Learn about the beta

Middle East Region


1. National Security Study Memorandum 2

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–126, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 2. Secret.


2. Paper Prepared by the Interdepartmental Group for Near East and South Asia

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–020, NSC Meetings, Briefing by Joint Staff: SOIP, 2/4/69. Secret. This paper was prepared in response to NSSM 2, Document 1. A January 24 version of this paper is in the National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–020, NSC Meetings, Middle East, 2/1/69. Saunders’s comments on the paper, sent in a January 23 memorandum to the chairman of the IG, are ibid., NSC Files, Box 1233, Saunders Files, Basic Policy, Middle East, 1/20/69– 12/31/69.


3. Minutes of a National Security Council Meeting

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–109, NSC Meeting Minutes, NSC Minutes Originals 1969. Top Secret. Drafted by Saunders on May 1. According to an undated draft of the minutes, the meeting was held from 9:35 to 11:55 a.m. (Ibid., Box H–120, NSC Draft Minutes, NSC Meeting—February 1, 1969) All brackets are in the original.


4. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–141, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 30. Secret; Exdis. Printed from an uninitialed copy.


5. National Security Study Memorandum 30

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–141, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 30. Secret; Exdis. Copies were sent to Mayo and DuBridge.


6. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1234, Saunders Files, CENTO 1/20/69–12/31/69. Confidential. Drafted by Saunders on April 11. According to the President’s Daily Diary, the meeting lasted from 10:51 to 11:15 a.m. (Ibid., White House Central Files) On March 17, Kissinger had recommended to Nixon that he meet with CENTO officials because “Our real policy toward CENTO is to keep it going until these countries are ready for something to replace it. The patterns of cooperation built up within CENTO have blossomed modestly into broader relationships in the field of communication, politics and investigation of complementary economic projects. Everyone knows CENTO itself is not a vital organization, but everyone also recognizes that Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf sheikhdoms, Jordan and even Israel clandestinely are groping for some new relationship in the region which would be meaningful for them in the face of British withdrawal from the Persian Gulf, increased Soviet activity and radicalization of some Arab governments.” (Ibid., Box 212, Agency Files, CENTO)


7. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassies in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Libya

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 629, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Vol. I. Secret. Drafted by Robert P. Paganelli (NEA/ARN); cleared in NEA/ARN, AF/N, and NEA/ARP; and approved by Sisco. It was repeated to Algiers, Amman, Beirut, Cairo, Jerusalem, London, Rabat, Tel Aviv, Tunis, and USUN.


8. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Pakistan

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967–69, DEF 4 CENTO. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by Stein, Sidney Sober (NEA/RA), and James W. Spain (NEA/PAF); cleared by Brown (S/S); and approved by Sisco. It was repeated to Ankara, London, and Tehran.


9. Minutes of a Review Group Meeting

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–111, Senior Review Group, SRG Minutes Originals 1969. Secret; Exdis. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room. The minutes were reviewed and approved by Kissinger. (Memorandum from Davis to Kissinger, September 25; ibid.) Prior to the Review Group meeting, Saunders prepared Talking Points and a Draft Issues Paper for Kissinger to send to Nixon. Saunders then recommended the Basic Paper, “Desalting in the Middle East,” to Kissinger. (Memorandum from Saunders to Kissinger, September 17; ibid., Box H–039, Review Group Mid-East Water 9/23/69)


10. Intelligence Note From the Deputy Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (Denny) to Acting Secretary of State Richardson

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967–69, POL 13–6. Confidential; No Foreign Dissem; Controlled Dissem.


11. Telegram From the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to the Departments of State and Defense

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 275, Agency Files, President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Vol. II. Secret; Limdis; Noforn. It was repeated to USDOCOSOUTH, USNMR SHAPE, CINCEUR, Ankara, Athens, Rome, Paris, London, the White House, COMSIXTHFLT for Vice Admiral Richardson, and USDOCOLANDSOUTHEAST for General Harrel.


12. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–141, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 30. Confidential; Exdis. Sent for action. A handwritten notation on the memorandum indicates the President approved it and a stamped notation indicates it was returned on October 23.


13. Letter From the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (Johnson) to the Deputy Secretary of Defense (Packard)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1251, Saunders Files, Basic Policy—Middle East 1/1/70–12/31/70. Secret. A copy was sent to Kissinger.


