter, 267
  • Cuba, 313, 318
  • Curran, Robert T., 219, 276
  • Cushman, Lt. Gen. Robert E.:
    • Indian Ocean, 61
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan, 260, 290, 297, 303
  • Custer, B. Scott, 103
  • Cyprus:
    • French radio transmitter on, 22
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 254, 264, 267, 274, 313
    • Movement away from neutrality, possible, 25
    • Soviet covert activity in, 31
    • Turkish interest in, 3
  • Czechoslovakia, 21
  • Dana, Col. Vali Allah, 6
  • Daud, Brig. Gen. Muhammad, 248, 253, 260
  • Davies, Rodger P., 79, 109, 111, 138, 139, 175, 183, 188, 199, 200, 201, 219, 220, 237, 259, 266, 271, 311, 329
    • Hijackings, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 68
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 312
    • Jordan:
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 260
      • Soviet views on conflict in, 272, 273, 286, 307
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
    • Middle East, 3, 9
    • Persian Gulf, 72, 93
    • Saudi Arabia, 135, 164
    • Yemen Arab Republic, 198
  • Davis, Jeanne W., 82
    • Desalting, 9
    • Hijackings, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 50, 58, 61
    • Jordan:
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 260
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in, 317
    • Persian Gulf, 83
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 19
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Davis, Richard T., 55
  • Day, Arthur, 72
  • Dayan, Gen. Moshe, 251, 278, 290, 307
  • Defense, U.S. Department of:
    • Naval force development in Saudi Arabia, 157
    • Persian Gulf arms sales, 89
    • Soviet naval threat in Indian Ocean, 45
    • U.S. arms sales to Kuwait, 108, 111, 114
  • Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), 303, 317
  • Defense Security Assistance Agency (DSAA), 157
  • DeGaulle, Charles, 3
  • Demirel, Süleyman, 334
  • Denney, George C., Jr., 10
  • Desalting:
    • Joint U.S./Israeli project for, 9, 12, 14, 35
    • Long-range Middle East program for, 4, 5
    • U.S. aid to Saudi Arabia for, 133, 149, 152
  • Dhofar, 152
    • Iranian concerns over rebellion in, 198
    • Jordanian troops in, 189
    • People’s Republic of China aid to rebels in, 122, 158, 198
    • Rebels as threat to Saudi Arabia, 137
    • Rebel success, possibility of, 101
    • Successes in campaign against rebels, 36, 117, 158
    • Sultan Sa’id’s impact on, 87
    • Yemen PDR support of rebels in, 106, 182
  • Dickman, Francois M., 124, 158, 164
    • Abu Dhabi-Saudi Arabia territorial dispute, 125
    • Saudi National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 165
    • Sultan-Sisco talks, 191
  • Diego Garcia (see also Indian Ocean):
    • Background and status of, 39
    • British participation in facilities at, 39, 49
    • British-U.S. agreement on, 66, 71
    • British-U.S. talks on, 39, 44
    • Civil aviation on, 71
    • Congressional hearings on base construction on, 37
    • Construction of base on, 39, 40, 83
    • Establishment of U.S. facility on, 32, 46
    • Littoral states’ response to opening of U.S. facility in, 38, 52
    • Repatriation of workers on, 37, 71
    • Suez Canal closure and importance of, 13
    • Upgrading of U.S. facility on, 61
  • Dinsmore, Lee, 88, 113, 127
  • Dobrynin, Anatoli, 55, 57, 58, 68, 317
  • Donovan, Lt. Gen. Stanley J., 6
  • Dorough, Felix, 111
  • Douglas-Home, Alec:
    • British arms sales to South Africa, 41, 53
    • Hijackings, 222, 238
    • Nasser’s funeral, 334
    • Persian Gulf, 86, 103, 105
  • Doyle, Rear Adm. James H., 61
  • Dubai:
    • Abu Dhabi, conflict with, 72, 117
    • CIA views toward, 122
    • As FAA (or UAE) member, 72, 100
    • Iranian-UAE relations, 122
    • Oil revenues, 94, 140
    • Saudi office in, 158
  • DuBridge, Lee, 4, 5, 12, 14
  • Dubs, Adolph, 55, 220, 266
  • Dulles, John Foster, 127
  • Dunlop, Brig. Gen. Donald D., 137, 144
  • Ealum, James M., 187
  • Eastern Europe, 133, 136
  • East Pakistan. See Bangladesh.
  • Eban, Abba, 222, 251, 262, 263, 325
  • Egerton, Stephen, 72
  • Egypt. See United Arab Republic (UAR).
  • Eilts, Hermann F., 127
    • ARAMCO offtake problem, 128, 136
    • Growth in Saudi military expenditures, 134
    • Leahy Report, 142
    • Naval force development in Saudi Arabia, 138
    • Persian Gulf, 72, 74, 86
    • Phantom purchases, 137
    • Prince Fahd’s visit to United States, 130, 131, 132, 134
    • Yemen-U.S. relations, 178
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D., 4, 118, 127, 318
  • Eisenhower-Strauss plan, 3, 9, 12
  • Elections:
    • Israel, Oct. 1969, 131
    • Italy, 1970, 22
    • Malta, 1971, 25
    • United Kingdom, June 1970, 85
  • Eliot, Theodore L., Jr., 113, 210, 211, 259
    • British-U.S. talks on Persian Gulf, 72
    • Desalting, 35
    • Diego Garcia, 52
    • Faisal’s meeting with Nixon, May 1971, 151
    • Gulf islands dispute, 110
    • Islamic summit, Rabat, Sept. 1969, 10
    • U.S. military aid to Jordan, 17
    • U.S.-Saudi oil relations, 168
  • Ellsworth, Robert F., 11, 290, 304, 317, 323
  • Elworthy, Air Marshal Charles, 6
  • Ely, Northcutt, 107
  • Enterprise task force, 69
  • Esenbel, Melhi, 21
  • Eshkol, Levi, 4, 9, 12
  • Ethiopia, 43, 133
  • European Economic Community (EEC), 24
  • Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank), 78, 133, 145, 163, 197
  • Fahd ibn Abd al-Aziz al Saud, Prince:
    • Arab-Israeli conflict, 170
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 72
    • Growth in Saudi military expenditures, 135
    • Naval force development, 136, 145
    • Place in line of succession, 153
    • Political influence of, 140
    • Visits:
    • Yemen PDR, 188
  • Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia:
    • Abu Dhabi border dispute, 122, 125, 159
    • Agnew’s meeting with, July 1971, 91
    • Arab Summit, Rabat, 1970, 176
    • Bahrain independence, 98, 102
    • Coup following death of, possible, 146, 153
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 97, 99, 100
    • Growth in Saudi military expenditures, 134
    • Islamic summit, 10
    • Israel, 129
    • Lincoln’s visit with, 25
    • Middle East, 127
    • National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 156, 162, 165, 167
    • Naval force development, 138, 144, 157
    • Persian Gulf states policy, 72, 100
    • Prospects for, 140
    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 104
    • U.S. evaluation of Saudi defense planning, 144
    • U.S.-Saudi oil relations, 168
    • U.S. views toward, 166, 181
    • Visits:
    • Yemen, 99, 178, 180, 185, 197
    • Yemen People’s Democratic Republic, 147, 188, 194
    • Zionism as Communism, 127, 147, 149, 151, 159, 170
  • Farley, Philip J., 58, 61, 64, 69
  • Fatah, 7, 140
  • Fawzi, Gen. Mohammed, 18
  • Fedayeen (see also Hijackings; Palestine Liberation Army; Palestinian conflict with under Jordan; Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)), 2
    • Arab financial support for, 7
    • Arab-Israeli settlement as influenced by, 3
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Jordan as threatened by, 7
    • In Lebanon, 7, 214
    • Sabotage of Tapline by, 133
    • Saladin as Iraqi equivalent to, 253
    • Soviet position, 16, 23
  • Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), 149, 152
  • Federation of Arab Amirates (FAA) (see also Bahrain; Qatar; United Arab Emirates (UAE)):
    • Bahraini position, 79, 81, 100
    • British negotiation with Gulf states over, 97, 98
    • British position, 90, 95, 103
    • Desire for creation of, 74
    • Iranian position, 72, 95, 97, 98, 100
    • Jordanian position, 101
    • Kuwaiti position, 80, 100
    • Prospects for, 140
    • Qatari position, 81
    • Saudi position, 90, 95, 97, 99, 127
    • Seven-state agreement on, 103
    • UN membership for, 82, 91, 98
    • U.S. position, 82, 88, 90, 96, 97
  • Fig Hill Hospital, 334
  • Finland, 151
  • Fitzgerald’s Laboratories, 108
  • Five Power Defense Arrangement, 46, 57
  • Flanigan, Peter M., 168, 228
  • Ford, Gerald, 291
  • Ford, Padel, 111
  • Ford Foundation, 184, 190, 198
  • Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (FIAB), 23, 25
  • France (see also French subentries under other subjects), 127, 140, 180
  • Freeman, John:
    • CENTO officials’ meetings with Nixon, 21
    • Hijackings, 223, 238, 245
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • British military intervention in, 288, 290
      • Israeli military intervention in, 302, 303
      • Palestinian conflict with, 254
      • Post-hijacking situation in Amman, 214
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
    • Persian Gulf, 72, 86
  • Freeman, Rear Adm. Mason, 30
  • Free Officers Movement, 130
  • Freymond, Jacques, 239
  • Fujairah, 72, 98, 122
  • Fulbright, J. William, 113, 154
  • Galloway, William J., 100
  • Garment, Leonard, 12
  • Gatch, John N., Jr., 72, 78
  • Gaza Strip, 151, 235
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 169
  • Geological Survey, U.S., 184
  • German Democratic Republic, 181
  • Germany, Federal Republic of:
    • Bern meeting on PFLP counterproposal, 222, 224, 248
    • Boisard appointment as ICRC representative in Amman, 241, 245
    • Common front against hijackers, efforts toward, 213, 216, 235, 267
    • Sending of envoy to Amman for hijacker negotiations, 223
  • Ghana, 16
  • Ghoussein, Talat al-, 211
  • Glass, Leslie, 72
  • Godber, Joseph B., 103
  • Golan Heights, 151
  • Goodpaster, Gen. Andrew, 214, 222, 254
  • Graham, SSgt. Irvin, 208
  • Gray, Gordon, 23
  • Gray, Victor, 61
  • Greece, 262
    • Hijackings, 214
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 254, 260, 267, 274, 313
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 151
    • Soviet influence in Middle East, 2
    • United States, relations with, 22, 24
    • U.S. military aid to, 318
    • U.S. security interests in, 2
  • Greene, Joseph N., Jr., 86
  • Greenhill, Denis, 206, 236, 249, 254, 255, 288
  • Griffin, Philip J., 34
  • Gromyko, Andrei:
    • Indian Ocean as area free of major-power competition, 55, 57, 61, 68, 70
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 266
  • Gulf islands dispute (see also Abu Musa dispute; Iran; Persian Gulf; Tunb Islands dispute), 84, 93, 96
    • British-U.S. talks on, 103
    • Federation of Arab Amirates formation and, 97, 98
    • Iraqi position, 107, 110
    • Israeli position, 101
    • Kuwaiti position, 101, 110, 118
    • London formula, 105, 107
    • Saudi position, 110, 127, 153
    • Shah’s compromise proposal, 99
    • Sovereignty issue, 98, 100, 103
    • Soviet interests in, 101
    • Syrian position, 110
    • UAR position, 110
    • U.S. position, 104
  • Gulf states. See individual states; Persian Gulf; Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates.
