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Index

References are to document numbers

    • Aaron, David:
      • Academic exchange programs, 160
      • Arms control/disarmament, 147, 149
      • Gronouski’s appointment as BIB Chairman, 11
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 145
      • ICA budget proposals, 112
      • ICA’s performance as assessed from NSC perspective, 161
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 153
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Islamic Revival, 170
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 205
      • Soviet jamming of VOA broadcasts, 210
      • Successor generation proposal, 130
      • U.S.–PRC Cultural Agreement, 166
      • USIA–CU meeting, 75
      • USIA reorganization, 65, 66, 69, 70, 85
      • Vienna Summit (June 1979), 171
      • VOA correspondents’ guidelines, 133
      • VOA reorganization, 85
      • VOA’s foreign language broadcast increases, 179
      • White House-ICA relationship, 142, 143
    • Abel, Elie, 158
    • Abshire, David M., 11, 14, 18, 22, 24, 32
    • Academic exchanges, 7, 27, 159, 160, 175
    • Academy for Educational Development, 203
    • Academy of Sciences, 60
    • ACTION, 130
    • Adler, Kenneth, 1
    • Advanced Research Projects Agency, 96
    • Advisory Committee on the Arts, 93
    • Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid, 187
    • Afghanistan:
      • Cross-cultural contact as affecting, 203
      • ICA activities in, 215
      • Refugees from, 205
      • Soviet invasion of, 188, 199, 200, 205, 215
      • VOA broadcasts to, 165, 171, 179
      • VOA’s coverage of stories on, 199
    • Africa:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Audiences for public diplomacy in, 42
      • Audiences for USIA products in, 115
      • Human rights in, 215
      • Muhammed Ali’s visit’s with leaders in, 201, 202
      • Public opinion on U.S. involvement in, 96, 101
      • Soviets as mistrusted in, 132
      • Superpower code of conduct, 132
      • Telephones in, 158
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • African-American Institute, 7
    • Agency for International Development (AID):
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Educational and cultural exchange, 203
      • Funding for NGOs in Central America and the Caribbean, 187, 190, 198
      • Human rights action proposals, 87
      • Human rights emphasis by, 27
      • IMV services as used by, 39
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • State Department’s relationship with, 64
      • U.S./Egyptian Joint Working Group, 175
      • USIA’s relationship with, 30
    • Agency for International Understanding (proposed), 100
    • Agenda setters, 150
    • Agreements, international:
      • American Convention on Human Rights (June 1977), 67
      • Basic Declaration of Principles of Relations Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1972), 132
      • Camp David Agreements (1978), 151, 155, 215
      • General Agreement on Contacts, Exchanges and Cooperation (1973), 60
      • International Genocide Convention, 205
      • International Telecommunications Convention, 212
      • Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) (1968), 149
      • Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security (U.S.-Japan), 182
      • Treaty of Tlatelolco (1967), 146, 149
      • U.S.-People’s Republic of China Cultural Agreement, 166
    • Agriculture-USA exhibit (Soviet Union, 1978), 125, 184
    • Ahora, 176
    • Ailey, Alvin, 178, 186, 207, 208
    • Aircraft, 8, 12, 125, 149, 201
    • Al Ahram, 35
    • Albania, 63
    • Alert services, 67, 87, 178
    • Alger, Chadwick, 213
    • Algeria, 194
    • Ali, Muhammed, 201, 202
    • Alliance for Progress, 7
    • Almond, Gabriel A., 182
    • America Illustrated, 82, 113, 162
    • American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 124
    • American Association of the International Commission of Jurists, 27
    • American Bar Association (ABA), 27
    • American Broadcasting Company (ABC), 209
    • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 27, 67
    • The American Commonwealth (Bryce), 182
    • American Conservatory Theater, 60
    • American Constitution Bicentennial Foundation, 92
    • American Convention on Human Rights, 67
    • American Council of Collegiate Schools of Business, 213
    • American Council of Learned Societies, 60
    • American Council of Young Political Leaders, 7, 60, 159
    • American Council on Education, 85
    • American culture, 117
    • American Federation of Arts, 136
    • American Field Service (AFS), 7
    • American Film Theater, 39
    • American Historical Association, 92
    • American Learning Experience, 203, 209, 215
    • American Library Association (ALA), 209
    • American Newspaper Publishers Association, 63
    • American Participants (Amparts), 176, 178
    • American Political Science Association, 92
    • American Revolution, 92, 125
    • American Revolution Bicentennial Administration (ARBA), 92
    • The American Revolution: Selections from Secondary School History Books of Other Nations (GPO), 92
    • American Seminar, 60
    • American Society of New Editors (ASNE), 205
    • American Studies Council, 60
    • Americana, 30
    • Americanists, 92
    • Amerson, Robert, 9
    • Amharic (language), 171, 215
    • AMIDEAST, 175
    • Amnesty International, 67
    • Anderson, Mary Jane, 209
    • Angola, 101
    • Anti-Americanism, 193, 194, 195, 197, 200
    • Anti-satellite systems, 138
    • Antigua, 207
    • Antunes, Juliet C., 1
    • Apartheid, 215
    • Apollo moon missions, 113
    • The Apprenticeship of Dudley Kravitz (film), 41
    • The Apprenticeship of Dudley Kravitz (Richler), 41
    • Arab-Israeli dispute, 15, 96
    • Arabic (language), 215
    • Arbatov, Georgi, 23, 26
    • Area Directors, 68
    • Areopagitica (Milton), 57
    • Argentina:
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Ayacucho Declaration, 138
      • Legal reform in, 215
      • U.S. cultural exchange in, 215