14. National Security Decision Memorandum 32

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–212, National Security Decision Memoranda, NSDM 32. Confidential; Exdis. Copies were sent to Mayo and DuBridge.


16. Airgram From the Department of State to the Embassy in the Soviet Union

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967–69, POL NEAR E–USSR. Secret; Limdis. Drafted by G. Norman Anderson (EUR/SOV); cleared in EUR, EUR/SOV, NEA/IAI, NEA/ARN, NEA/ARP, NEA/UAR, INR/RNA, INR/RSE, and by Sisco; and approved by Adolph Dubs (EUR/SOV). It was repeated to Algiers, Amman, Beirut, Kuwait, Paris, Cairo, Khartoum, London, Jidda, Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Tripoli, USUN, and the Mission to NATO.


17. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 644, Country Files, Middle East, General, Vol. II. Secret. Sent for information. A stamped notation on the memorandum indicates that the President saw it.


18. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs (Sisco) to Secretary of State Rogers

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 7 ARAB. Secret; Exdis. Sent for information. Drafted by Wrampelmeier and cleared in NEA, NEA/ARP, NEA/IAI, NEA/ARN, NEA/UAR, AF/N, and EUR/SOV. It was transmitted to Kissinger with a January 7 covering memorandum from Eliot.


19. National Security Study Memorandum 90

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–170, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 90. Secret; Nodis. A copy was sent to the Chairman of the JCS. The date is handwritten at the top of the first page.


20. National Intelligence Estimate

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–044, Senior Review Group Meetings, Review Group NSSM 90 5/21/70. Secret. The Central Intelligence Agency and the intelligence organizations of the Departments of State, Defense, and NSA participated in the preparation of this estimate. The Director of the CIA submitted this estimate with the concurrence of all members of the USIB with the exception of the representatives of the AEC and FBI who abstained on the grounds that it was outside their jurisdiction. This NIE is partially based on the undated paper, “DIA Assessment of the Soviet Threat in the Mediterranean.” (Ibid., Box H–170, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 90)


21. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, CENTO 3 US (WA). Secret. The meeting occurred in the White House Cabinet Room. Background information on the meeting, biographical information, lists of attendees, and Talking Points are in a May 13 memorandum from Rogers to Nixon (ibid.), and in a May 14 memorandum from Kissinger to Nixon. (Ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 212, Agency Files, CENTO)


22. Minutes of a Review Group Meeting

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–111, Senior Review Group, SRG Minutes Originals 1970. Secret. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room.


23. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 276, Agency Files, President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Vol. IV. Top Secret; Sensitive. The meeting took place in the White House Cabinet Room.


24. Paper Prepared by the National Security Council Staff

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1248, Saunders Files, NSSM 90—Mediterranean Policy. Secret. This paper is an analytical summary of the response to NSSM 90, Document 19. The response to NSSM 90, originally dated March 23 and referred to as the Cargo paper, was discussed at the May 21 SRG meeting. See Document 22 and footnote 3 thereto.


25. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 276, Agency Files, President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Vol. IV. Secret; Exdis. Sent for information. A notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it. A handwritten notation at the end of the memorandum says: “No press photo.” According to Nixon’s Daily Diary for June 16, he met with members of PFIAB from 11:20 a.m. to 12:06 p.m. (Ibid., White House Central Files) No other record of the meeting has been found.


26. Minutes of a National Security Council Meeting

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–109, NSC Meeting Minutes, NSC Minutes Originals 1970. Secret. The meeting took place in the White House Cabinet Room.


27. Telegram From the Embassy in Kuwait to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 23 KUW. Secret; Priority; Nodis.


28. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassies in Turkey, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, and Iran

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, DEF 4 CENTO. Confidential. Drafted by William A. Helseth (NEA/RA) on October 29; cleared in NEA/RA, AID/NESA, NEA/IRN, NEA/PAF, NEA/TUR, and EUR/BMI; and approved by Van Hollen.


30. Memorandum From the Vice Director of the Joint Staff (Freeman) to Secretary of Defense Laird

Source: Washington National Records Center, OSD Files: FRC 330–76–0197, Box 70, Middle East. Secret.