  • Habash, George, 254, 329
  • Hadramaut, 182
  • Haig, Gen. Alexander M., Jr., 235, 259, 271
    • CENTO officials’ meetings with Nixon, 32
    • Hijackings, 203, 207, 216, 233
    • Indian Ocean, 63
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • British-U.S. talks on, 249
      • Field hospitals sent under ICRC auspices, 270
      • Israeli air strikes on Syrian forces, 287, 290, 303
      • Israeli ground forces in, 292, 293, 294, 295, 297, 298, 299
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 256, 260, 313
      • Report to Nixon on, 328, 331
      • Soviet messages on situation in, 307
      • Soviet military intervention in, U.S. strategies for deterrence of, 317
      • Syrian military intervention in, 253, 281, 307
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318
    • King Faisal’s visit to United States, May 1971, 151
    • Middle East, 3, 31
    • MIDLINK CENTO naval exercises, 107
    • Rogers’s visit to Saudi Arabia, May 1971, 149
    • Sultan’s visit to United States, June, 1972, 161
    • UAR, 23
    • U.S. arms policy in Persian Gulf, 119, 120
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Haikal, 264
  • Haldeman, Robert, 249, 256, 258, 308
  • Hall, Warren A., 9
  • Hallman, William, 72
  • Hamdan, Shaikh, 34
  • Hancock, T. Marvin, 34
  • Hannah, John A., 5, 9, 14, 91
  • Hardin, Clifford, 5, 14
  • Harlow, Bryce, 12
  • Hart, Parker T., 3
  • Hartman, Arthur, 267
  • Hartman, Harold, 192
  • Hassan II, King of Morocco, 10
  • Hawatmeh, Nayef, 329
  • Haytham, Muhammad Ali, 172
  • Heath, Edward, 41, 51, 53, 57, 85, 93, 249
  • Hejaz, 133, 140
  • Helms, Richard M.:
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 1
    • Desalting, 5, 14
    • Hijackings, 209, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 42, 50, 54, 58, 62, 64
    • Jordan:
      • Fighting in Amman, 313
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254
      • Locations of Iraqi and Syrian forces in, 256
      • Soviet military intervention in, U.S. strategies for deterrence of, 317
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318
    • NSC meetings on Middle East, 3
    • Persian Gulf, 101
    • Saudi internal security issues, 146
    • Soviet Middle East policy, 20
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 19, 22, 25
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
    • Yemen, 189
  • Helou, Charles, 25
  • Helseth, William, 21, 28
  • Henderson, Ian, 117
  • Henkin, Dan, 214, 264, 267, 303
  • Hickel, Walter J., 5, 14
  • Hijackings (see also International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); Jordan; Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)):
    • Arab-U.S. talks on, 27
    • Bern Group:
      • British proposals, 250, 268
      • Demands for ICRC role in negotiations, 241, 242
      • Discussion of ICRC mandate for negotiations, 263, 268
      • German Federal Republic requirements for negotiations, 248
      • ICRC meetings with, 239
      • PFLP counterproposals, 222, 224
      • Unanimity among, 243, 246
      • U.S. proposals for communiqué by, 255, 256, 257
      • U.S. proposals for hostage release, 324
    • Blowing up of PanAm plane at Cairo, 202, 204
    • Blowing up of planes in Jordan, 230, 232, 233
    • BOAC flight from Bahrain, 221
    • British position, 238
    • British-U.S. talks, 206, 245, 254, 255
    • Destinations of hijacked planes, possible, 200, 201
    • Development of surveillance equipment against, 209
    • Dual nationality of U.S. hostages, 241
    • El Al failed attempt, 199, 203
    • Extension of deadlines in, 214, 215
    • Fedayeen concern about outside intervention, 218
    • Hostage evacuation:
      • First evacuation flight to Cyprus, 225, 232
      • Israeli role in, possible, 214
      • Of majority of hostages, 235, 237
      • PanAm retrieval of passengers from Cairo, 204
      • U.S. preparations for, 212, 214
      • U.S. request for Jordan cooperation in, 234
    • Initial releases of passengers, 208, 209
    • Iraqi position, 223
    • Iraqi role in, 229
    • Israeli actions:
      • Message to Jordan, 216
      • “No deal” approach, 240
      • Release of Algerian officials, 235, 236, 246, 267, 268
      • Request for hijacker extradition, 213
      • Roundup of PFLP sympathizers, 239, 240, 251
      • Use of force, possible, 239
    • Israeli-PFLP prisoner exchange proposals, 235
      • British position, 238, 263
      • Confidentiality of list of prisoners wanted for exchange, 241
      • Demand for Israeli acceptance of prisoner release “in principle,” 243, 245, 246
      • PFLP offers on, 267
      • PFLP refusal of mediation, 242
      • Release of Swiss and Lebanese prisoners, 268
      • U.S. position, 236
    • Israeli-U.S. split from Europeans over, 236, 240
    • Jordanian’s threat to hijackers, 210, 213, 217
    • Last hostage group:
      • Determining location and identities of, 237
      • Health of, 272
      • ICRC visits to, 241
      • Jordanian role in release of, 324
      • Release as part of ceasefire, 319, 321, 330, 333
      • Removal to house in Amman by PFLP of, 240
      • Retention of, 233, 235
      • Safety of, 320, 332
      • Threat of Jordanian showdown to, 246, 250
      • Uncertainty as to location of, 328
    • Need for gear for disembarkation of passengers, 200
    • Passengers held at Hotel Intercontinental, Amman, 213, 216, 221, 225
    • Passengers removed to Amman hotels, 231, 232, 233
    • Planes’ arrival in Jordan, 202, 204
    • Prisoner releases, 208, 209
      • British-German-Swiss-U.S. common front, efforts toward, 213, 216, 235, 267
    • Red Cross talks, 213
    • Rogers’s appeal for intercession by Arab states, 211, 213
    • Soviet position, 254
    • Syrian position, 227
    • Threat to PFLP if hostages harmed, 210, 213, 219
    • UN civilian humanitarian presence, 223
    • U.S. condemnation of, 203
    • U.S. counter-demands, 207
    • U.S. flights to Arab states, recommendation against, 228
    • U.S. Navy ships posted offshore, 212, 213
    • U.S. request for Soviet intervention, 199
    • Washington Special Actions Group (WSAG) meetings on, 214, 222, 246, 249
    • Wiring of airplanes with explosives, 225
  • Hilaly, Agha, 21
  • HMS Jufair, 43
  • Hocke, Jean-Pierre, 245
  • Hoover, J. Edgar, 209
  • Horan, Hume, 125, 195
  • Horizontal tube, multiple effect (HTME) process, 35
  • Hoskinson, Samuel M., 52, 58, 61, 189
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan, 249, 303, 317, 326
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • House of Representatives, U.S.:
    • Foreign Affairs Committee, 9
      • Naval force development in Saudi Arabia, 157
  • Hoveyda, Amir Abbas, 88
  • Howell, Nathaniel, Jr., 34
  • Hughes, Thomas L., 172
  • Hungary, 28
  • Hussein I, ibn Talal, King of Jordan:
    • Arab mediation between Arafat and, 263, 303
    • British military intervention in Jordan, 279, 285, 288
    • Brown’s conversations with, 260
    • Ceasefire agreement, 330, 331
    • Ceasefire violation charges against Jordanian army, 328
    • Emergency relief for Jordan, 332
    • Fedayeen, willingness to move against, 250
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 101
    • Field hospitals requested by, 270
    • Hijackings:
      • Anarchy in Jordan after, 214
      • Threat to hijackers, 210, 213, 217
    • Israeli military intervention in Jordan, 285, 287, 290, 299, 300, 302, 303, 304, 309, 315, 316, 318
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304, 311, 315
    • Israeli views toward, 325
    • Israel-Jordan settlement, 2
    • Mediation of Saudi-Abu Dhabi border dispute by, 122
    • Nasser’s views toward, 329
    • Outcomes for, possible, 22, 247, 329
    • Palestinian support for, 329
    • Psychological state of, 252, 307, 313
    • Saudi subsidies to Jordan, 169
    • Saudi-UAR relations, 153
    • Saudi views toward, 140
    • Soviet views toward, 265
    • Syrian military intervention in Jordan, 275, 282
    • U.S. aircraft sale, 125
    • U.S. military aid to Jordan, 17, 274
    • U.S. military intervention in support of, 233, 262, 284, 285, 305
    • Visit to Washington, Apr. 1969, 7
      • British position, 249
      • Decision for “all or nothing” showdown, 246
      • Soviet position, 252
      • U.S. position, 217, 218, 234, 252
  • Idris I, King of Libya, 11, 130
  • Iftikar Ali, 21
  • India:
    • Indian Ocean role of, 42
    • Indo-Pakistani War, 36, 65, 69, 70, 122
    • Islamic summit invitation, 10
    • Oman, relations with, 106
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 65
    • Soviet naval presence in the Indian Ocean, 36
    • U.S. base on Diego Garcia, 38, 46
    • U.S. basing arrangements with, 43
    • U.S. Indian Ocean facilities opposed by, 37, 38, 52
    • U.S. policy toward, 46
  • Indian Ocean (see also Diego Garcia):
    • As area free of major-power competition:
    • Australian role in, 41, 42, 45, 57
    • British role in, 57
    • French naval presence in, 56
    • Japanese naval presence in, 58
    • Moscow Summit agenda items regarding, 70
    • Non-strategic naval limitations in, 69
    • People’s Republic of China missile testing in, 57, 58
    • Soviet access through reopened Suez Canal, 30
    • Soviet airpower in, 36
    • Soviet naval threat in, 36, 43, 45, 46, 47, 50, 51
      • Political framework for U.S. response to, 54, 57
    • Soviet opposition to PRC influence in, 47
    • Soviet-U.S. talks on, 55
    • U.S. naval planning options in, 42, 46, 47
    • U.S. naval presence, 43, 46, 56, 58, 59, 61
  • Indian Ocean Conference, Washington, Mar. 1971, 55, 57
  • Indonesia:
    • Coup against Sukarno, 16
    • Indian Ocean role of, 42
    • U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
    • U.S. policy toward, 46
  • Intelligence Memoranda:
    • OCI 0099/70, 260
    • SC 02437/70, 260
    • SC 02452/70, 325
  • INTELSAT Conference, Feb. 1969, 171
  • Interior, U.S. Department of, 150
  • International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 184, 193, 198
  • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) (see also Hijackings):
    • Arrival in Amman of envoy from, 209
    • Bern Group meeting with representatives of, 239
    • Bern Group’s mandate for negotiations by, 263, 268
    • Boisard’s appointment as senior representative in Amman:
    • Convoy stopped by fedayeen, 230
    • Demand for repainting of U.S. planes, 281
    • Evacuation of British citizens, 223, 224
    • Field hospitals sent to Jordan under auspices of, 270, 280, 281, 307, 313, 315, 326, 328, 330, 331, 333
    • Involvement in hijacking negotiations:
      • British position, 206
      • U.S. position, 207
    • Personnel changes in negotiators, 244
    • PFLP views toward, 246
    • Release of hijackers, 209
    • Release of last hostages to, 333
    • Resumption of role of, 240
    • Searching for valid PFLP negotiator, 324
    • Sending of senior officials to Amman, 248
    • Suspension of negotiations with PFLP, 235, 236, 238
    • Visits to hijacked passengers by, 202, 216, 241, 250
  • International Development Association (IDA), 184
  • International Volunteer Services, 198
  • Iran (see also Gulf islands dispute; Iran and Iranian subentries under other subjects):
    • Bahraini independence, 102
    • Bahraini membership in FAA/UAE, 79
    • British withdrawal from Gulf, 85
    • CENTO political guidelines for military planning, 33
    • CENTO’s changing role, 8
    • Iraq, relations with, 76, 82, 112
    • Israel, relations with, 101, 140
    • Japanese role in, 83
    • Kuwait, relations with, 80