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67, 102
    • Armacost, Michael H., 61
    • Armenian (language), 210, 212
    • Arms control (see also Disarmament):
      • Agreements on, 137
      • ICA initiative for public diplomacy effort on, 147, 149
      • ICA’s inderdepartmental work on, 155
      • Illustrative programmic approaches to, 139
      • International public views on, 5, 138, 146
      • Presentation of U.S. foreign policy to American people, 211
    • Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), 64, 149
    • Arms sales, 101, 146
    • Arms transfers, conventional (CAT), 138, 147, 149
    • Aron, Raymond, 12
    • Art exhibits, 176, 177
    • Arthur D. Little, Inc., 96
    • Article Alert Service, 178
    • Arts America (magazine), 174, 176, 177, 178
    • Arts America program:
    • Arts festivals, 136
    • Arts policy, 136
    • Ascher, William, 102
    • Ashbery, John, 215
    • Ashmore, Harry, 1
    • Asia, 158
    • Aspen Institute, 142, 209
    • al-Assad, Hafiz, 82
    • Associate Directorate for Broadcasting, 125
    • Associate Directorate for Educational And Cultural Affairs, 125
    • Associate Directorate for Management, 125
    • Associate Directorate for Programs, 125
    • Associated Press (AP), 158
    • Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC), 209
    • Association of American Universities, 31
    • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 83, 215
    • Atherton, Alfred L., Jr., 15
    • Atkinson, Richard, 152
    • Atlanta Council for International Visitors, 7
    • ATS–6 satellites, 39, 63, 72
    • Attentive public, 182
    • Audiences:
      • Analyses of, 106, 150
      • Mass communication vs. personal contact with, 1
      • Natural, 154
      • For public diplomacy, 42
      • For USIS products, 106, 115, 154
    • Australia, 92, 146, 149, 209
    • Austria, 149, 204
    • Austrian, Sheila, 1
    • Ayacucho Declaration (Dec. 1974), 138, 146, 147, 149
    • Ayacucho Program, 123, 138
    • Azeri (language), 165, 171, 179, 215
    • B–1 bombers, 8, 149
    • Backfire bombers, 12
    • Bahamas, 215
    • Baker, Howard H., Jr., 32, 49, 51
    • Bakhchiev, Georgi, 113
    • Bandler, Donald K., 201
    • Bangladesh, 165, 209
    • Baptists, 113, 184
    • Barbados, 196, 215
    • Barbera, Joseph, 209
    • Barendsen, Robert D., 92
    • Barker, Karlyn, 7
    • Barnes, Martha, 209
    • Bartholomew, Reginald, 134
    • Bartoskek, Alojusz, 6
    • Basic Declaration of Principles of Relations Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1972), 132
    • Bastian, Walter M., Jr., 3, 9, 13, 15, 17, 54
    • Batashev, Alexei, 113
    • Battle reenactments, 92
    • Bay of Pigs, 96
    • Bayh, Birch, 69, 92
    • Beams, George E., 1
    • Beard, Jon, 1
    • Beebe, George, 63
    • Beecham, Charles R., 73
    • Begin, Menachem, 151
    • Belgium, 205, 215
    • Bellow, Saul, 41, 67
    • Bengali (language), 165, 189, 215
    • Bennet, Douglas J., 58
    • Bennett, W. Tapley, Jr., 111
    • Benson, Lucy W., 7, 33, 40
    • Berger, Samuel R., 211
    • Berlin, 72
    • Bernstein, Leonard, 39, 178
    • Berrington, Robin A., 1
    • Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era (Brzezinski), 161
    • Beuve-Méry, Hubert, 158
    • Bicentennial Book Award, 92
    • Bicentennial Council of the Thirteen Original States, 92
    • Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution, 46, 92
    • Bicentennial of U.S. Revolution, 39, 92, 178
    • Biddle, Lew, 136
    • Biden, Joseph R., Jr., 32, 49, 51
    • Biderman, Albert D., 182
    • Biester, Edward G., Jr., 18
    • Bilateral aid, 101
    • Bill of Rights, 57, 63, 87, 92
    • Bill of Rights bicentennial, 46
    • Binational Commissions, 116
    • Binder, David, 1, 12, 32, 138
    • Blackburn, Paul P., 1, 138
    • Blackwell, Asenath, 4
    • Blume, Wilbur T., 1, 209
    • Blumenthal, W. Michael, 2, 67, 166
    • Board for International Broadcasting Act (1973), 11
    • Board of Foreign Scholarships (BFS), 85, 93, 181
    • Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) (see also International broadcasting):
      • Creation of, 11
      • Failure at oversight, 180
      • Gronouski’s appointment as Chairman of:
        • Discussions with Congress on, 32
        • Proposal for, 11, 14, 18, 19, 24, 25
      • Recommendations for appointments to, 14, 18, 19
      • Reorganization of, 49, 51, 69, 180
      • Reports on international broadcasting, 24, 180
      • Role for, 11, 18
    • Boeing 707s, 201
    • Boelte, Emil, 12
    • Bolivia, 138
    • Bookmobiles, 209
    • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
    • Bookstores, 26, 31, 34
    • Boorstin, Daniel, 209
    • Boosalis, Helen, 7
    • Borsenblatt, 209
    • Boston Book Council, 209
    • Boston Public Library, 209
    • Boston University, 92
    • Botswana, 67, 215
    • Bradley, Bill, 202
    • Bradshaw, James, 6
    • Brady, Leslie, 181
    • Brann, Eva T., 76, 124
    • Bray, Charles W., III:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Arts America programs for 1980, 174, 176
      • Audiences for USIA products, 106, 115
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Carter’s speech on U.S.-Soviet relations, 132
      • Cuban refugees, 207, 208
      • Disarmament, 139
      • Human Rights Action Plan, 67
      • Human rights programming in the Southern Cone, 102
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 128, 129
      • ICA’s performance as assessed from NSC perspective, 161
      • International arts policy, 136
      • Lack of vitality in European cultures, 97
      • Leadership of, 72
      • Middle East Working Group, 74
      • North-South issues as seen in LDCs, 101
      • NSC/USIA meetings, 52
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 205
      • Operating guidelines for USIA, 68
      • Rosalynn Carter’s trip to Latin America (May–June 1977), 53
      • Speech before Mid-America and the World Conference (Oct. 1980), 213
      • State Department-USIA relations, 54
      • Themes for public diplomacy effort on disarmament, 137
