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Indian Ocean


37. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs (Sisco) to Secretary of State Rogers

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967–69, DEF 15 IND–US. Secret. Drafted by Grant E. Mouser (NEA/INC); cleared in draft in J/PM and AF/AFI; and cleared in H, EUR/BMI, NEA/INC, and NEA.


38. Telegram From the Embassy in the United Kingdom to the Departments of State and Defense

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967–69, DEF 15 IND–US. Secret; Immediate. It was repeated to New Delhi, Port Louis, Tananarive, CINCPAC, CINCLANT, and CINCSTRIKE.


39. Paper Prepared in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (Moorer)

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, DEF 15 IND–US. Secret. The paper was submitted to U. Alexis Johnson under a February 1 covering memorandum from Moorer.


40. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs (Nutter) to Secretary of Defense Laird

Source: Washington National Records Center, OSD Files: FRC 330–76–067, Box 73, Indian Ocean 1970. Secret.


42. National Security Study Memorandum 104

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–176, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 104. Secret. A copy was sent to Moorer. In a November 9 covering memorandum, Kissinger stated that the NSSM emerged from an understanding reached between President Nixon and Prime Minister Heath on October 3; see Document 41.


43. Telegram From the Commander-in-Chief, Strike Command (Throckmorton) to the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Source: National Archives, RG 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Records of Admiral Thomas Moorer, Box 113, Work File (Indian Ocean). Secret. It was repeated to CINCLANT and CINCPAC.


45. Memorandum From K. Wayne Smith of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–176, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 104. Secret.


46. Paper Prepared by the National Security Council Staff

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–176, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 104. Secret.


47. Memorandum From Helmut Sonnenfeldt of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–176, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 104. Secret. Sent for information.


48. Memorandum From Harold Saunders of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files) Box H–176, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 104. Secret.


49. Letter From Secretary of Defense Laird to British Secretary of State for Defence Lord Carrington

Source: Washington National Records Center, OSD Files: FRC 330–76–067, Box 73, Indian Ocean. Secret.


50. Minutes of a Senior Review Group Meeting

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–111, Senior Review Group, SRG Minutes Originals 1970. Top Secret. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room. According to Talking Papers prepared for the meeting, OSD was to argue for postponement of any decisions until after discussions with the British were complete because 1) it was not clear that a U.S. naval response was the best way to counter an increased Soviet naval presence; 2) the United States and its allies had significant political assets in the area; 3) an enlarged Diego Garcia facility would encounter Congressional opposition; 4) the Navy was already over-committed; and 5) the United States might be “getting out ahead of our allies and the local powers in our military presence, and thereby be contradicting the Nixon Doctrine.” (OSD paper, undated; Washington National Records Center, OSD Files: FRC 330–76–067, Box 73, Indian Ocean, 1970) The JSC recommended Alternative C, a moderate increase in U.S. presence. They based their decision on 4 principles: the importance of U.S. interest in the region, the connection between increased Soviet naval presence and economic and political inroads, the possible drawdown of British forces, and the need to be able to mount a response in the event of a naval threat. (JCS paper, undated; ibid.)


51. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 727, Country Files, Europe, United Kingdom, Vol. IV. Secret. Sent for information. The meeting was held in Kissinger’s office. All brackets are in the original.


52. Paper Prepared by Harold Saunders and Samuel Hoskinson of the National Security Council Staff

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–176, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 104. Secret. A typed notation reads “For HAK.” This paper was prepared for, but not included in, the President’s December 18 briefing. (Ibid., NSC Files, Box 29, President’s Daily Briefing Files, December 16–31, 1970)


54. National Security Study Memorandum 110

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–178, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 110. Secret. A copy was sent to Moorer. Submitted to Kissinger under a December 18 covering memorandum from Kennedy, Saunders, Smith, and Sonnenfeldt. (Ibid.)


55. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in the Soviet Union

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, DEF 15 IND–US. Confidential; Limdis. Drafted on March 26 by Adolph Dubs (EUR/SOV) and approved by Richard T. Davis (EUR). It was repeated to Canberra, Colombo, Djakarta, London, and New Delhi.


56. Memorandum From the Chief of Naval Operations (Zumwalt) to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Moorer)

Source: National Archives, RG 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Records of Admiral Thomas Moorer, Box 113, Work File (Indian Ocean). Secret.


57. Paper Prepared by the National Security Council Staff

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–060, Senior Review Group Meetings, SRG Meeting Indian Ocean 10/6/71. Secret. All brackets are in the original. On April 21, Smith complained to Kissinger that the views of his staff were left out of this final summary, which failed to advance knowledge on Indian Ocean problems. Moreover, it set up a series of false dichotomies the result of which created a naval response without any real political or economic component and without any assessment of the competitive forces at work within the region itself. Smith concluded, “there is no analysis of the details of the threat, the local situation, and the impact of free world programs on which to base any firm conclusions on Soviet interests, our’s, or the U.K.’s or anyone else’s and how they impact on the littoral countries.” (Ibid., Box H–054, Senior Review Group Meetings, SRG Meeting, Indian Ocean (NSSM 110) 4/24/71)


58. Minutes of a Senior Review Group Meeting

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–112, Senior Review Group, SRG Minutes (Originals) 1971. Secret. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room. Saunders and Kennedy prepared an April 17 briefing memorandum for Kissinger that included talking papers. (Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 304, National Security Council, Feb–Aug 1971) An April 22 memorandum from Saunders and Hoskinson to Kissinger discussed Soviet and Chinese policies toward Ceylon within the wider context of access to the Indian Ocean. (National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–054, Senior Review Group Meetings, SRG Meetings Indian Ocean (NSSM 110) 4/22/71) Nutter prepared a memorandum for the record of this meeting on April 26. (Ibid., RG 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Records of Admiral Moorer, Box 113, Work File (Indian Ocean))


59. Memorandum From Richard Kennedy and Harold Saunders of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–060, Senior Review Group Meetings, SRG Meeting Indian Ocean 10/6/71. Secret. Sent for information. A handwritten note by Kissinger reads: “I agree Smith should participate.” Above Kissinger’s comment, Haig wrote “will be there” and his initials.


60. Paper Prepared by the National Security Council Staff

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–060, Senior Review Group Meetings, SRG Meeting Indian Ocean 10/6/71. Secret.


61. Minutes of a Senior Review Group Meeting

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Material, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-112, Senior Review Group,SRG Minutes (Originals) 1971. Secret. The meeting was held in the White House Situation Room. The Assistant Secretary of Defence— office prepared a memorandum for the record on the SRG meeting; the memorandum and the Talking Paper prepared for Packard and Moorer are ibid., RG 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Records of Admiral Thomas Moorer, Box 125, Misc. File, SRG, VP Minutes.


63. Memorandum From Richard Kennedy of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security AffairsHaig)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–178, National Security Study Memoranda, NSSM 110. Secret; Nodis; Eyes Only. Sent for action.


64. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs Kissinger)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H–060, Senior Review Group Meetings, SRG Meeting Indian Ocean 10/6/71. Secret.


65. Telegram From the Embassy in Ceylon to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Records of Admiral Moorer, Box 113, Work File (Indian Ocean). Confidential; Immediate. It was repeated to Islamabad, New Delhi, and USUN.


66. Telegram From the Embassy in the United Kingdom to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Records of Admiral Thomas Moorer, Box 113, Work File (Indian Ocean). Confidential; Exdis.