    • Oil company agreements with, 21, 72, 94, 96
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 151
    • Persian Gulf leadership role for, 122
    • Regional security, 72, 74
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with:
      • Bahrain claim by Iran, 127
      • Joint military aid to Yemen, 189
      • Obstacles in, 76, 82, 140
      • Saudi position, 132, 160
      • U.S. position, 96, 159, 161
      • Zahedi-Faisal talks, 88
    • Soviet influence in Middle East, 2
    • Soviet military equipment barters with, 2
    • Soviet naval visits to, 158
    • UAE, relations with, 36, 122
    • United Kingdom, relations with, 99, 101
    • U.S. bases in, 267
    • U.S. military aid to, 267
    • U.S. military presence in, 82
    • As U.S. oil supplier, 168, 169
    • U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
    • Yemen Arab Republic, relations with, 198
  • Iraq (see also Iraq and Iraqi subentries under other subjects):
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Bahrain, relations with, 81
    • Cairo Agreement, Sept. 27, 1970, 332
    • Economic situation, 94
    • Expansionist aims of, 160
    • Iran, relations with, 76, 82, 112
    • Islamic summit, 10
    • Israeli policy toward, 101
    • Kuwait claimed by, 36
    • Kuwait, relations with, 118
    • As major oil producer, 169
    • Oil company agreements with, 94, 164
    • Persian Gulf objectives, 88
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 181
    • Soviet influence in, 2
    • Soviet naval visits to, 158
    • Soviet oil interests in, 77
    • Turkey, relations with, 3
    • United Kingdom, relations with, 110, 112
  • Irwin, John N., II, 37, 50
    • British arms sales to South Africa, 53
    • CENTO, 33
    • Jordanian disaster relief task force, 328, 331
    • Persian Gulf, 103, 113
    • Saudi Arabia, 135, 164, 166, 168
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Iryani, Qadi Abd al Rahman al-, 118, 186, 187, 191, 196
  • Isa bin Salman al Khalifah, Shaikh, 72, 122
  • Islamic Summit, Jidda, Mar. 1970, 180
  • Islamic summit, Rabat, Sept. 1969, 10
  • Isle des Roches, 39
  • Ismail, Abdul Fattah, 172
  • Israel (see also Israel and Israeli subheadings under other subjects):
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Bern meeting on PFLP counterproposal, 224
    • Cairo Agreement, Sept. 1970, 331
    • Death of Nasser and, 334
    • Desalting, 4, 9, 12, 14, 35
    • Iran, relations with, 101, 140
    • Jordan, settlement with, 2
    • Military superiority in Middle East, 3
    • Request for extradition of hijacker, 213
    • Saudi views of, 151
    • Soviet attack on, possible, 290
    • UAR settlement with, 2
    • U.S. commitments to, 327
    • U.S. military aid and sales to, 152
      • Arab-U.S. relations as affected by, 141
      • in response to Jordanian conflict, 222, 290, 303, 312, 315
      • Phantom fighters, 16, 129
      • Saudi position, 129, 131
    • U.S. security interests in, 2
    • Withdrawal from Sinai, 1957, 131
  • Israel Desalinization Engineering, 35
  • Italy, 22, 25, 151, 313
  • Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir al Sabah, Shaikh, 123
  • Jabir Hamoud al-Sabah, Shaikh, 123, 124
  • Jackson, Henry “Scoop,” 39
  • Japan (see also Japanese subentries under other subjects):
    • Dependence on Persian Gulf oil, 77
    • Indian Ocean role of, 42
    • Oil demand in, 148
    • Oman, relations with, 106
    • Persian Gulf role for, 83
    • Saudi Arabia, trade with, 140
    • Suez Canal, effect of the reopening, 30
  • Jaquinet, Louis, 241, 244, 245
  • Jarring, Gunnar, 3, 260
  • Jarring Mission, 27, 131, 184
  • Javits, Jacob, 3
  • Jerusalem’s status, 127, 133, 147, 149, 151
  • Jizan, 171
  • Johnson, Joseph, 3
  • Johnson, Lyndon B., 4, 9, 12
  • Johnson, U. Alexis, 205, 210, 219, 324
    • CENTO, 36
    • Diego Garcia, 39
    • Hijackings, 199, 209, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 58, 61, 68, 70
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • Field hospitals sent under ICRC auspices, 270, 281
      • Israeli military intervention in, 290, 291, 303
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 260
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention, 317
    • Lebanon, 326
    • Middle East military planning, 13
    • Persian Gulf, 86, 106, 119
    • Prince Fahd’s visit to Washington, 130
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Johnston, Eric, 3
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS):
    • Assessment of situation in CENTO region, 36
    • Hijacking hostage evacuation, planning for, 214, 233
    • Indian Ocean, 43, 50, 69
    • JCSM 26–71, 30
    • Jordan, 313, 317
    • Navy Strategic Island Concept, 39
    • Persian Gulf, 83
    • Soviet naval expansion in Middle East, 3
    • Soviet threat in the Mediterranean, 22
    • Suez Canal, implication of reopening, 30
  • Jones, Curtis F., 186, 196
  • Jordan (see also Hijackings; Jordan and Jordanian subheadings under other subjects):
    • Amman security situation, deterioration of, 295
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Communist threat to, 127
    • Emergency relief for, 326, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334
    • Establishment of “branch” U.S. embassy in Amman, 332
    • Fedayeen, threat to, 7
    • Field hospitals sent under ICRC auspices, 270, 280, 281, 307, 313, 315, 326, 328, 330, 331, 333
    • Iranian military sales to, 326
    • Israel-Jordan settlement, 2
    • Kuwaiti Khartoum agreement subsidies to, 94, 312, 326
    • Libya, relations with, 328
    • Libyan economic aid to, 312
    • Mediation of Saudi-Abu Dhabi border dispute by, 122, 125
    • Palestinian conflict with:
      • Battles in northern Jordan, initial reports, 239
      • British military intervention in, 254, 279, 281, 282, 285, 288, 290, 299, 307
      • British-U.S. talks on, 249
      • Cairo Agreement on ceasefire, Sept. 27, 1970, 303, 330, 331, 332, 333
      • Cairo Summit, Sept. 22, 1970, 303, 304, 312
      • Casualties in Amman fedayeen camp, 313
      • Ceasefires, 225, 254, 267, 303, 316, 317, 319, 321, 328, 330, 331, 332
      • Control of Palestinian movement, 247
      • As cover for controversial U.S. decisions, 318
      • Evacuation of foreigners:
      • Fedayeen victory, consequences of, 247
      • Five-nation Arab Commission Force control of Amman, 334
      • Four-nation reconciliation committee, 263
      • Hussein’s approach to, 250, 272
      • Hussein’s willingness to move against fedayeen, 250
        • British position, 249
        • Decision for “all or nothing” showdown, 246
        • Soviet position, 252
        • U.S. position, 217, 218, 234, 252, 296
      • Iranian responses to, 256
      • Iraqi military intervention, possible:
      • Iraqi role in:
        • Jordanian position, 229
        • Soviet position, 220
        • U.S. position, 222, 253, 281
      • Israeli military intervention in:
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 218, 253, 254
        • Amman fighting, 240, 241, 253, 254, 313, 322
        • Army movement into north, 272
        • Army ultimatum, 267
        • Fedayeen attack on U.S. embassy, 272
        • Fedayeen resistance to, 263
        • Israeli air strikes in support of, 257, 260
        • Nixon-Kissinger conversations on, 256, 258
        • Nixon’s statement on U.S. intervention in support of, 261, 262, 264
        • U.S. air strikes in support of, 260
      • Libyan military intervention, 280, 316
      • Outcomes to, possible, 247, 274, 286
      • Political nature of Jordan following, 247
      • Post-hijacking anarchy, 208, 214
      • Principle contingencies in, 247
      • Soviet démarche to United States, 266, 267
      • Soviet position, 220, 254, 307
      • Syrian military intervention in:
        • Armored brigade attacks, 275
        • Irbid occupation, 282, 283, 284, 292, 299, 305
        • Israeli actions to spook Syrians, 278
        • Israeli aerial reconnaissance of, 280, 294
        • Israeli attack on Syria as response to, 304
        • Jordanian troop morale as affected by, 303
        • Possibilities of, 214, 252, 326
        • Soviet position, 291
        • Soviet support for, 286, 312
        • Syrian position, 253
        • Tank engagements with Jordanian army, 272, 280, 281, 304, 307, 313, 316
        • UAR position, 280
        • U.S. démarche to Soviets regarding, 275, 276
        • Withdrawal of Syrian forces, 318, 322
      • Turkish role in, 254
      • UAR military intervention against Israel, possible, 265
      • UAR position, 254, 264, 272, 281
      • U.S. embassy officers kidnapped by fedayeen, 221
      • U.S.-Jordanian talks on, 234
      • U.S. military aid and sales packages in response to, 254, 312, 313, 315, 326, 332, 333, 334
      • U.S. military intervention in:
      • U.S. Navy ships posted offshore, 254, 256, 264, 274, 315, 323
      • U.S. planning for Soviet intervention, 222
      • U.S. plans for deterring Soviet intervention, 317
      • Washington Special Actions Group meetings on, 254, 260, 264, 267, 273, 275, 281, 290, 299, 304, 312, 317, 326
    • Persian Gulf leadership role for, 122
    • Saudi economic aid to, 197
    • Saudi Khartoum agreement subsidies to, 94, 140, 148, 159, 169
    • Saudi military intervention in, possible, 142
    • Saudi military sales to, 326
    • Soviet military aid and sales to, 2
    • Soviet policy toward, 16
    • United States, relations with, 141
    • U.S. military aid and sales to:
  • Jungers, Frank, 128, 141
  • Kagnew, 46, 49
  • Kalb, Marvin, 262
  • Kamaran Island, 196
  • Kamel, Hasan, 72
  • Kamhawi, Zahi, 251
  • Karamessines, Thomas, 222
  • Karami, Rashid, 16
  • Kearns, Henry, 145, 163
  • Kelley, John E., 68, 71
  • Kennedy, David M., 3, 73
  • Kennedy, Col. Richard T., 54
    • Hijackings, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 50, 58, 59, 63, 70
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • Israeli air strikes on Syrian forces, 290
      • Israeli military intervention in, 303
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 260
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in, 317
    • Persian Gulf, 76, 83
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 22
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Kenya, 43, 52
  • Khalatbari, Abbas Ali, 88
  • Khalid, Leila, 206, 246, 330
  • Khalid bin Abd al-Aziz al Saud, Crown Prince, 133, 140, 153
  • Khalid bin Saqr Al-Qasimi, Deputy Ruler of Ras al-Khaimah, 109
  • Khalid ibn Mohammed al Qasimi, Shaikh, Sultan of Sharjah, 88, 107
  • Khalifah bin Hamad al-Thani, Shaykh of Qatar, 36, 113, 117, 122, 158
  • Khammash, Gen. Amer, 125, 191
  • Khartoum Conference, Nov. 1967, 94, 140
  • Khartoum Conference, Aug.–Sept. 1968, 7
  • Khashoggi, Adnan, 134, 162
  • Khrushchev, Nikita S., 47
  • Killgore, Andrew, 277
  • Kissinger, Henry A., 132, 135, 271, 276, 311
    • British arms sales to South Africa, 53
    • CENTO officials’ meetings with Nixon, 6, 21
    • Country Policy Statement on Saudi Arabia, 133
    • Desalting, 4, 5, 9, 12, 14, 35
    • Diego Garcia, 38, 52
    • Faisal’s meeting with Nixon, May 1971, 151
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 98, 99, 100
    • Hijackings:
      • British-U.S. talks on, 255
      • Conversations with Nixon on, 209, 226, 232, 233
      • Conversations with Rogers on, 227, 231
      • Passengers removed to hotels, 231
      • Reports to Nixon on, 209, 214, 216, 218, 221, 225, 235, 239, 240, 242, 246, 248
      • U.S. flights to Arab states, recommendation against, 228