      • U.S. policy in East Asia, 79
      • USIA human rights action proposals, 87
      • USIA/Policy Planning Staff relations, 110
      • USIA reorganization, 85
      • As USIA representative on Human Rights Coordinating Group, 67
      • USIA role in Constitution Bicentennial, 92
      • As USIA’s Deputy Director, 30
      • USIS actions around European political fluidity, 78
      • Visit to Europe, Africa, and Middle East, 107
      • VOA’s coverage of stories on Iran and Afghanistan, 199
    • Brazil:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Audiences for USIS centers and libraries, 115
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • FRG’s nuclear sales to, 12
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Optimism vs. pessimism about 1980 in, 204
      • U.S. cultural exchange in, 215
      • Use of satellites by, 63
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • Breakfast Show (VOA show), 113
    • Brement, Marshall, 180
    • Bremer, Paul, 196
    • Brescia, Peter F., 1
    • Brewster, Kingman, 111
    • Brezhnev, Leonid I., 26, 31, 171
    • British Broadcasting Company (BBC), 32, 63, 164, 210, 212
    • Broadcast Advisory Committee, 46
    • Broadcasting, 209
    • Broadus, Jerome R., 1
    • Brooks, Jack B., 100, 114, 116
    • Brown, Carroll, 6
    • Brown, Frederick Z., 63
    • Brown, Harold, 134, 149, 153, 168
    • Bryce, James, 182
    • Brzezinski, Zbigniew:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159, 160
      • Arms control/disarmament, 147, 149
      • Board for International Broadcasting, 11, 14, 19, 32, 51, 180
      • Carter’s speeches on U.S.-Soviet relations, 82, 132
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 194, 195, 197, 200
      • Cuban refugees, 206, 207, 208
      • Cultural exchange, 26, 31, 34
      • Foreign media reaction reports, 12, 103
      • Human rights, 12, 13
      • Human Rights Week, 107, 108
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 98, 119, 123, 127, 128, 129
      • ICA, 142, 143, 152, 155, 161, 186
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134, 153
      • International broadcasting issues, 18
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Interview for Transition 77 film series with, 3, 9, 20
      • Muslims in the Soviet Union, 189, 192, 195
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 187, 191, 196, 198
      • NSC/USIA meetings, 52, 61
      • NSC’s role in international communications and culture, 141
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 202, 205
      • Presidential Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, 168
      • Press conferences of, 35
      • PRM (proposed) on information programs, 42
      • Problems of Communism, 140, 144
      • Public perception of Carter’s foreign policy, 38
      • Reports on international broadcasting, 14, 180
      • SALT II talks, 12
      • Soviet jamming of VOA broadcasts, 212
      • Speeches by, 103
      • Stanton Report, 22
      • Undercapitalization of public diplomacy, 59, 62
      • Unofficial visits by leaders of smaller nations, 169
      • U.S.–EC-Japan communications on issues, 2
      • U.S. foreign policy year-end (1977) assessment, 109
      • U.S.–PRC Cultural Agreement, 166
      • USAC/IECA appointments, 36
      • USIA reorganization:
        • Basic plans for, 90
        • Department of State perspectives on, 64
        • Loose ends from, 85
        • Memo to Carter on, 71
        • NSC perspectives on, 65
        • OMB perspective on, 91
        • Proposed amendments to plan for, 100
        • Treverton’s memo on, 70
        • Under CU versus USIA, 66
        • USIA programs seen as obsolete, 66
      • USIA support for U.S. diplomatic initiatives, 35
      • Vienna Summit (June 1979), 171
      • VOA:
        • Correspondents’ guidelines, 133
        • Coverage of stories on Iran and Afghanistan by, 199
        • Disagreements over administration of, 21
        • Foreign language broadcast increases by, 165, 171, 179
        • Language priorities for, 165
        • Persian-language broadcasting by, 163, 164, 165, 188
        • Reorganization of, 49, 56, 85
        • Soviet jamming of, 212
        • Technical expansion of, 171
        • Transmitter study, 165
    • Buchanan, John Hall, Jr., 72, 84, 116
    • Buchmarkt, 209
    • Buckminster Fuller (IMV film), 39
    • Bulandra Theater, 178
    • Bulgaria, 31, 209, 212, 215
    • Bunche, Ralph, 67
    • Bunraku, 117
    • Bureau of Educational And Cultural Affairs (CU):
      • Budget for, 76
      • Cultural exchange, 66, 136, 203
      • Electronic communication, 44
      • Human rights action proposals, 27, 87
      • Humphrey scholarships, 98
      • Integration with USIA of:
        • Agreement on, 88
        • Carter’s message to Congress on, 93, 94, 99, 120, 121, 125
        • Christopher’s testimony before Fascell’s committee, 72
        • Comptroller-General’s report with discussion of, 50, 55
        • Employee petition for, 1
        • Former USIA directors’ support for, 25
        • Fulbright’s opposition to, 99
        • International Operations Subcommittee recommendations on, 84
        • NSC comments on, 91
        • OMB preparation of text for, 91
        • Outcome of, 215
        • Proposed amendment to plan for, 100
        • Stanton-Vance message exchange on, 86, 89
        • Under CU, 66
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Journalism training programs of, 63
      • NSC assessment of effectiveness of, 161
      • Program objectives of, 10
      • Restructuring of, 46, 75, 85, 213
      • Sister cities program, 31
      • USIA reorganization, 100
    • Bureau of Post-Secondary Education, 92
    • Burma, 116
    • Burnett, Stanton H., 162, 182
    • Burns, James McGregor, 92
    • Burr, Aaron, 92
    • Burress, Richard T., 76, 124
    • Burson, Ray H., 1
    • Butler, Landon, 32, 98
    • Buttermark, Nancy, 209
    • Byrd, Robert C., 49, 51
    • Caddell, Pat, 38
    • Cage, John, 174
    • Callaghan, James, 130, 182
    • Cambodia, 171, 188
    • “Camelot" incident, 96
    • Cameras, 113
