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Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files (“lot files”) of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department’s Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leads by the President and Secretary of State, and the memoranda of conversations between the President and the Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. All of the Department’s indexed central files for 1969–1972 have been permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (Archives II) at College Park, Maryland. Almost all the Department’s decentralized office (or lot) files covering this period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, have been transferred or are in the process of being transferred from the Department’s custody to Archives II.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Nixon and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project at Archives II include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Department of State historians also have full access to records of the Department of Defense, particularly the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretaries of Defense and their major assistants. The Central Intelligence Agency has provided full access to its files.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, Volume XXIV

In preparing this volume the editors made extensive use of Presidential papers and other White House records held by the Nixon Presidential Materials Project. Those have proved to be the best source of documentation on President Nixon’s and the National Security Council’s role in the Middle East. Within the National Security Files, the Country Files, the files of Harold Saunders, the Institutional (or H-Files), Presidential Correspondence files, and VIP visits files, were particularly valuable. Of these, the H-Files were most significant, [Page XII]providing documentation from the highest levels of White House and National Security Council policy formation and decision making. Transcripts of Henry Kissinger’s telephone conversations, originally at the Library of Congress and now at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project, were also valuable.

Thanks to the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff, Department of State historians have full access to the audiotapes of President Nixon’s telephone conversations. The editor of the portion of this volume pertaining to Middle East and Indian Ocean regional affairs and relations with Persian Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, found almost no tapes that dealt substantively with those issues. One tape is used in a footnote to a memorandum of conversation between Rogers and Nixon after Rogers’s trip to the Middle East.

Second in importance to the records held by the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff were the records of the Department of State. The Department’s central files contain the cable traffic recording U.S. diplomatic relations with the countries of the Middle East, memoranda of diplomatic conversations, and memoranda proposing action or providing information. For this volume, the lot files provided some value.

The Central Intelligence Agency provides access to Department of State historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records in the custody of that agency and at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project. This access is arranged and facilitated by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, pursuant to a May 2002 memorandum of understanding. Among the intelligence records reviewed for the volume were files of the Director and Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, the CIA Registry of National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates, DCI Executive Registry Files, Files of the Office of Research and Reports, and Files of the Office of Current Intelligence.

Almost all of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of the agencies mentioned, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