      • Washington Special Actions Group meetings on, 214
    • Indian Ocean:
      • As area free of major-power competition, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64
      • Moscow summit agenda items for, 70
      • Non-strategic naval limitations, 69
      • Soviet naval threat in, 46, 48, 50, 51, 54, 57
      • U.S. naval planning options in, 46, 48, 54
      • U.S. naval presence in, 58, 59, 61
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 299
    • Jordan:
      • British military intervention in, 288
      • British-U.S. talks on, 249
      • Field hospitals sent under ICRC auspices, 270, 331
      • Hussein’s request for military intervention, 285
      • Israeli military intervention in:
      • Israeli views toward Hussein, 325
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 253, 254, 260, 313
        • Conversations with Nixon on, 256, 258, 262, 291
        • Israeli air strikes in support of, 257, 291
        • Nixon’s statement on U.S. intervention, 261, 262
        • Reports to Nixon on, 247, 248, 263, 272, 274, 275, 310, 315, 316, 327, 330, 331, 332, 333
        • Soviet military intervention in, U.S. strategies for deterrence of, 317
        • Soviet position, 273
        • Syrian military intervention in, 286
          • Engagements with Jordanian army, 307
          • Irbid occupation, 305
          • Israeli air strikes on Syrian forces, 290
          • Israeli attacks on Syria in response to, 299, 304
          • Soviet position, 291
        • U.S. military aid and sales, 17
        • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 265, 267, 286
        • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318, 322
        • WSAG actions on, 274, 303
    • Kuwait, 92
    • Lebanon, 326
    • Middle East, 3, 13
    • Oman, 87
    • Persian Gulf, 82, 83, 118
    • Saudi Arabia, 146, 160, 168, 180
    • United Arab Emirates, 103
    • United Arab Republic, 23
    • U.S. commitments to Israel, 327
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 19, 22, 25
    • Yemen Arab Republic, 177, 178, 180, 189
    • Yemen PDR–U.S. relations, 174
  • Knowles, Lt. Gen. Richard, 50
  • Korea, Republic of, 326
  • Kosygin, Alexiy, 21, 187, 334
  • Kurds, 3, 77, 101, 122
  • Kuria Muria Islands, 171
  • Kuwait (see also Kuwait and Kuwaiti subentries under other subjects):
    • Arab summit on Jordan conflict, 280
    • Bahraini independence, 102
    • Bahraini membership in FAA/UAE, 79
    • British military aid and sales to, 92
    • Economic situation, 94
    • Fedayeen funding from, 7
    • French military sales to, 121, 123
    • Iran, relations with, 80
    • Iraq, relations with, 118
    • Iraqi claims to, 36, 92
    • Iraqi threat to, 80, 108
    • Japanese views on political situation, 77
    • Oil company agreements with, 94, 164
    • Palestinian residents of, 92, 118
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 36, 151
    • Plebiscite on union with Iran, 72
    • PLFP demonstrations in, 27
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 161
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 36
    • United States, relations with, 118, 141
    • U.S. military aid and sales to:
      • Aircraft, 89, 108, 111, 123, 124
      • Arms purchase eligibility, 92
      • DOD survey team, 114, 121
      • Ex-Im Bank financing, 163
      • Kuwaiti approval of, 108
      • Kuwaiti requests for arms purchases, 78
      • U.S. approval of, 91
      • U.S. company contacts with Kuwaiti officials, 114, 115
    • As U.S. oil supplier, 168, 169
    • Yemen PDR, relations with, 116
  • Kuznetsov, Vasiliy V., 272, 273
  • Labor unions, 117, 133
  • Ladgam, Bahi, 330, 332, 334
  • Laird, Melvin:
  • Lake, Anthony, 76
  • Latimer, Tom, 31
  • Law of the Sea, 69
  • Leahy Report, 142, 144
  • Lebanon (see also Lebanon and Lebanese subentries under other subjects):
    • Fedayeen threat to, U.S. position, 8, 214
    • Israeli attacks on, 141
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 151
    • Soviet military aid and sales to, 2
    • Soviet policy toward, 16
    • UN Security Council resolutions on, 118
    • U.S. arms sales to Israel, 141
    • U.S. contingency planning for, 326
    • U.S. military aid and sales to, 17, 214
  • Liapis, Stephen, 192
  • Libya (see also Libya and Libyan subentries under other subjects):
    • Arab summit on Jordan conflict, 280
    • Elimination of Mediterranean-area foreign military bases, 31
    • Fedayeen funded by, 7
    • Jordan, relations with, 328
    • Malta, relations with, 31
    • Nationalization of BP interests in, 112
    • Oil company agreements with, 94, 96, 148, 164
    • Overthrow of King Idris, 130
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 20
    • UAR influence on, 18
    • United States, relations with, 3, 26, 141
  • Lincoln, Franklin B., 25, 170
  • Lincoln, Gen. George A., 3
  • Lindjord, Haakon, 9, 22, 83
  • Linebaugh, J. David, 68
  • Lisagor, Peter, 261
  • Lockheed Corporation, 78, 108, 111, 152
  • Long, David E., 186, 196
  • Lord, Winston, 100
  • Luard, Evan, 81
  • Luce, William:
    • Appointment as Special Representative in Gulf States of, 86
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 93, 97, 98, 99
    • Gulf islands dispute, 88, 93, 99, 105, 107
    • Iranian economic aid to Gulf states, 103
  • MacArthur, Douglas, II:
    • British Persian Gulf policy, 84, 85
    • Gulf islands dispute, 84, 88, 105
    • Iranian request for military equipment, 267
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 254, 260, 271, 274
    • Persian Gulf regional security arrangement, 74
    • Seven-state agreement on formation of UAE, 104
    • U.S. Persian Gulf policy, 77
  • MacDonald, Col. J. Angus, 35
  • Mahdi, Mohammad, 72
  • Maghreb, 22
  • Mahra, 182
  • Makarios, Archbishop, 214, 267
  • Malagasy Republic, 43, 52
  • Malawi, 52
  • Malaysia, 46
  • Maldives, 52
  • Malik, Lt. Gen. Akhtar Hussain, 6
  • Malik, Maj. Gen. Ibrahim, 136
  • Maloney, Col. George, 165
  • Malta, 3, 22, 25, 26, 31, 254
  • Mansfield, Michael, 39, 40, 83, 303, 304
  • Maoism, 265
  • Marshall, Anthony D., 56
  • Masirah Island, 83, 87
  • Maswari, Brig. Husayn al-, 188
  • Matsu, 318
  • Mauritius, 36, 37, 43, 50, 61, 71
  • Mayo, Robert P., 5, 12, 14, 91
  • McCain, Adm. John S., Jr., 42
  • McCloskey, Robert, 214, 264, 267, 303
  • McGinnis, John, 61
  • McHenry, Donald, 9, 22, 83
  • McNamara, Robert, 51, 137
  • Mediterranean area:
    • Analytical summary for policymaking in, 24
    • EEC trade agreements in, 24
    • Libyan goal of eliminating foreign military bases from, 31
    • Major problems of, 24
    • Soviet military presence in, 11, 24, 26
    • Soviet policy toward, 20
    • U.S. military bases in, 24
    • U.S. policy toward, 19, 22, 25
  • Meir, Golda:
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 262, 264
      • Statement on release of Israeli prisoners, 268
    • King Faisal’s views toward, 151
    • U.S. military aid and sales to Israel, 222, 290
    • Visits:
      • United States, Sept. 1969, 9
      • United States, Sept. 1970, 263
  • Melhuish, Ramsay, 28
  • Menemencioglu, Turgut, 21, 29
  • Mercenaries, 175, 176
  • Meyer, Cord, 31
  • Middle East:
    • East-West conflict’s effect on, 24
    • Soviet covert activity in, 31
    • Soviet influence in, 2
    • Soviet military aid to, 16
    • Soviet naval expansion in, 2, 3
    • Soviet policy, 16, 20
    • U.S. military planning in, 3, 13
    • U.S. position in, 2
  • MIDEASTFOR:
    • Bahrain as home port for, 43, 96, 99, 112, 113
    • Future prospects for, 82, 83
    • Planning for continuation of, 91
  • MIDLINK exercise, 107
  • Miklos, Jack C., 79, 84, 112, 124
  • Military Training Missions (MTMs), 133, 152, 156, 169
  • Millard, Guy E., 28, 84, 88, 93
  • Miller, Brig. Gen. Raymond O., 212
  • Mitchell, John, 209
  • Moberly, John, 198, 223
  • Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH), 333, 334
  • Mobil Oil Co., 169
  • Molotov-Ribbentrop Protocol (1940), 82
  • Moorer, Adm. Thomas H.:
    • CENTO, 33, 36
    • Diego Garcia, 39
    • Hijackings, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 42, 54, 56, 61, 64
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • British-U.S talks on, 249
      • Israeli military intervention in:
        • Air strikes on Syrian forces, 290, 291
        • Ground forces, 295, 297, 298, 299
        • Soviet response to, 307
        • U.S. planning for, 303
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 256, 260, 313
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281, 307
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267, 295, 297, 298
      • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in, 317
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318
    • Lebanon, 326
    • Persian Gulf, 91
    • Spanish military capabilities, 26
    • U.S. force reductions in the Mediterranean, 22
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Moro, Aldo, 334
  • Morocco:
    • Alliance with Spain and Portugal, proposed, 25
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Coup attempt, 1971, 153
    • Soviet covert activity in, 31
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 20
    • United States, relations with, 3, 141
  • Morton, Rogers C.B., 35
  • Mosbacher, Emil, Jr., 32, 132, 155
  • Moscow Summit, 1971, 159
  • Mubarak, Mohammed bin, Shaikh, 81
  • Murphy, Franklin, 23
  • Murphy, Richard, 93, 97, 104, 147, 152
  • Murphy, Robert, 23, 25
  • Musandam Peninsula, 72
  • Al Musawwar, 166
  • Najd, 133, 140
  • Najran, 171, 178
  • Naqvi, Swaleh, 34
  • Narcotics, 108
  • Nasser, Gamal Abdul:
    • Arafat’s relationship with, 271
    • Death of, 153, 157, 332, 333, 334
    • Fedayeen as threat to, 23
    • Islamic summit, 10
    • King Faisal’s views toward, 133, 140
    • Kuwaiti views toward, 80
    • Palestinian conflict with Jordan:
      • Ceasefire proposal, 267
      • Ceasefire violations charges against Jordanian army, 328
      • Iranian position, 259, 271
      • Israeli position, 260
      • Mediation attempts, 263, 264, 272
      • Position on, 252, 254
      • Support for Hussein, 274
      • U.S. position, 264
    • Saudi détente with, 133
    • Saudi-UAR conflict over Yemen, 177
    • Soviet support for, 16, 265
    • UAR withdrawal from Yemen, 118
  • National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs):
    • NIE 30–1–67, 96
    • NIE 11–6–70, 20
    • NIE 20/30–70, 96
    • NIE 36–6–70, 96, 140
    • NIE 30–1–71, 96
  • National Security Council (NSC):
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 1
    • Indian Ocean as area free of major-power competition, 60
    • Interdepartmental Group for Near East and South Asia papers:
      • “Basic U.S. Interests in the Middle East,” 1, 2
      • “Country Policy Statement on Saudi Arabia,” 133
      • “Desalting in the Middle East,” 4, 5, 9
      • “Future U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf,” 76
      • “Persian Gulf: Analytical Summary of IG Response to NSSM 66,” 82
    • Meetings:
      • Feb. 1, 1969, 3
      • Dec. 10, 1969, 17
      • June 10, 1970, 22
      • June 17, 1970, 22, 23, 26
      • Sept. 21, 1970 (morning session), 299
      • Sept. 21, 1970 (evening session), 307
      • Sept. 22, 1970, 313
      • Sept. 23, 1970, 318
  • National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDMs):
  • National Security Study Memoranda (NSSMs):
  • Nawwaf ibn Abd al-Aziz al Saud, Prince, 72, 141, 151
  • Near East Foundation, 198
  • Nethercutt, Richard, 68
  • Neubert, Joseph, 50