    • Camp David Agreements (1978), 151, 155, 215
    • Camp David Summit (Sept. 1978), 151
    • Canada:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146
      • Educational and cultural exchange meeting, 40, 41
      • Human rights, 48
      • Limits on import of U.S. cultural products by, 41
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 196
      • Pessimism about 1980 in, 204
    • Cannon, Mark, 92
    • Cantril, Hadley, 5, 96
    • Capra, Frank, 39
    • Caribbean:
      • Cuban relations with countries in the, 191, 196
      • ICA public affairs officer in, 208
      • NGO activities in, 187, 190, 191, 196, 198
      • VOA broadcasting to, 179, 215
    • Carmody, John, 67
    • Carter, Alan:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 138
      • Audiences for USIA products, 115
      • Department of State policy guidance for VOA, 104
      • Disarmament, 139
      • NSC/USIA relationship, 73
      • Operating guidelines for USIA, 95
      • Themes for public diplomacy effort on disarmament, 137
      • USIA employees’ petition, 1
      • USIA/Policy Planning Staff relations, 110
    • Carter, Darrell, 116
    • Carter, James Earl:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159, 160
      • B–1 bombers’ cancellation by, 149
      • BIB appointments, 14, 19
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 197
      • Cuban-U.S. relations, 12
      • Cultural exchange, 41, 76
      • Debates with Ford, 39
      • Draft legislation on nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear exports, 33, 40
      • Focus on Europe vs. FRG, 12
      • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1978, 69
      • Friendship Force program, 7, 31, 124
      • Human rights, 12, 17, 46, 48, 107
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 98, 119, 123, 127, 128, 145
      • International Communication Agency:
        • Accomplishments during Carter administration of, 215
        • Activities in the People’s Republic of China funded by, 152
        • Mission statement for, 121, 181, 213
        • Report on first six months of, 155
        • Second Mandate, 185
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • International Operations Subcommittee recommendations on USIA reorganization, 84
      • Iranian oil embargo, 188
      • Meetings:
        • With Deng Xiaoping (Jan. 31, 1979), 166
        • With NGOs involved in the Central America/Caribbean area, 196, 198
        • With OMB’s Acting Director, 111
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL boards, 180
      • Messages:
        • To Congress on USIA/CU reorganization, 93, 94, 99, 120, 121, 125
        • From European Ambassadors, 111
        • Exchange with Sakharov, 17
      • Moyers’ pre-inauguration interview of, 35
      • Neutron bomb, 113
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 187, 191, 196, 198
      • Nomination of Bray as Assistant USIA Director, 30
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 201, 202
      • Panama Canal Treaty negotiations, 12, 93
      • Press conferences, 35, 195
      • Public perception of foreign policy of, 38
      • Request for funding for additional broadcast transmitters, 63
      • SALT II talks, 12
      • SALT II Treaty, 171, 182
      • Sister cities program, 26
      • Soviet jamming of VOA broadcasts, 210
      • Soviet Union as seen by, 113
      • Soviet-U.S. relations, 82
      • Speeches:
        • Agriculture Department (Feb. 1977), 12
        • ASNE (Apr. 10, 1980), 205
        • Before Venezuelan Congress (Mar. 1978), 123, 158
        • Debates with Ford, 39
        • Fireside chat (Feb. 2, 1977), 9, 33
        • Foreign Policy Association (June 23, 1976), 38
        • Inaugural Address (Jan. 20, 1977), 76
        • Joint session of Congress (Apr. 20, 1977), 33, 40
        • Notre Dame (May 1977), 57, 67, 124, 125, 150
        • OAS (Apr. 14, 1977), 38, 39, 53, 63, 76
        • Southern Legislative Conference (Charleston, July 1977), 82, 109
        • Statement as President-elect of, 3, 9
        • Statement on nuclear power policy (Apr. 7, 1977), 40
        • UN General Assembly (Mar. 1977), 21, 26, 38, 67
        • UN General Assembly (Oct. 1977), 107
        • U.S.-Soviet relations (July 21, 1977), 82, 109
        • U.S.-Soviet relations (June 7, 1978), 132
        • USIA/CU reorganization, 90, 93, 185
      • Stanton Report, 22, 56
      • Successor generation proposal, 130
      • Unofficial visits by leaders of smaller nations, 169
      • U.S.–EC-Japan communications on issues, 2
      • U.S.–PRC Cultural Agreement, 166
      • USAC/IECA appointments, 36
      • USIA reorganization:
        • Amendments to plan for, 100
        • Brzezinski’s memos on, 71
        • Carter’s proposal to Congress for, 93, 94, 99, 120, 121, 125
        • CU consolidation with, 88
        • OMB perspectives on, 85
        • Stanton’s views on, 86
        • Treverton’s memo on, 70
        • Vance’s memos on, 55, 64, 69
      • Visits:
        • Caracas (Mar. 1978), 123, 128
        • G–7 Summit (London, May 1977), 72
        • Latin America (1972), 7
        • NAC Council meeting (London, May, 1977), 72
        • Nigeria, Liberia (Apr. 1978), 127
      • VOA expansion of broadcast facilities, 215
    • Carter, Rosalynn, 7, 52, 53, 76, 188
    • Carter, William Hodding, II, 54, 58, 86, 88, 104, 105
    • Case, Clifford P., Jr., 51
    • Castro, Fidel, 96, 211
    • Cattell, Robert, 1
    • Center for Strategic and International Studies, 18, 22
    • Center for Technical and Cultural Exchange between East and West, Inc., 93
    • Center for World Peace through Law, 27
    • Central America:
    • Central Asia, 171
    • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 30, 134, 137, 155, 168
    • Central Kachi Manchar Mela, 209
    • Century 3 series (IMV film series), 39
    • Chaplin, Max, 102
    • Chapman, Christian, 43, 119
    • “Charlie’s Angels," 174
    • Charter 77, 63
    • Chatten, Robert L., 53, 102, 138
    • Chemical weapons, 138
    • Chernoff, Howard, 44
    • Chicago Tribune, 209
    • Children’s Book Council of New York, 209