The following list identifies the particular files and collections used in the preparation of this volume. The declassification and transfer to the National Archives of these records is in process. Most of the records are already available for public review at the National Archives.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Central Files. See National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • Lot Files. For other lot files already transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland, Record Group 59, see National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • INR/IL Historical Files
      • Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, including records of the 303 Committee, from the 1950s through the 1970s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
  • Record Group 59, Records of the Department of State
    • Central Files
      • AID(IRAN) YEMEN, bilateral aid relations between Iran and Yemen
      • AID(US) 8–7 SAUD, bilateral aid relations in the area of public safety, U.S.–Saudi Arabia
      • AV 12, aircraft and aeronautical equipment
      • AV 12 US, aircraft and aeronautical equipment
      • CENTO 3, organization and conferences of the alliance
      • CENTO 3 US(WA), U.S. role in the organization and conferences of the alliance
      • CENTO 6–2 PAK, naval defense affairs pertaining to Pakistan’s role in the alliance
      • DEF 15–4 BAHRAIN–US, negotiation on agreements and base leases
      • DEF 4 CENTO, multilateral agreements and organization of the alliance
      • DEF 12–5 FAA, procurement and sale of armaments
      • DEF 15 IND–UK, bases and installations, Indian Ocean
      • DEF 15 IND–US, bases and installations, Indian Ocean
      • DEF 19 IRAN–YEMEN, military assistance, Yemen
      • DEF 12–5 ISR, procurement and sale of armaments, Israel
      • DEF 12–5 JORDAN, procurement and sale of armaments, Jordan
      • DEF 1 KUW, general defense policy, Kuwait
      • DEF 6 KUW, armed forces, Kuwait
      • DEF 12 KUW, armaments, Kuwait
      • DEF 12–5 KUW, procurement and sale of armaments, Kuwait
      • DEF 1 NEAR E, general defense policy, the Near East
      • DEF 12–5 NEAR E, procurement and sale of armaments, the Near East
      • DEF 1 SAUD, general defense policy, Saudi Arabia
      • DEF 6–2 SAUD, navy, Saudi Arabia
      • DEF 6–4 SAUD, military and reserves, Saudi Arabia
      • DEF 12–5 SAUD, procurement and sale of armaments, Saudi Arabia
      • DEF 19–6 SYEMEN, communist bloc assistance, South Yemen
      • DEF 6 TRUCIAL STATES, armed forces, the Trucial States
      • DEF 12–5 UAE, procurement and sale of armaments, United Arab Emirates
      • DEF 19–8 US–SAUD, military assistance, Saudi Arabia
      • DEF 19–8 US–YEMEN, military assistance, Yemen
      • E 2–4 SAUD, economic growth and development issues in Saudi Arabia
      • ORG 7 S, organization and administration, visits of the Secretary of State
      • PET SAUD, general petroleum issues, Saudi Arabia
      • PET 6 SAUD, refineries, Saudi Arabia
      • PET 17 SAUD, Saudi trade in oil, including communist penetration of petroleum market
      • PET 1 SAUD–US, general policy and plans in the oil industry, Saudi Arabia
      • PET 17 US–SAUD, trade in oil, including communist penetration, U.S.–Saudi Arabia
      • POL 13–6, religious groups
      • POL 23–10, travel control
      • POL 7 ARAB, visits and meetings, Arab world
      • POL 13–10 ARAB, extremist organizations
      • POL 27 ARAB–ISR, military operations, Arab–Israeli dispute
      • POL 27–4 ARAB–ISR, use of international force, Arab–Israeli dispute
      • POL 7 BAHRAIN IS, visits and meetings, Bahrain
      • POL 16 BAHRAIN IS, independence and recognition, Bahrain
      • POL 19 BAHRAIN IS, government of dependencies and self-determination, Bahrain
      • POL 15–1 CEYLON, heads of state, Ceylon
      • POL CEYLON–US, general policy and trends, Ceylon–U.S.
      • POL 19 FAA, government of dependencies and self-determination, FAA
      • POL 33–6 IND, navigation and the high seas, Indian Ocean
      • POL 27 INDIA–PAK, military operations, India–Pakistan
      • POL IRAN–UAE, general policy and trends, Iran–UAE
      • POL 19 IRAN–YEMEN, government of dependencies and self-determination
      • POL JORDAN–US, general policy and trends
      • POL 23 JORDAN, internal security and counterinsurgency, Jordan
      • POL 23–9 JORDAN, rebellion and coups, Jordan
      • POL 23 KUW, internal security and counterinsurgency, Kuwait
      • POL KUW–US, general policy and trends, Kuwait–U.S.
      • POL 23–9 LIBYA, rebellions and coups, Libya
      • POL 23–9 MUSCAT & OMAN, rebellions and coups, Muscat & Oman
      • POL 1 NEAR E–SAUD, general policy and trends, Near East–Saudi Arabia
      • POL 1 NEAR E–US, general policy and trends, the Near East–U.S.
      • POL NEAR E–USSR, general policy and trends, the Near East–USSR
      • POL 33 PERSIAN GULF, water and boundary issues, Persian Gulf
      • POL 15–1 QATAR, heads of state, Qatar
      • POL 19 RAS AL KHAIMAH, government of dependencies and self-determination
      • POL 7 SAUD, visits and meetings, Saudi Arabia
      • POL 15–1 SAUD, heads of state, Saudi Arabia
      • POL 23 SAUD, internal security and counterinsurgency, Saudi Arabia
      • POL 32–1 SAUD–SYEMEN, territory and boundary disputes, Saudi Arabia–South Yemen
      • POL SAUD–UAE, general policy and trends, Saudi Arabia–UAE
      • POL 32–1 SAUD–UAE, territory and boundary disputes, Saudi Arabia–UAE
      • POL SAUD–US, general trends and policy, Saudi Arabia–U.S.
      • POL SAUD–YEMEN, general trends and policy, Saudi Arabia–Yemen
      • POL 2 SYEMEN, reports and statistics, South Yemen
      • POL 12 SYEMEN, political parties, South Yemen
      • POL 13 SYEMEN, non-party blocs, South Yemen
      • POL 15–1 SYEMEN, head of state, South Yemen
      • POL 23–9 SYEMEN, rebellions and coups, South Yemen