  • New Zealand, U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
  • Nigeria, 53
  • Nixon, Richard M.:
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 1, 127
    • CENTO, 6, 21, 29, 32
    • Desalting, 4, 5, 9, 12
    • Diego Garcia, 38
    • Hijackings:
    • Indian Ocean:
      • As area free of major-power competition, 61, 62, 68
      • British-U.S. security talks, 41, 57
      • Moscow summit agenda items for, 70
      • Navy planning options, 42
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304, 308
    • Israeli withdrawal from Sinai, 1957, 131
    • Jordan:
      • British-U.S. talks on, 249
      • Israeli air strikes on Syrian troops in, 287, 290, 291, 305
      • Israeli ground forces in, 292, 293, 294, 295, 297
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians:
        • Conversations with Kissinger on, 256, 258, 262, 269
        • Fighting in Amman, 313
        • Israeli versus U.S. air strikes in support of, 260
        • Statement on U.S. intervention in support of, 261, 262, 264
      • Report from Haig on, 328, 331
      • Reports from Kissinger on, 247, 248, 263, 272, 274, 275, 310, 315, 316, 327, 330, 331, 332, 333
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281, 286, 305
      • U.S. military aid and sales, 17
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318
      • WSAG actions on, 274
    • Meeting with Shah Reza Pahlavi, 74
    • Middle East, 3
    • Oman, 87
    • Persian Gulf, 89, 106, 113, 118, 119, 120
    • Saudi-U.S. relations, 139
    • United Arab Republic, 23
    • U.S. commitments to Israel, 327
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 19, 25
    • Visits:
      • Egypt, 1963, 155
      • Europe, Feb.–Mar. 1969, 6
      • Iran, 1972, 32
      • Moscow, May 1972, 68
      • People’s Republic of China, 1972, 32
    • Yemen Arab Republic, 177, 191, 193
    • Yemen PDR–U.S. relations, 174
  • Nixon Doctrine, 46, 57, 59, 61, 139
  • Nkrumah, Kwame, 16
  • Nonaligned Conference, Lusaka, Sept. 1970, 46, 48, 57
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):
    • European role in, 6
    • Israeli military intervention in Jordan, 290, 303, 315
    • Reforger exercise, 318
    • Soviet military presence in the Mediterranean, 11
    • Soviet threat to, 2
    • U.S. actions in response to conflict in Jordan, 317, 323
  • Northrop Corporation, 108, 111, 121, 123, 126, 149, 152
  • Northwest Cape, 46, 49
  • Nowfel, Camille, 131, 132, 151, 155, 161, 191
  • Noyes, James H., 111, 165, 303
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
    • U.S. military aid to Jordan, 326
    • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in Jordan, 317
  • Nuclear energy detection stations, 46
  • Nuclear Proliferation Treaty, 3
  • Nuclear weapons:
    • Indian Ocean as zone free of, 46, 48, 58, 67
    • Introduction into Middle East, 2
    • Soviet use of, 3
  • Nu’man, Ahmad Mohammad, 184, 186
  • Nu’man, Isma’il Sa’id, 171
  • Numeyri, Gaafar, 263, 271, 272, 303, 322, 328
  • Nutter, G. Warren:
    • Desalting, 9
    • Diego Garcia, 40
    • Indian Ocean, 50, 58
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan, 254, 290, 303
    • Middle East, 13
    • Saudi Arabia, 156, 159
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Nyerere, Julius, 41
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 4, 9, 12
  • Oehlert, Benjamin H., Jr., 8
  • Office of Saline Water (OSW), 35
  • Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), 69
  • Oil (see also Arab American Oil Company (ARAMCO); Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)):
    • Arab need for sales of, 23
    • Balance of payments support from U.S. control in Middle East of, 130, 133, 169
    • Corporate producer agreements:
    • Gulf state revenues from, 140
    • Japanese need for, 77, 148
    • Persian Gulf production of, 82
    • Production controls on, 164
    • Revenues from, 94, 140
    • Saudi aid payments in, 148
    • Saudi barter arrangements with Eastern Europe, 133
    • Saudi-U.S. oil relations, 164, 166, 168, 169
    • U.S. purchase from Saudi Arabia of, 131
    • U.S. security interests in Middle East sources of, 2
    • U.S. suppliers of, 168, 169
    • Western European demand for, 148
  • Okhrana, 127
  • Oman (see also Dhofar; Oman subentries under other subjects), 93
    • Assessment of situation in, 36
    • BCCI subsidiary in, 34
    • British military aid and sales to, 198
    • Buraimi dispute, 122
    • Dhofar guerrilla movement, 152, 158
    • India, relations with, 106
    • Iranian influence in, 72
    • Iranian technical aid to, 191
    • Japan, relations, with, 106
    • Jordanian technical aid to, 191
    • Jordanian troops in, 117
    • Oil revenues, 94
    • Pakistan, relations with, 106
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 87, 132, 153, 158, 189
    • Saudi economic and military aid and sales to, 36, 117, 191
    • Saudi role in, U.S. position, 152, 159
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 36
    • UAE, relations with, 87
    • United Kingdom, relations with, 87
    • United States, relations with, 87, 106, 113, 191
    • U.S. arms sales policy toward, 120
    • Yemen PDR–U.S. relations, 194
  • Operation Scrounge, 267
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 169
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (see also Oil), 94, 96, 148, 164, 168
  • Oss, Majid al-, 141
  • Pachachi, Nadhim, 72
  • Packard, David M.:
    • Hijackings, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 42, 50, 58, 59
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • British-U.S. talks on, 249
      • Israeli air strikes on Syrian forces, 290, 291
      • Israeli ground forces in, 297, 299
      • Israeli military intervention in, 303, 307
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 256, 260, 313
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281, 307
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318
    • Middle East military planning, 13
    • Naval force development in Saudi Arabia, 144, 157
    • Prince Fahd’s visit, 130
    • U.S. evaluation of Saudi defense planning, 144
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Paganelli, Robert P., 7
  • Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza:
    • ARAMCO oil offtake, 128
    • Bahrain, 127
    • Gulf islands dispute, 84, 96
      • Compromise proposal, 99
      • Federation of Arab Amirates formation and, 98, 100
      • London formula, 105
      • Saudi role in, 153
    • Iran as U.S. oil supplier, 169
    • Iranian claims on Gulf States, 72
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 254, 259, 260
      • Assessment of, 271, 274
      • Israeli air attacks on Syrian forces, 290, 291
      • Responses to, 256
      • U.S. bases in Iran, 267
    • Middle East neutralization proposal, 189
    • Nixon’s greetings to, 32
    • Saudi-Iranian relations, 160, 161
    • Visit to Washington, Oct. 1969, 74, 132
    • YAR-Iranian relations, 198
  • Pakistan (see also Pakistan and Pakistani subentries under other subjects):
    • Abu Dhabi Air Force arrangements with, 121, 122
    • Bahrain, relations with, 81
    • CENTO, 8, 28, 33
    • Civil war in, 29
    • Desalting, 9
    • Indian Islamic summit role, 10
    • Indo-Pakistani War, 36, 65, 69, 70, 122
    • Oman, relations with, 106
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 28, 57
    • Persian Gulf leadership role for, 122
    • Political situation, 6
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 133
    • U.S. basing arrangements with, 43
    • U.S. military aid and sales, 21
  • Palestine:
    • Red Crescent organization, 239
    • Refugees, 3, 127, 131
    • Saudi policy toward, 151
    • Saudi-U.S. relations as affected by, 133
  • Palestine Liberation Army (see also Fedayeen), 317, 322
  • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):
    • Creation of liberated area in northern Jordan, 263
    • Fatah merger with, 7
    • Islamic summit role of, 10
    • Kuwaiti aid to, 18
    • Meeting in response to Jordan conflict, 248
    • Moroccan aid to, 18
    • PFLP expulsion from, 234
  • Palestinian-Jordanian conflict. See under Jordan.
  • Palestinians, 36
  • Parmenter, William, 58
  • Parsons, Tony, 100, 117, 125
  • Paul VI, Pope, 240
  • Peace Corps, 133, 184, 198
  • Pederson, Richard F., 3, 72, 83
  • Pelletreau, Robert H., 112
  • People’s Republic of China (see also People’s Republic of China subentries under other subjects):
    • Greece, relations with, 151
    • Indian Ocean actions of, 47, 57, 58
    • India, relations with, 65
    • Iran, relations with, 151
    • Italy, relations with, 151
    • Kuwait, relations with, 36
    • Lebanon, relations with, 151
    • Nixon visit (1972), 32
    • Pakistan, relations with, 28, 57
    • Philippines, relations with, 151
    • Sri Lanka, relations with, 151
    • Syria, relations with, 16
    • Tanzania, relations with, 57
    • Turkey, relations with, 151
    • Yemen Arab Republic, relations with, 158
    • Yemen PDR, relations with, 151, 158, 160, 181
  • Peres, Shimon, 239
  • Perim Island, 196
  • Persian Gulf (see also Gulf islands dispute):
    • Arab-Israeli dispute’s effect on, 76, 82
    • British-Iranian talks, 88
    • British-U.S. talks on, 72, 84, 86, 88, 117
    • British views on issues in, 93, 101
    • British withdrawal from, 6
      • Bahraini position, 81
      • British policy on, 98
      • British role following, 93, 117, 120
      • Conservative Party reevaluation of, 85, 93
      • Implementation of, 112
      • Iranian position, 85
      • Leadership roles after, 122
      • Saudi position, 140
      • Soviet response to, 140
      • U.S. planning for, 13, 82, 83, 96
    • CENTO assessment of the situation in, 36
    • CIA views toward, 75, 96, 122
    • Domino theory as applied to, 101
    • Iranian-Arab conflict in, 72, 80
    • Iranian economic aid to states in, 103
    • Iranian views on issues in, 101
    • Iraqi objective in, 88, 122
    • Israeli views on issues in, 101
    • Japanese role in, 83
    • Jordanian role in, 117
    • Jordanian views on issues in, 101
    • Limitations on U.S. action in, 82
    • NATO role in, 83
    • Oil production in, 82
    • Oil settlement, Feb. 1971, 94
    • Palestinian residents of, 82
    • Regional security arrangement proposal, 74
    • Revolutionary movements in, 122
    • Rogers’s visit to, 118
    • Saudi-Iranian cooperation in, 82, 119
    • Saudi policy in, 72, 95, 101
    • Soviet interests in, 82, 88, 96, 101, 116, 122
    • U.S. policy in:
      • Arms sales, 82, 117, 119, 120
      • IG papers on, 76, 82
      • NSDM 92, 91, 102, 113
      • NSSM 66, 73, 89
      • Options for, 89
      • Saudi Arabia as factor in, 158
      • Support for “chosen instrument” in, 82, 89
      • U.S. embassy in Iran views toward, 77
    • U.S. presence in, 82, 83, 89, 101, 122
    • U.S. role in, 24, 99
  • Petromin, 133, 148, 164
  • Phantom fighters, 129, 137, 141, 174
  • Pharaon, Rashid, 127, 151
  • Philippines, 151
  • Pickering, Thomas, 50
  • Podgorny, Nikolai V., 187
  • Political parties:
    • Arab Nationalist Movement (Bahrain), 36, 122
    • Arab Nationalist Movement (Saudi Arabia), 133
    • Arab Socialist Union (UAR), 16
    • Ba’ath (Bahrain), 36, 122
    • Ba’ath (Iraq), 116, 253
    • Ba’ath (Saudi Arabia), 133
    • Ba’ath (Syria), 16
    • Conservative (UK), 85
    • Democratic (U.S.), 291, 318
    • Front for the Liberation of South Yemen (FLOSY), 182
    • Labour (UK), 85
    • National Front (Yemen PDR), 171, 172, 182
    • National Liberation Front (Saudi Arabia), 133