    • Children’s programming, 209
    • Children’s Television Channel, 209
    • Children’s Television Workshop (CTW), 17, 209
    • Chile, 12, 96, 102, 113, 138, 204
    • China, People’s Republic of:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159, 175
      • Activities funded by ICA in, 152, 175
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • As international broadcaster, 63, 165
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Jamming of VOA broadcasts by, 80
      • Soviet Union, relations with, 101
      • United States, relations with, 113, 184
      • U.S. Cultural Agreement with, 166
      • USIA activities in, 35
      • VOA’s Chinese-language broadcasting to, 179, 213, 215
    • China, Republic of (Taiwan), 63, 215
    • Chinese (language), 179, 213, 215
    • Chizhik, Vladimir, 113
    • Chollar, Robert, 213
    • Chou Pei-Yuan, 152
    • Christian, Winslow, 102
    • The Christian Science Monitor, 209
    • Christopher, Warren M.:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Camp David Agreements (Sept., 1978), 151
      • Department of State-ICA relations, 118
      • Department of State policy guidance for USIA, 105
      • Department of State policy guidance for VOA, 104
      • Department of State-USIA relations, 118
      • Human rights, 27, 67, 102
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 201
      • Policy guidelines for ICA media, 126
      • Soviet jamming of VOA broadcasts, 210
      • USIA/Policy Planning Staff relations, 110
      • USIA reorganization, 55
        • CU consolidation with, 88
        • Fascell Committee hearings:
          • Action Memorandum, 58
          • Christopher’s testimony before, 58, 64, 72
        • OMB perspectives on, 85
        • Reinhardt’s memo exchange with, 67
        • Stanton’s messages on, 86
        • Treverton’s memo on, 70
      • VOA correspondents’ guidelines, 133
      • VOA policy commentaries, 157
    • Church, Frank F., III, 51
    • Civil and political liberties, 102
    • Clark, Richard C., 51, 69
    • Cleveland, Harland, 129
    • Clusen, Ruth, 92
    • Coalition for a New Foreign and Military Policy, 8
    • Code of conduct for superpowers, 132
    • Cohen, Richard L.:
      • Arts America programs for 1980, 174, 176, 177
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Cuban refugees, 207
      • International arts policy, 136
      • Research on public opinion, 96
      • USIA reorganization, 99
    • Colombia, 138, 196, 198
    • Colton, David, 9
    • Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 209
    • “Columbus and the World" project, 213
    • Commentaries, 148, 157
    • Commerce, U.S. Department of, 1, 39, 141, 203
    • Commercial carriers, 44
    • Committee on Disarmament, 149
    • Committee on Public Information, 181
    • Committee on Scholarly Communication (CSC), 175
    • Committee on the Caribbean, 191
    • Commodity prices, 10
    • Common Cause, 27
    • Common Market, 182
    • Communications:
      • Arts America’s goal as, 178
      • Development of, 158
      • Effective, 150
      • Electronic, 44
      • In field operations, 150
      • Future of, 44, 63, 161
      • Libraries as part of strategy for, 154
      • Mass, 1
      • State control of, 141, 142
      • U.S. policy on, 39, 44, 58, 72, 141, 155
    • Communications Act (1934), 44
    • Communism, 102
    • COMNET, 158
    • Comparative values, 27
    • Competition, 184
    • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, 138, 149
    • Computers, 44
    • Conant, James Bryant, 63
    • Concorde (aircraft), 125
    • Conference of Ministerial-level Government Representatives and Head of News Agencies of the Non-Aligned Countries (New Delhi, July 1976), 63
    • Conference on Central America (New Orleans, Feb. 1980), 191
    • Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE):
      • Conference, 1973, 212
      • Final Act (Helsinki, 1975):
        • Jamming of radio broadcasts, 63, 210, 212
        • Soviet claims of U.S. violations of, 8
        • Soviet failure to live up to, 63
        • Third Basket, 13, 26, 34
      • NATO’s coordination of western strategy in, 67
      • Review Conference (Belgrade, June 1977):
        • Discussion of bookstores after, 34
        • Promotion of Third Basket principles at, 13
        • Selection of U.S. delegation to, 42
        • Soviet approach to, 25
        • U.S. Advisory Commission on Information’s views on, 46
        • USAC/IECA’s rejuvenation before, 36
        • USIA analysis of tactics for, 61
        • USIA coverage of, 67
      • Review Conference (Madrid, Nov. 1980), 159
    • Conference on the Caribbean (Miami, Nov. 1979), 187, 191
    • Conglomerates, 120
    • Congress, Acts of:
      • Board for International Broadcasting Act (1973), 11
      • Communications Act (1934), 44
      • Export Administration Act (1969), 33
      • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1977, 14, 47
      • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1978, 69, 93
      • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1979, 181
      • Fulbright-Hays Act (1961), 7, 26, 31, 85
      • International Development and Food Assistance Act (1975), 96
      • International Development Cooperation Act (1979), 158
      • Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchanges Act (1961), 7, 41, 93, 124
      • P.L. 80402, 1
      • P.L. 87256, 7, 41, 124
      • P.L. 89491, 92
      • P.L. 93129, 11
      • P.L. 93179, 92
      • P.L. 94350, 14, 47
      • P.L. 95105, 93
      • P.L. 98101, 92
      • P.L. 416, 44
      • Smith-Mundt Act (1948), 1, 30, 68
      • U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act (1948), 1, 93, 181
    • Congress, U.S.:
      • Approval for U.S. distribution of USIA Kennedy film by, 37
      • Arts America programs for 1980, 177, 178
      • Draft legislation on nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear exports, 33, 40
      • Jamming of VOA broadcasts, 80
      • Presentation of U.S. foreign policy to American people, 211
      • Report on international broadcasting, 14, 24