      • POL 33 SYEMEN, water and boundary issues, South Yemen
      • POL SYEMEN–US, general policy and trends
      • POL SYEMEN–YEMEN, general policy and trends
      • POL TRUCIAL ST–US, general policy and trends
      • POL UAE, general policy and trends
      • POL 3 UAE, organizations and alignments
      • POL 7 UAE, visits and meetings
      • POL 16 UAE, independence and recognition
      • POL 23–9 UAE, rebellions and coups
      • POL UAEUS, general policy and trends
      • POL 17 UKFAA, diplomatic and consular representation
      • POL UKUS, general policy and trends
      • POL 15–1 UK, head of state
      • POL 17 US–KUW, diplomatic and consular representation, U.S.–Kuwait
      • POL 17–1 US–QATAR, acceptability and accreditation
      • POL US–YEMEN, general policy and trends
      • POL YEMEN, general policy and trends
      • POL 7 YEMEN, visits and meetings
      • POL 15–1 YEMEN, head of state
      • POL 27 YEMEN, military operations
      • PS 7–6 JORDAN, welfare and whereabouts, Jordan
      • SOC 10 JORDAN, disaster and relief, Jordan
  • RG 218, Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
    • Papers of Admiral Thomas H. Moorer
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • Files of the Deputy Director of Intelligence, Robert E. Cushman, Jr. (1969–1971), and Vernon Walters (1972–1976): Job 79–T00832A
    • Files of the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, Richard M. Helms (1966–1973); Executive Registry Files: Job 80-B01086A
    • Executive Registry Files: Job 80–B01086A
    • Files of the Office of Research and Reports: Job 79–T00935A and Job 80–T01315A
    • Files of the Office of Current Intelligence: Job 79–T00832A
    • Files of the National Intelligence Council: Job 79–R01012A
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
  • Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense
    • OSD Files: FRC 330–76–0197
      • Cables and miscellaneous correspondence relating to the Middle East, general
    • OSD Files: FRC 330–76–067
      • Cables and miscellaneous correspondence relating to the Indian Ocean, 1970
    • OSD Files: FRC 330–76–067
      • Materials relating to Saudi Arabia, 1970
    • OASD Files: FRC 330–75–125
      • Materials relating to the Indian Ocean, 1972
    • OASD Files: FRC 330–4–083
      • Materials relating to Saudi Arabia, 1971
    • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 330–75–0125
      • Materials relating to Saudi Arabia, and 1972
  • Library of Congress, Washington, DC
    • Papers of Henry A. Kissinger
      • National Security Council, Committees and Panels
      • Geopolitical File, Jordan Crisis—September 1970, Selected Exchanges
      • Geopolitical File, Jordan Crisis—September 1970, Notebook, 1970–73
  • Nixon Presidential Materials Project, National Archives and Record Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • National Security Files
      • Agency Files: Central Treaty Organization and the President’s Foreign Intelligence
      • Advisory Board
      • Country Files: Ceylon, Iran, Jordan; Kuwait; Middle East General; Saudi Arabia;
      • Trucial States; United Kingdom; Yemen
      • Alexander M. Haig Chronological Files: Memorandum of Conversations
      • Harold Saunders Files: Middle East Negotiations Files; Basic Policy, Middle East; CENTO; Middle East Water; NSSM 90
      • Kissinger Office Files: Subject and Chronological Files
      • Kissinger Telephone Conversation Transcripts: Chronological Files
      • National Security Council Files: Backchannel Messages, Europe, Middle East, and Latin America; Hijackings
    • NSC Institutional Files (H-Files)
      • Draft National Security Council Minutes
      • National Security Council Meeting Files
      • National Security Council Minutes of Meeting Files
      • National Security Decision Memorandum Files
      • National Security Study Memorandum Files
      • Senior Review Group Files
      • Senior Review Group Meeting Files
      • Senior Review Group Minutes of Meeting Files
      • Undersecretary’s Study Memorandums
      • Washington Special Actions Group Meeting Files
      • Washington Special Actions Group Minutes of Meeting Files
      • National Security Council Meetings:; Special NSC Meeting, Jordan
      • National Security Council Secretariat, Unfiled Materials, 1969 through 1972
      • Presidential Correspondence: King Faisal; Saudi Arabia
      • President’s Trip Files: Nixon Visit to Iran, 1972
      • VIP Visits: Visit of Prime Minister Heath, 1970; Secretary of State’s Visit to the Mid East and European Countries, 1972; Visit of Prince Fahd, 1969; Visit of King Faisal, 1971; Vice President’s Trip, 1971
    • White House Tapes: Staff from the Office of the Historian prepared transcripts from selected tapes
    • White House Central Files
      • President Nixon’s Daily Diary
    • White House Special Files, White House Confidential Files
      • Muscat & Oman

Published Sources

  • Congressional Quarterly Almanac, Vol. XIII: 90th Congress, 1st Session, 1967. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Service, 1968.
  • Keesing’s Contemporary Archives, Vol. XVI, 1967–1968. London: Keesing’s Publications Limited.
  • Quandt, William. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab–Israeli Conflict since 1967. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1993.
  • United Nations. Yearbook of the United Nations, 1967. New York: Office of Public Information, United Nations, 1969.
  • United Nations. Yearbook of the United Nations, 1970–1971. New York: Office of Public Information, United Nations, 1972, 1974.
  • United States. Department of State. Department of State Bulletin, 1969–1972. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969–1972.
  • United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard M. Nixon, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973.