    • National Liberation Front-Bahrain (NLF–B), 36, 122
    • National Unity Front (NUF) (South Yemen), 36, 183, 187, 196
    • Popular Front for Liberation of the Occupied Arab Gulf (PFLOAG), 36, 101, 117, 122
    • Republican (U.S.), 318
    • South Arabian League (SAL) (Yemen PDR), 182
  • Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (see also Fedayeen):
    • Arab support for, 203
    • Arab views toward, 211, 227
    • Demands of hijackers in Jordan:
      • Initial statements, 205, 209
      • Israeli acceptance of prisoner release “in principle,” 243, 245, 246
      • PFLP counter-proposal, 221, 222, 224
      • Release of European-held prisoners, 246
    • Expulsion from PLO, 234
    • Fedayeen views toward, 227
    • ICRC search for valid negotiator from, 324
    • Iraqi collusion with, 229
    • Kuwaiti demonstrations by, 27
    • Lebanese representative as channel, 326
    • Tapline sabotage, 133
    • Tension among hijackers, 225
    • Threat if hostages harmed to, 210, 213, 219
    • Ultimatum to Swiss Government, 202
    • Zayn as intermediary in talks, 277
  • Portugal, 25
  • Pranger, Robert J., 78, 135
    • Hijackings, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 50, 58, 64
    • Jordan:
      • Israeli military intervention in, 290, 303
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 260
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in, 317
    • Persian Gulf, 83
    • Soviet and U.S. naval interests in Indian Ocean, 46
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 22
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Pravda, 264
  • Proctor, Edward, 9, 83
  • Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 127
  • Proxmire, William, 40
  • Qabus bin Taymoor, Sultan, 36, 72
  • Qadhafi, Muammar:
    • Boumediene tensions with, 18
    • Cancelled visit to Yemen, Sept. 1971, 186
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 263, 271, 272, 280
    • Libyan military aid and sales to YAR, 196
    • Mediterranean-area foreign military bases, proposed elimination of, 31
    • Nationalization of BP interests in Libya, 112
    • overthrow of King Idris, 11, 130
  • Qatar (see also Federation of Arab Amirates (FAA); Qatar and Qatari subentries under other subjects):
    • Arab League membership for, 112
    • Assessment of situation in, 36, 117
    • CIA views toward, 122
    • Deposing of ruler of, possible, 113, 122
    • Economic situation, 94
    • As FAA (or UAE) member, 72, 90, 98, 100
    • Independence for, 101, 104, 158
    • Oil company agreements with, 94
    • Oil revenues, 140
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 158
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 36
    • UAE, relations with, 117
    • UN membership for, 91, 98, 112
    • U.S. diplomatic recognition of, 102, 113
  • Qawassim, 72
  • Quemoy, 318
  • Rabin, Yitzhak:
    • British military intervention in Jordan, 288
    • Desalting, 9, 35
    • Hijackings, 215
    • Israeli military intervention in Jordan:
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304, 307, 312
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 260, 262
    • Syrian battles with Jordanian forces, 304, 313
    • U.S. commitments to Israel, 327
    • U.S.-Israeli relations, 3
  • Ramsbotham, Peter, 107
  • Ras al-Khaimah:
    • Delay in joining UAE, 103, 109, 112, 113
    • As FAA member, 72, 98
    • Foreign financial aid to, 122
    • Gulf island dispute, 84, 88, 98, 104, 107, 112
    • Iraqi influence in, 122
    • Request for U.S. support, 109
    • Saudi aid for road building, 158
    • Union with Oman, possible, 122
  • Rashid bin Saeed Al Makhtoum, Shaikh of Dubai, 34, 72, 79, 117
  • Raytheon Corporation:
    • Arms sales to Kuwait, 111, 123
    • Cross-border weapons compatibility, 108
    • Hawk missile program, 152, 162
    • Khashoggi’s association with, 162
    • Saudi Arabian operations of, 133
    • Saudi National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 156, 165, 169
  • Refugees:
  • Reindeer Station Project, 42, 44
  • Richardson, Elliot L., 3, 9, 78, 178
  • Rifai, Zaid:
    • Hijackings, 213
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 311, 316
    • Jordan’s request for field hospitals, 270
    • Request for U.S./Israeli/British military intervention, 281, 282, 307
    • UNSC meeting on Jordan crisis, 276
  • Robinson, Adm. R.C., 260, 264, 303
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
    • U.S. military aid to Jordan, 326
    • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in Jordan, 317
  • Rochat, Andre:
    • Arrival in Amman of, 209
    • Departure from Jordan of, 239, 244
    • Extension of hijackers’ deadline, 215, 216, 218
    • First round of talks by, 213, 214
    • ICRC convoy stopped by fedayeen, 230
    • PFLP counter-proposal, 221, 224
    • Tension among hijackers, 225
  • Rockefeller, Nelson A., 23
  • Rockefeller Foundation, 198
  • Rockwell, Stuart W., 72
  • Rodman, Peter W., 76, 83, 89, 312, 317
  • Rogers, William P., 135, 276, 324
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 1, 15, 18
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • British arms sales to South Africa, 53
    • CENTO, 21, 32, 33
    • Desalting, 5, 14
    • Diego Garcia, 37
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 98
    • Gulf islands dispute, 105
    • Hijackings:
      • Appeal for intercession by Arab states, 211, 213
      • Conversations with Kissinger on, 227, 231
      • Meetings with Nixon on, 209
      • Meeting with ambassadors on prisoner release, 207, 234
      • Passengers removed to hotels, 231
    • Indian Ocean, 41, 42, 54
      • As area free of major-power competition, 55, 57, 58, 62, 68
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 307
    • Jordan:
      • Hussein’s request for military intervention, 285
      • Hussein strike against fedayeen, possible, 217
      • Israeli air strikes on Syrian forces, 287, 318
      • Israeli ground forces in, 292, 293, 294, 295, 298, 299, 300
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 256, 257, 258, 260, 261
      • Messages to Soviets on, 311
      • Soviet views on conflict in, 272
      • Statement to Hussein, 280
      • Syrian military intervention in, 275, 276
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318
    • Middle East, 3
    • Oman, 106
    • Persian Gulf, 72, 86, 91, 113, 120
    • Saudi Arabia:
      • National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 165, 167
      • Naval force development in, 157
      • Prince Fahd’s visit, 130, 131, 134
      • Sultan visit to United States, June 1972, 161
      • United States, relations with, 136, 168
    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 106
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 19, 26
    • Visits:
      • Egypt, Saudi Arabia, May 1971, 149, 159, 184
      • Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, July 1972, 117, 118
      • Yemen, July 1972, 193
    • Yemen Arab Republic, 173, 178, 184, 189
    • Yemen People’s Democratic Republic, 175
  • Rohan, Denis Michael, 10
  • Romania, 133
  • Rosier, Air Marshall Frederick, 6
  • Rostow, Eugene, 83
  • Rubayya’, Salim, 172, 176
  • Ruiz, Aldelmo, 198
  • Rush, Kenneth, 167
  • Russell, Richard, 39, 299, 303
  • Sabah al-Salem al Sabah, Emir, 72, 116, 140
  • Sabbaugh, Isa, 151
  • Sa’d al-’Abdullah al-Salim al Sabah, Shaykh, 108, 121, 123
  • Sadat, Anwar:
    • Anti-Soviet actions of, 31
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 153
    • Saudi-Egyptian relations, 153, 160, 161, 189
    • Suez Canal, 155
  • Sa’id bin Taymoor, Sultan of Oman, 87, 122
  • Saint George, Rear Adm. William, 50, 58
  • Saiqah, 272
  • Saladin, 253
  • Sansom, Robert, 50
  • Saqqaf, Sayyid Omar:
    • Abu Dhabi-Saudi Arabia territorial dispute, 125
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 99
    • Iranian claims on Bahrain, 127
    • Prince Fahd’s visit to United States, 131, 132
    • Saudi military planning against Yemen People’s Democratic Republic, 147
    • U.S. arms sales to Israel, 141
    • U.S. military aid and sales to YAR, 197
    • Yemen PDR, 181, 183, 188
  • Saqr bin Mohammed al Qassimi, Sheikh of Ras al-Khaimah, 113
  • Saragat, Giuseppe, 226
  • Saudi Arabia (see also Saudi Arabia and Saudi subentries under other subjects):
    • Abu Dhabi, territorial dispute with, 36, 88, 93, 95, 122, 125, 158, 159, 191
    • Algeria, relations with, 140
    • Arabian Peninsula role of, 158
    • Bahrain, relations with, 81, 99
    • British military training and sales to, 133, 137, 156, 162, 165
    • Communism in, 161
    • Country Policy Statement on, 133, 135
    • Defense planning by, 142, 144, 152
    • Eastern Europe oil barter arrangements with, 133
    • Economic situation, 128, 131, 133, 140, 152
    • Emergency relief for Jordan via, 332, 333
    • Ethiopia, relations with, 133
    • Fedayeen funded by, 7
    • France, trade with, 140
    • French military training and sales to, 133, 137, 162, 165
    • Internal development in, 131, 133, 140, 148, 149
    • Internal security situation:
      • Iranian position, 135
      • Moroccan position, 135
      • Prospects for the post-Faisal era, 146, 153
      • U.S. position, 133, 135, 146
    • Iran, relations with:
      • Bahrain claim by Iran, 127
      • Joint military aid and sales to Yemen, 189
      • Obstacles in, 76, 82, 140
      • Saudi position, 132, 160
      • U.S. position, 96, 159, 161
      • Zahedi-Faisal talks, 88
    • Iraq, relations with, 181
    • Japanese role in, 83
    • Jerusalem’s status, 127, 133, 147, 149, 151
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 264, 274
    • Kuwait, relations with, 161
    • Military situation:
    • NIE: “The Outlook for Saudi Arabia,” 140
    • Oil company agreements with, 94, 148, 164
    • Oman, relations with, 87, 133, 152, 158, 189
    • Pakistan, relations with, 133
    • Palestinian residents of, 147
    • Persian Gulf leadership role for, 122
    • PFLP sabotage of Tapline, 133
    • Policy Analysis and Recommended Action (PARA) paper on, 152, 158
    • Political situation, 133
    • Post-Faisal regime prospects, 153
    • Qatar, relations with, 158
    • Regionalism in, 133
    • Spanish military sales to, 165
    • Succession question, 153
    • Syria, relations with, 181
    • UAE, relations with, 133, 158, 191
    • UAR, relations with, 153, 159, 160, 161
    • UAR airdrop of weapons to rebels in, 1964, 161
    • United Kingdom, relations with, 86
    • United States, relations with:
    • U.S. economic aid to, 133, 152
    • U.S. military aid and sales to, 135
      • Aircraft purchases, 137, 152
      • Ex-Im Bank financing, 145, 163
      • Payment equalization for weapons purchases, 131, 136
    • U.S. military presence in, 82
    • U.S. Military Training Mission in, 133
    • U.S. policy on, 133, 152
    • Yemen Arab Republic, relations with, 117, 179, 180
    • Yemen People’s Democratic Republic, relations with, 133
      • Saudi military planning, 140, 147
      • U.S. position, 171, 181
      • Wadia attack, 137
      • Yemen PDR position, 171
  • Saud ibn Abdul Aziz ibn Abd al- Rahman Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia, 161, 165
  • Saunders, Harold H., 54, 202
    • CENTO, 6, 21, 107
    • Desalting, 9, 12
    • Diego Garcia, 38, 52
    • Fahd’s visits to United States, 132, 134, 155
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 98, 99
    • Gulf islands dispute, 98
    • Hijackings, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 48, 50, 58, 70