      • Savings through electronic communications, 44
      • USIA/CU reorganization proposal message from Carter, 93, 94, 99, 120, 121, 125
    • Conover, Willis, 63, 113
    • Constitution, U.S., 46, 57, 92
    • Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 158
    • Conventional arms transfers (CAT), 138, 147, 149
    • Cook, Frances, 1
    • Cook, Robin, 1
    • Cooney, Joan Ganz, 209
    • Coonrod, Robert, 1
    • Cooper, Roger B., 1
    • Cooperation, 109, 158
    • Coordinator for Information, 181
    • Core management, 120
    • Cornell University, 129
    • Cossacks, 184
    • Costa Rica, 191, 196
    • Costanza, 38
    • Council of the Americas, 191
    • The Country Across the Ocean (Peskov), 113
    • Country music, 113, 174
    • Country Plans, 95, 150, 174, 185, 209
    • Courtney, Charles E., 1
    • Cox, A. M., 8
    • Crawford, Elisabeth T., 182
    • Creager, Donald, 1
    • Creel Committee, 181
    • Crespi, Leo P., 5, 97, 204
    • Crime, 113
    • Crimean Tatars, 184
    • Critchlow, James, 32
    • Cross-cultural contact, 203
    • Cruise missiles, 12
    • Cuba:
      • Central America/Caribbean, relations with, 191, 196
      • ICA cultural projects in, 186, 207, 208, 215
      • Public opinion in, 96
      • Questioning of non-aligned status of, 132
      • Refugees from, 206, 207, 208
      • United States, relations with, 12, 101
    • Cultural affairs, 141
    • Cultural exchange:
      • In the Americas, 43, 215
      • Of children’s programming, 209
      • Effectiveness of programs for, 203
      • In Europe, 66
      • As foreign policy tool, 124
      • As function of public diplomacy, 64, 72
      • Guiding philosophy for, 57
      • ICA as coordinator of U.S. policy on, 175
      • Increase in, 25
      • International arts policy, 136
      • With Japan, 215
      • Leaders who had participated in programs of, 155
      • Maintenance of quality in, 181
      • Marks’ views on, 25, 26, 31, 34, 41
      • NSC’s perspective on performance of, 161
      • OMB perspectives on, 85, 124
      • Private, 34
      • Report on, 76
      • Solicitation of views on initiatives for, 43
      • Soviet investment in, 59, 155
      • Theater, 60, 117
      • Undercapitalization of, 59, 62
      • U.S.-Canada meeting on, 41
      • U.S. Country Plan for Soviet Union, 60
      • U.S. Embassy Mexico City views, 44
      • USIA/CU cooperation on, 203
      • USIA views on, 34
    • Cultural imperialism, 63
    • Cultural Presentations Program, 60
    • Cultural Specialists, 178
    • Curran, Robert T., 114, 151, 170
    • Curry, Dean, 1
    • Curtis High School, 213
    • Curtiss, Richard H., 1, 156
    • Cutler, Lloyd N., 201
    • Czechoslovakia, 8, 31, 63, 210, 212
    • Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, 63
    • Daily News (Longview, Washington), 209
    • Daily Telegraph (London), 12
    • Dalsimer, 16
    • Dari (language), 215
    • Davis, Angela, 17
    • De Onis, Juan, 102
    • De-Viney, John H., 1
    • Debt relief, 101
    • Declaration on Relations with Developing Countries (June 1977), 67
    • Defense, U.S. Department of:
      • Advanced Research Projects Agency, 96
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 200
      • Cuban refugees, 207
      • Educational and cultural exchange programs, 203
      • Foreign opinion leaders and, 1
      • Human rights action proposals, 87
      • V–E Day anniversary, 205
    • Degnan, Judith B., 1
    • Democratic National Convention (July, 1976), 9
    • Demographic studies, 45
    • Deng Xiaoping, 166, 215
    • Der Spiegel, 9
    • Derian, Patricia M., 27, 67, 102
    • Dershowitz, Alan M., 67
    • Détente, 8, 12, 67, 113, 132, 205
    • “Détente and Soviet Dissidents" (Fireside), 67
    • Deutsche Welle, 32, 113, 210, 212
    • Development, 138, 158
    • Dialogue, 1
    • Dialogue, 30, 67, 87, 115
    • Didion, Joan, 215
    • Die Welt, 12
    • Die Zeit (Hamburg), 12
    • Diggs, Charles C., Jr., 84
    • Dinges, John, 102
    • Direct Broadcasting by Satellite (DBS), 44
    • Disarmament (see also Arms control):
      • And development, 138
      • Establishment of interagency committee on, 134
      • ICA initiative for public diplomacy effort on, 147, 149
      • Illustrative programmic approaches to, 139
      • Size of publics concerned with, 146
      • Themes for public diplomacy effort on, 137
    • Dissent, 87
    • Diversity, 158
    • Divine, Robert A., 96
    • Dizard, Wilson P., 73
    • Documentaries, 39, 67, 92, 178
    • Dodson, Christine:
      • Gronouski’s appointment as BIB Chairman, 32
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 98, 128
      • ICA, Report on first six months of, 155
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 187
      • USIA reorganization, 85, 100
      • VOA correspondents’ guidelines, 133
      • VOA’s foreign language broadcast increases, 179
    • Dominica, 196
    • Dominican Republic, 96, 196
    • Donovan, John, 209
    • Dora+a7ti, Antal, 57
    • Downbeat (magazine), 113
    • Dreyfuss, Richard, 41
    • Duffey, Joseph D.:
      • Cultural exchange, 41, 43, 66
      • International arts policy, 136
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • USIA reorganization, 58, 65, 70, 72, 85, 86
    • Dulles, John Foster, 96
    • Dunne, John Gregory, 215
    • Durham, Deborah, 209
    • Dussault, Phillip, 119
    • East Asia, 61, 67, 79, 81, 83
    • East-West Center Cultural Learning Institute, 87, 100
    • Eastern Europe:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Détente’s future as concern of, 132
      • As international broadcaster, 63
      • Surveys of people departing from, 96
      • Transition from USIA to ICA in, 122
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • Eban, Abba, 15
    • Economic and social justice, 102
    • Economic assistance, 101, 211
    • Economic Impact, 67, 115
    • Economic Portfolio, 67, 115
    • The Economist, 12
    • Ecuador, 138
    • Eder, Richard, 63
    • Edmondson, Mary Lou, 1
    • Education, 113, 168, 213
    • Education, U.S. Department of, 130
    • Educational exchanges:
      • Effectiveness of programs for, 203
      • As foreign policy tool, 124
      • Fulbright-Hayes Program, 31, 125, 155, 181, 185, 213
      • ICA as coordinator of U.S. policy on, 175
      • with the Islamic world, 200
      • Maintenance of quality in, 181, 215
      • NSC’s perspective on performance of, 161
      • Technology transfer through, 125
      • U.S.-Canada meeting on, 40
      • U.S. Embassy Mexico City views, 44
      • Use of counterpart funds for, 116
    • Edwards, Anne, 9
    • Edwards, Don, 92
    • Edwards, Mel, 215
    • Egypt:
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims in, 194
      • Educational exchanges, 116
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Human rights, 107
      • As international broadcaster, 63, 165
      • Suez crisis (1956), 182
      • U.S./Egyptian Joint Working Group, 175
      • USIA activities in, 35, 39
    • Eighty-second Airborne Division, 205
    • Einaudi, Luigi R., 43, 53
    • Einstein, Albert, 57
    • Eisele, Albert, 9
    • Eisenhower, Dwight D., 96, 124, 128, 182
    • Eizenstat, Stuart E., 38, 92, 100, 128
    • Ekonzo, Elebe Ma, 158
    • El Salvador, 191
    • The Electric Company, 209
    • Electronic technology, 44
    • Elon, Amos, 15
    • Energy, 101, 211
    • English (language), 215
    • English teaching, 46
    • English Teaching Forum, 185
    • Enhanced Radiation Weapons (ERW), 143, 146, 149
    • Erb, Guy, 98, 119
    • Espinoza, J. Manuel, 28
    • Estonian (language), 212
    • Ethiopia, 90, 149, 215
    • Eubank, Margaret, 1
    • Euratom, 149
    • Eurocommunism, 12
    • Europe, 12, 66, 67, 78, 97, 182
    • European Common Market, 182
    • European Community (EC), 2, 12, 67
    • European Defense Force, 182
    • Evans, Daniel J., 7
    • Evans, Rowland, Jr., 12
    • Evening Reports, 56, 69, 72, 90, 163
    • Ewalt, Larry, 20
    • Executive Order 12048, 121, 124, 183
    • Exercise Reforger, 205
    • Experiment in International Living, 7
    • Export Administration Act (1969), 33
    • Exports, 213
    • EXXON Corporation, 209
    • EXXON Education Foundation, 213
    • Facsimiles (faxes), 44
    • Fairness, 109
    • Fallows, James M., 38
    • Famine relief, 188
    • Farmers and World Affairs, 7
    • Fascell, Dante B.:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • BIB as supported by, 18
      • Educational exchanges, 116
      • Hearings on USIA reorganization, 72
        • Action Memorandum on, 58
        • Amendments to plan for, 100
        • Christopher’s testimony, 58, 64, 72
        • Department of State views of, 64
        • Plans for, 56
      • ICA’s relationship with other agencies, 181
      • International Operations Subcommittee recommendations on USIA reorganization, 84
      • As interviewed by VOA, 67
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL boards, 32, 49, 51
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 187
      • Public diplomacy as seen by, 58
      • VOA reorganization, 56
    • Fasick, J. Kenneth, 181
    • Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), 39
    • Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 44, 141, 209
    • Federalist Papers, 57
    • Ferguson, 180
    • Ferré, Maurice, 191
    • Figaro, 12
    • Films, 3, 6, 9, 20
    • Financial Times, 2
    • Finch Hoyt, Mary M., 53
    • Finney, Dean H., 1
    • Fireside, Harvey, 67
    • Fischman, Joel A., 1
    • Fitz, Richard B., 1
    • Fletcher, Louise, 6
    • “The Flintstones," 209
    • Floyd, David, 12
    • Food aid, 101
    • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 158
    • Force modernization, 137
    • Ford, Gerald R.:
      • Cuba-U.S. relations, 12
      • Debates with Carter, 39
      • Educational and cultural exchanges, 124
      • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1977, 47
      • Keogh’s resignation, 1
      • U.S.–EC-Japan communications on issues, 2
      • Visits to Communist bloc countries, 46
      • Vladivostok Agreement (Nov. 1974), 12
    • Foreign Affairs, 182
    • Foreign correspondents’ guidelines, 133, 135
    • Foreign correspondents tour program, 87
    • Foreign elites, 117
    • Foreign Information Service, 181
    • Foreign languages. See individual languages.
    • Foreign policy, U.S., 38, 109, 124, 211
    • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1977, 14, 47
    • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1978, 69, 93
    • Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY 1979, 181
    • Forman, Milos, 6
    • Forster, Cliff, 2
    • Forum Series (VOA), 67
    • Fourt, Maynard H., 1
    • France:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • American culture as seen by elites of, 117
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Attentive publics in, 182
      • Bicentennial of U.S. Revolution, 92
      • Cultural and information activities of, 155
      • European Defense Force as rejected by, 182
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Human rights, 48
      • Sakharov’s exile, 205
      • Suez Crisis (1956), 182
      • U.S. alliance with, 92
      • U.S. power as seen in, 214
      • U.S. public opinion surveys in, 4, 214
    • Frankel, Charles, 86
    • Franklin, John Hope, 181
    • Fraser, Cynthia:
      • Carter administration contacts with USIA, 9
      • Carter’s speech on U.S.-Soviet relations, 82
      • Distribution of USIA materials within the United States, 37
      • Future of electronic communications, 44
      • Human rights, 17, 87
      • Jamming of VOA broadcasts, 80
      • Middle East Working Group, 74
      • Rosalynn Carter’s trip to Latin America (May–June 1977), 53
      • USIA reorganization, 1
    • Fraser, Malcolm, 112
    • Free, Lloyd, 5, 72, 96, 182
    • Free flow of information, 63, 141, 142
    • Freid, Ethel, 1
    • French (language), 165
    • French Bicentennial Committee, 92
    • Freylinghuysen, Peter H. B., 18, 32
    • Friedmann, Eugene J., 1
    • Friedmann, Friedrich, 97
    • Friendly, Al, 210
    • Friendship Force program, 7, 31, 76, 124