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • Israeli air strikes on Syrian forces, 290
      • Israeli military intervention in, 303
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 260
      • Soviet military intervention in, U.S. strategies for deterrence of, 317
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 264, 267
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 322
    • Lebanon, 326
    • Middle East, 2, 3
    • Nixon’s oral message to King Faisal, 143
    • Persian Gulf, 72, 76, 83, 89, 93, 118
    • Saudi aircraft purchases, 149
    • Saudi-Iranian relations, 189
    • Saudi-Jordanian relations, 189
    • Sultan’s visit to United States, June 1972, 159, 160
    • U.S. commitments to Israel, 327
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 22
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
    • U.S.-Saudi oil relations, 168
    • Yemen-Saudi relations, 180
  • SAVAK, 72
  • Scandinavia, 83
  • Scheel, Alex, 313
  • Schiff, Stanley D., 28, 29, 68, 152
  • Schlesinger, James, 9, 58
  • Schneider, David, 56
  • Scotes, Thomas J., 124, 211, 234, 243, 244, 271
  • Scott, Hugh, 291
  • Seaborg, Glen T., 5, 14
  • Seelye, Talcott W., 200, 201, 208, 211, 234, 237, 243, 244, 245, 249, 268, 271, 279, 321, 324, 329
    • Israeli military intervention in Jordan, 303
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Lebanon, 326
    • Syrian military intervention in Jordan, 281
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
    • U.S. military aid to Jordan, 326
    • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in Jordan, 317
  • Selassie, Haile, 31
  • Selden, Armistead I., Jr., 61, 69, 114, 157
  • Senate, U.S.:
    • Baker Resolution, 4
    • Case Resolution, 118
    • Foreign Relations Committee, 4, 113, 157
  • Senior Review Group meetings:
    • Sept. 23, 1969, 9
    • May 21, 1970, 22
    • June 5, 1970, 83
    • Nov. 26, 1970 (cancelled), 91
    • Dec. 9, 1970, 50
    • Apr. 22, 1971, 56, 58, 59
    • Aug. 11, 1971, 59
    • Oct. 6, 1971, 59, 61, 64
  • Seychelles, 36, 37, 43, 52
  • Shaabi, Faisal Abd al-Latif al-, 172
  • Sha’abi, Qahtan Mohammed al-, 171, 172, 174
  • Shakespeare, Frank, 9, 22, 83, 91, 159, 261
  • Sharaf, Abdul Hamid, 18, 211, 234
  • Sharjah, 36, 72
    • Assassination of ruler, 113
    • As FAA (or UAE) member, 72, 98
    • Fujairah fight over farmland with, 122
    • Gulf island dispute, 84, 88, 98, 104, 107, 112
    • Saudi aid for road building, 158
  • Sharm el-Sheikh, 151
  • Shatt al-Arab dispute, 82
  • Ship submersible ballistic nuclear (SSBN) submarines, 59, 61, 69
  • Shultz, George, 120
  • Sieverts, Frank, 326
  • Sikes, Robert L.F., 39
  • Simonstown Agreement, 41
  • Sinai Peninsula, 2
  • Singapore, 41, 46, 50, 57
  • Singh, Dinesh, 38
  • Sirri Island, 72
  • Sisco, Joseph J., 7, 79, 104, 130, 138, 139, 205, 210, 211, 219, 220, 234, 236, 243, 244, 271, 276, 277, 324, 329
    • Abu Dhabi-Saudi Arabia territorial dispute, 125
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 15, 118
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Bahrain, 81
    • CENTO, 21, 29, 33
    • Diego Garcia, 37
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 97, 100
    • Hijackings, 232, 233
      • Briefing of Rabin on, 215
      • British-U.S. talks on, 245, 254, 255
      • Meetings with Nixon on, 209
      • PFLP offers on prisoner exchange, 267
      • UN humanitarian presence at hostage sites, 223
      • Washington Special Actions Group meetings on, 214, 222
    • Indian Ocean, 50, 68
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 301, 302, 304, 307
    • Jordan:
      • British-U.S talks on, 249
      • Hussein’s request for military intervention, 285
      • Israeli military intervention in:
        • Air strikes on Syrian forces, 283, 286, 287, 290
        • Ground forces, 292, 293, 295, 297, 299
        • Hussein’s reaction to Israeli ground forces, 300, 302
        • Israeli-U.S. discussions on, 301, 302
        • Soviet messages on, 307
        • U.S. as intermediary, 314
        • U.S. questions for Hussein on, 309
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 256, 260, 313
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281, 307
      • U.S. military aid and sales, 17
      • Withdrawal of Syrian forces from, 318
    • Kuwait, 78
    • Middle East, 3
    • Oman, 191
    • Persian Gulf, 72, 84, 88, 91, 93, 116
    • Ras al-Khaimah, 109
    • Release of AID workers, 192
    • Saudi Arabia:
      • Country Policy Statement on, 133
      • Ex-Im Bank financing for military purchases, 163
      • Internal security situation, 135
      • King Faisal’s visit to United States, May 1971, 151
      • National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 156, 165
      • Naval force development in, 145
      • Prince Fahd’s visits to United States, 131, 155
      • Sultan’s visit to United States, June 1972, 161, 191
      • United States, relations with, 136
    • U.S. commitments to Israel, 327
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 26
    • Yemen Arab Republic, 184, 191
    • Yemen People’s Democratic Republic, 171, 175, 181
  • Six-day War, June 1967, 133
  • Smith, Gerard, 70
  • Smith, K. Wayne, 54
  • Smith, R. Jack, 22
  • Smith, Walter B., II, 84, 223, 266
  • Sober, Sidney, 8
  • Socotra Island, 61, 181
  • Somalia, 31, 36, 52
  • Sonnenfeldt, Helmut, 54
    • British arms sales to South Africa, 53
    • Indian Ocean, 50, 58, 59, 61, 70
    • Jordan, 265, 273
    • Moscow summit agenda items for, 70
    • Persian Gulf, 100
    • U.S. Mediterranean policy, 22
  • South Africa:
    • Arms embargo against, 53
    • British arms sales to, 41, 45, 53, 57
    • British base agreement, 41
    • Indian Ocean role of, 42, 50
    • U.S. aircraft sales to, 318
    • U.S. military cooperation with, 46
    • U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
  • South Arabia, Federation of (see also Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of), 140
  • Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 46, 50, 161
  • South Yemen, People’s Republic of. See Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of.
  • Soviet Union (see also Soviet and Soviet Union subentries under other subjects):
    • Algeria, relations with, 20
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Bahrain, relations with, 36, 81
    • Kuwait, relations with, 36
    • Libya, relations with, 20
    • Mediterranean military presence, 11
    • Middle East covert activity of, 31
    • Morocco, relations with, 20
    • Naval policy, 47, 50, 51
    • Oman, relations with, 36
    • Qatar, relations with, 36
    • Strategic force increase, 58
    • Tunisia, relations with, 20
    • UAE, relations with, 116, 125, 158
    • U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
    • Yemen Arab Republic, relations with, 187
    • Yemen People’s Democratic Republic, relations with, 172
  • Sowayel, Ibrahim Abd Allah al-, 131, 132, 151, 161, 164, 191
  • Spain, 262
    • Alliance with Portugal and Morocco, proposed, 25
    • Military capabilities of, 26
    • Saudi arms purchases from, 165
    • United States, relations with, 24
    • U.S. base agreement with, 318
  • Spain, James W., 8
  • Special National Intelligence Estimates:
    • 34–70 “Iran’s International Position,” 96
    • 36.7–71 “South Yemen,” 182
  • Spiers, Ronald I., 13, 37, 58, 61, 139
  • Springsteen, George, 323
  • Sri Lanka:
    • Indian Ocean, 36
    • Indo-Pakistani War (1971), 65
    • Peace zone resolution of, 48, 55, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 68, 69
    • People’s Republic of China policy toward, 58
    • Rebellion in, 32
    • Rogers’s visit to, 117
    • Soviet policy toward, 58
    • U.S. basing arrangements with, 43
    • U.S. opening of Diego Garcia facility, 52
  • Stackhouse, Heywood, 124, 306
  • Stalin, Joseph, 20
  • Standard Oil of California, 169
  • Standard Oil of New Jersey, 169
  • Stans, Maurice H., 150
  • Stein, Robert A., 8, 188, 190, 192
  • Stennis, John, 303
  • Stewart, Michael, 21, 38
  • Stoddart, Jonathan D., 71
  • Stoessel, Walter J., Jr., 71
  • Stoltzfus, William A.:
    • As ambassador to Gulf states, 113
    • Kuwaiti aircraft purchases, 123, 124, 126
    • Saudi support of Yemen PDR rebels, 179
    • Saudi-UAR relations, 191
    • U.S. military aid and sales to Israel, 129
  • Straits of Tiran, 127, 133
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), 58, 68
  • Strauss, Lewis, 4
  • Strausz-Hupe, Robert, 56, 59
  • Sudan, 31, 130, 151, 193, 280
  • Suez Canal:
    • Attacks on Israel across, possible, 247, 265, 301
    • Closure of, 94
    • Freedom of navigation through, 127
    • Implications for, 30
    • Reopening of:
      • Prospects for, 13
      • Saudi position, 151
      • Soviet navy as affected by, 46, 50
      • UAR position, 155
  • Sukarno, 16
  • Sultan ibn Abd al-Aziz al Saud, Prince:
    • Abu Dhabi-Saudi territorial dispute, 159, 191
    • Aircraft purchases, 137, 149, 152
    • Kuwaiti arms purchases, 126
    • National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 156, 162, 165
    • Naval force development, 136, 142, 144, 157
    • Oman, 117
    • Saudi military planning against Yemen People’s Democratic Republic, 147
    • Throckmorton visit to Saudi Arabia, 130
    • U.S. evaluation of Saudi defense planning, 144
    • Visits:
    • Yemen Arab Republic, 191, 195, 197
    • Yemen PDR, 182, 183, 188
  • Supersonic Transport (SST), 58
  • Surge capabilities, 69
  • Sutherland, Peter A., 208
  • Suweidi, Ahmad, 79
  • Swinkel, Rudolph, 241
  • Switzerland:
    • Bern meeting on PFLP counterproposal, 222, 224
    • Common front against hijackers, efforts toward, 213, 216, 233, 267
    • Palestinian prisoners in, 202, 203
  • Symington, Stuart, 39
  • Symmmes, Harrison M., 246
  • Syria (see also Syria and Syrian subheading under other subjects):
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Cairo Agreement, Sept. 27, 1970, 332
    • Islamic summit, 10
    • Israeli military intervention in:
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 16
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 181
    • Soviet influence in, 2, 22
    • Tapline transit fee increases, 148
    • United Kingdom, relations with, 110
    • U.S. plan to overthrow Government of, 127
  • Tanzania, 57
  • Tariq bin-Timur al-Said, 87
  • Tasca, Henry J., 26
  • TASS, 264, 304
  • Texaco, 169
  • Thacher, Nicholas G., 131
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 97
    • Persian Gulf, 88
    • Saudi Arabia:
      • Aircraft purchases, 152
      • Military manpower deficit, 159
      • National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 156, 162, 165, 167
      • Naval force development in, 145, 157
      • Nixon’s oral message to King Faisal, 143
    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 104
    • Yemen Arab Republic, 195, 197
    • Yemen PDR, 171, 188, 194
  • Thant, U, 223
  • Thomson, John, 45, 50, 51, 72
  • Thornton, Thomas P., 22, 58, 61, 93
  • Thowaini, Maj. Gen. Abdul-Latif al-, 108
  • Throckmorton, Gen. John, 43, 130, 222
  • Thurmond, Strom, 39
  • Tito, Josip Broz, 3
  • Tobin, Irwin M., 187
  • Tokyo Convention on Offenses and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, Sept. 1963, 200
  • Tomkins, Edward, 72
  • Towel Co., 34
  • Trans-Arabian Pipeline (Tapline), 94, 133, 142, 148
  • Treasury, U.S. Department of, 133
  • Trinka, Frank, 268
  • Trucial Oman Scouts, 72, 86, 93, 97, 98
  • Trucial States. See Federation of Arab Amirates (FAA); United Arab Emirates (UAE).
  • Trucial States Development Council, 97
  • Trudeau, Pierre Elliott, 6
  • Tunb Islands dispute (see also Gulf islands dispute):
    • British-Iranian agreement in, 107
    • British-U.S. talks on, 72, 84, 93
    • Iranian occupation, 110, 112, 122
    • Iranian position, 86, 98
    • Kuwaiti position, 80
    • U.S. position, 88, 95, 96
  • Tunisia:
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Arab summit on Jordan conflict, Sept. 1970, 280, 312
    • Cairo Agreement, Sept. 27, 1970, 332
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 20
    • United States, relations with, 26, 141
  • Tural, Gen. Cemal, 6
  • Turkey:
    • CENTO, 8, 33
    • Hijackings, 212, 213, 215, 222
    • Iraq, relations with, 3
    • Jordanian conflict with Palestinians, 254, 264, 267, 274
    • NATO membership for, 6
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 151
    • Soviet influence in Middle East, 2
    • U.S. alliance with, importance of, 22
    • U.S. security interests in, 2, 313
  • Turki bin Abdul Aziz, Prince, 142
  • Twinam, Joseph W., 88, 93, 104, 109, 111, 112, 115, 117, 125
  • Udapai, 61
  • Umm al-Qiwain, 72, 90, 98, 107, 122
  • UNIDO, 28
  • United Arab Emirates (UAE) (see also Federation of Arab Amirates (FAA); individual emirates; United Arab Emirates and UAE subentries under other subjects):
    • Agreement on establishment of, 36, 103
      • Iranian position, 104
      • Saudi position, 104
      • U.S. position, 104
    • Arab League membership for, 112
    • Assessment of situation in, 36
    • BCCI established in, 31
    • Breakup of, potential, 122
    • British post-withdrawal role in, 93, 117
    • CIA views toward, 122
    • Iran, relations with, 36, 122
    • Japanese technical aid to, 83
    • Oman, relations with, 87
    • Qatar, relations with, 117
    • Ras al-Khaimah’s delay in joining, 103, 109, 112, 113
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 158, 191
    • Seven-state agreement on formation of, 103
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 116, 125, 158
    • UN membership for, 112
    • U.S. diplomatic recognition of, 102, 113
    • U.S. military sales to, 115, 163, 197
  • United Arab Republic (UAR) (see also United Arab Republic and UAR subheadings under other subjects):
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 127
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Bahraini independence, 102
    • Communist influence on, 151
    • Death of Nasser, 334
    • Israeli attacks on, 141, 299
    • Israeli settlement with, 2
    • Kuwaiti economic aid to, 16, 18
    • Kuwaiti Khartoum agreement subsidies to, 94
    • Libyan economic aid to, 16
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 153, 159, 160, 161, 189
    • Saudi economic aid to, 16, 18
    • Saudi Khartoum agreement subsidies to, 94, 140, 148
    • Saudi-Yemen PDR border clashes, 176
    • Soviet air missions over, 23
    • Soviet influence in, 2, 16
    • Soviet military aid and sales, 20
    • United States, relations with, 106, 151
    • Yemen-U.S. relations and, 191
    • Yugoslavia, relations with, 3
  • United Bank (Pakistan), 34
  • United Kingdom (UK) (see also British subheading under other subjects):
    • Base agreement with South Africa, 41
    • Bern meeting on PFLP counterproposal, 222, 224
    • CENTO’s changing role, 8
    • Common front against hijackers, efforts toward, 213, 216, 235, 267
    • Indian ocean role of, 45, 50, 51
    • Iran, relations with, 99, 101
    • Iraq, relations with, 110, 112
    • Oman, relations with, 87
    • Persian Gulf role of, 93
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 86
    • Syria, relations with, 110
  • United Nations (UN):
    • Indian Ocean as area free of major-power competition, 58, 61, 62, 65, 67
      • Iranian claims on Gulf states, 72, 74
      • Saudi-Yemen PDR border clashes, 175
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 184, 193, 198
  • United Nations Security Council (UNSC):
    • Hijackings:
      • British position, 206
      • Resolution in opposition to, 218, 219
      • U.S. requests for meetings on, 216
    • Jordan:
      • Call for Syrian withdrawal, 290, 307
      • Cancellation of meeting on, 313
      • Hussein’s request for meeting on, 282
      • Israeli military intervention in, 303
      • U.S. reluctance to call for meeting on Syrian intervention, 274, 275
      • U.S. veto of anti-Israel resolutions over, 315
    • Lebanese resolutions, 118
    • Persian Gulf islands dispute, 110
    • Resolution 242, 3, 7, 78, 118, 170
    • Resolution 278, 1970, 81
    • Resolution of Nov. 22, 1967 in support of Israel, 16, 266, 272
  • Urwick, Alan, 72
  • Vaccaro, Albert A., 208
  • Vakil, Mehdi, 72
  • Van Hollen, Christopher, 28, 58, 61, 83
  • Veliotes, Nicholas, 164
  • Venezuela, 96, 164, 168
  • Viet Cong, 258
  • Vietnam, Democratic Republic of, 68
  • Vietnam War, 15, 21
  • Vogt, Lt. Gen. John W.:
    • Hijackings, 222
    • Israeli military intervention in Syria, 304
    • Jordan:
      • Israeli military intervention in, 290, 303
      • Jordanian army’s move against Palestinians, 254, 260
      • Syrian military intervention in, 281
      • U.S. military aid to, 326
      • U.S. military intervention in, 267
      • U.S. strategies for deterring Soviet intervention in, 317
    • U.S. military aid to Israel, 312
  • Voice of America (VOA), 83
  • Volpe, John A., 209
  • Vorontsov, Yuri:
    • Israeli military intervention in Jordan, 266, 272, 273, 286
    • Palestinian conflict with Jordan, 220, 256
    • Soviet role in Jordan crisis, 267, 307, 317
  • Wahl, Theodore A., 334
  • Walker, Charles, 61
  • Walsh, John P.:
    • Federation of Arab Amirates, 97
    • Plebiscites on union with Iran, 72
    • PLFP demonstrations, 27
    • U.S. arms sales to Kuwait, 78, 108, 111
  • Wampler, Mary, 28
  • Ware, Richard A., 22
  • Warner, Richard E., 56
  • Washington Special Actions Group:
  • Water development programs. See Desalting.
  • Water for Peace program, 9
  • Watts, William, 72
  • Welander, Rear Adm. Robert O., 61
  • West Bank, 235
  • Western European oil demand, 148
  • Wheeler, Gen. Earle G., 1, 3, 6, 19
  • Wheelock, John T., 251
  • Wheelus Air Force Base, 13, 22, 313
  • White, Alfred D., 321
  • Wilford, Michael, 72
  • Wilson, Harold, 85
  • Winspeare Guicciardi, Vittorio, 81
  • Woods, George, 4, 12
  • World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU), 31
  • Wrampelmeier, Brooks, 130, 138, 145, 156, 158, 161, 163, 183
    • Kuwaiti arms purchases, 114
    • Saudi National Guard reorganization and reequipment, 165
  • Wright, Denis, 72, 84, 85
  • Yamani, Shaikh Ahmad Zaki, 128, 164, 166, 168, 169
  • Yemen, Mutawakkilite Kingdom of. See Yemen Arab Republic.
  • Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of (see also South Arabia, Federation of; Yemen People’s Democratic Republic and Yemen PDR subentries under other subjects):
    • Arab Summit, Dec. 1969, 18
    • Attacks on other Arabian Peninsula nations by, 159
    • British withdrawal from, 1967, 182
    • German Democratic Republic’s economic aid to, 182
    • Iraqi military aid and sales to, 182
    • Kuwait, relations with, 116
    • Leftist coup, June 1969, 172
    • National Union Front, 181
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 151, 158, 160, 181
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 133
    • Saudi border clashes:
    • Saudi military aid and sales to rebels in, 152, 153, 179, 181
      • U.S. position, 188
    • Saudi military planning against, 140, 147
    • Saudi opposition to, 36
    • Saudi policy toward, 182
    • Saudi support for dissidents in, 35
    • Soviet influence in, 2
    • Soviet military aid and sales to, 118, 137
    • Soviet naval bases in, 47
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 158, 160, 172
    • Special National Intelligence Estimate on, 182
    • Syrian aid to, 182
    • United States, relations with:
      • AID boxes used in arms shipments to rebels, 171, 183
      • Breaking of, 174
      • Resumption of, 194
      • U.S. position, 171
      • Yemen PDR position, 171
    • YAR unity talks with, 36, 197
    • Yemen Arab Republic as threatened by, 193
  • Yemen Arab Republic (see also Yemen Arab Republic and YAR subentries under other subjects):
    • Arab summit on Jordan conflict, 280
    • British military aid and sales to, 198
    • Civil war:
      • Saudi position, 127, 133
      • Saudi role in ending of, 158
      • Saudi support for royalists in, 140, 177
      • UAR-Saudi conflict over, 177
      • U.S. position, 177
    • France, relations with, 170
    • Iran, relations with, 198
    • Kuwaiti economic aid to, 190
    • Libyan military aid and sales to, 193, 196
    • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 158, 180
    • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 117, 179, 180
    • Saudi economic and military aid and sales to, 99, 148, 185, 192, 195
    • Soviet-PRC conflict in, 117
    • Soviet economic aid to, 180
    • Soviet influence in, 2
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 187, 196
    • UAR military aid and sales to, 196
    • UAR military intervention and withdrawal from, 118, 161
    • UAR-Saudi dispute over, resolution of, 7
    • United States, relations with, 149, 158
      • Release of AID workers, 192
      • Resumption of, 184, 185, 191, 198
      • Rogers-Barakat meeting, 173
      • Rogers’s visit, July 1972, 118, 193
      • U.S. special-interest section established, 178, 180
    • U.S. economic aid to, 118, 152, 177, 184, 190, 191, 198
    • U.S. military aid and sales to, 197
    • U.S. policy toward, 184
    • Yemen PDR, relations with:
      • NUF cross-border activities, 187
      • Saudi military aid and sales to YAR, 195
      • As security threat, 182, 193
      • Sheikh’s assassination by YAR tribes, 188
      • Threat of war, 196
      • Unity talks, 36, 197
      • U.S.–YAR relations as issue in, 194
  • Yost, Charles W., 3, 313, 325
  • Yugoslavia, 3
  • Zahedi, Ardeshir:
    • British-Iranian relations, 101
    • CENTO officials’ meetings with Nixon, 21
    • Kuwaiti-Iranian relations, 80
    • Persian Gulf islands dispute, 84
    • Saudi-Iranian relations, 88
    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 104
  • Zais, Lt. Gen. Melvin, 214, 222, 254, 264
  • Zayid bin Sultan al-Nuhayan, Shaikh of Abu Dhabi:
    • Assassination of Sharjah ruler, 113
    • Bahraini membership in FAA/UAE, 79
    • As BCCI shareholder, 34
    • Buraimi dispute, 72
    • Conflicts with other UAE rulers, 122
    • Foreign policy failings of, 117
    • Iran-UAE relations, 36, 122
    • Saudi territorial dispute, 122, 125
    • Saudi-UAE relations, 191
    • Soviet-UAE relations, 116, 158
    • As UAE president, 103, 122
    • U.S. arms sales to UAE, 115, 197
  • Ziegler, Ron, 214
    • Hijackings, 222, 256, 257
    • Israeli military intervention in Jordan, 299, 303
    • Jordan’s conflict with Palestinians, 254, 264, 267
    • Syrian military intervention in Jordan, 281
  • Zionism, 127, 147, 149, 151, 159, 170
  • Zumwalt, Adm. Elmo R., 56
  • Zurhellen, J. Owen, Jr., 254, 278