    • The Front (film), 184
    • Fuel cycle evaluation program, 40
    • Fulbright, J. William, 99, 182
    • Fulbright Commission, 99, 116, 175
    • Fulbright-Hays Act (1961), 7, 26, 31, 85
    • Fulbright Program, 31, 125, 155, 181, 185, 213
    • Fulbright-Hays Board, 76
    • Fuller, Buckminster, 39
    • Fulton, Barry, 1
    • “The Future of United States Diplomacy" (House Committee on Foreign Affairs report, 1968), 72
    • G–7 Economic Summit (Bonn, July 1978), 130, 155
    • G–7 Economic Summit (London, May 1977), 12, 72
    • Gabon, 125
    • Galliner, Peter, 2
    • Gallup, George H., 46, 72
    • Gallup Institute, 204
    • Garcia, Angel, 1
    • Garcia Marquez, Gabriel, 158
    • Gardner, Paul F., 83
    • Gardner, Richard N., 111
    • Garner, John D., 1
    • Gartner, Keith, 116
    • Gaspar Bacon Fund for Constitutional Studies, 92
    • Gates, Pat, 113
    • Gates, Robert M., 75, 85, 171, 194, 207
    • Gaudian, Robert R., 1
    • Gavigan, James, 1
    • General Accounting Office (GAO), 76, 181
    • General Agreement on Contacts, Exchanges and Cooperation (1973), 60
    • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 101, 109
    • General-Anzeiger, 12
    • General Electric, 213
    • General information, 64, 72
    • Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), 101, 109
    • George Meany (IMV film), 39
    • Georgia Institute of Technology, 129
    • Georgian (language), 212
    • Germans in the Soviet Union, 184
    • Germany, Federal Republic of:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • American culture as seen by elites of, 117
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92, 107
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Attentive publics in, 182
      • Carter’s approach to, 12
      • Cultural and information activities of, 155
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Human rights, 48, 107
      • As international broadcaster, 63, 165
      • Lack of vitality in culture of, 97
      • Nuclear sales to Brazil, 12
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 205
      • Reunification, 182
      • Soviet Union, relations with, 210
      • As U.S. economic competitor, 214
      • U.S. power as seen in, 214
      • U.S. public opinion surveys in, 4, 214
      • USIA director’s role in programs in, 68
      • USIA programs in, 125
      • V–E Day anniversary, 205
    • Ghana, 92
    • Giddens, Kenneth R., 18
    • Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry, 112, 155, 182
    • Giuffrida, Michael A., 1
    • Glenn, John H., Jr., 51
    • Glover, George O., 1
    • Goknil, Can, 209
    • Golden, Nancy, 209
    • Goncharov, Vladimir, 8
    • Goulet, Robert, 41
    • Government Accounting Office (GAO), 50, 180
    • Grabell, Alison, 1
    • Grain, 213
    • Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho scholarship program, 123
    • Granum, Rex, 149
    • Graves, John, 1
    • Gray, David L., 1
    • Greece, 44, 212
    • Greek (language), 165
    • Greene, Jocelyn, 184
    • Greene, Milton H., 113
    • Grey area issues, 138, 146, 149
    • Griffin, Robert P., 51
    • Griffith, William E.:
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 194
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL boards, 32
      • Nomination as BIB member of, 14, 18, 19, 21, 24, 69
      • As visiting lecturer to Middle East, 15
    • Gromyko, Andrei A., 31
    • Gronouski, John A., Jr.:
      • Appointment as BIB chair:
        • Discussions with Congress on, 32
        • Proposal for, 11, 14, 18, 19, 24, 25
      • BIB as failure at oversight, 180
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 197
      • Defeat of McGovern-Pell amendment, 69
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL boards, 32, 49, 180
    • Gross, Aaron, 1
    • Groundwave jamming, 212
    • Group of 77, 101
    • Guardian, 12
    • Guatemala, 67, 191
    • Guinea, 67
    • Gwertzman, Bernard, 63
    • Habib, Philip, 7, 27, 39, 187
    • Hackley, Anthony, 87, 209
    • Haley, Alex, 46
    • Hall, Gus, 17
    • Halsema, James J., 44, 96
    • Hanks, Nancy, 136
    • Hanna, William, 209
    • Hanna-Barbera Studios, 209
    • Hanson, Joseph O., Jr., 9, 73
    • Harley, William, 63
    • Harrop, William C., 201
    • Harter, Eugene, 1
    • Hartman, Arthur A., 23, 111
    • Harvard University, 129
    • Harvey, Raymond H., 1
    • Hassan, Samia, 15
    • Hatch, Orrin, 92
    • Hausa (language), 165, 215
    • Hauser, Rita E., 69, 76
    • Hausrath, Donald C., 1
    • Haviland, Virginia, 209
    • Hawkins, Fred D., 1
    • Hayes, John S.:
      • Defeat of McGovern-Pell amendment, 69
      • Gronouski appointment as BIB Chairman, 32
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL Boards, 32, 49, 51, 180
      • As RFE/RL Board Chairman, 18, 24
      • Stanton Report, 22
    • Health, Education, and Welfare, U.S. Department of, 92, 130
    • Heil, Alan, 56
    • Helsinki Accords (1975):
      • Radio jamming as violation of, 63, 210, 212
      • Soviet claims of U.S. violations of, 8
      • Soviet failure to live up to, 63
      • Third Basket, 13, 26, 34
    • Hemenway, Nancy, 215
    • Henze, Paul B.:
      • Academic exchange programs, 160
      • BIB, 11, 14, 32, 51, 180
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 195, 197, 200
      • Cultural exchanges, 31
      • Disagreements over VOA administration, 21
      • ICA, 112, 155
      • International arts policy, 136
      • International broadcasting, reports on, 14, 24, 180
      • International broadcasting issues, 18
      • Islamic Revival, 170
      • NSC/USIA meetings, 52
      • Persian-language broadcasting by VOA, 163, 171
      • PRM (proposed) on information programs, 42
      • Problems of Communism, 140, 144
      • USAC/IECA appointments, 36
      • USIA reorganization, 65, 85
        • Amendments to plan for, 100
        • Basic plans for, 90
        • OMB perspective on, 91
        • Treverton’s memo on, 70
        • USIA programs seen as obsolete, 66
      • USIA support for U.S. diplomatic initiatives, 35
      • VOA correspondents’ guidelines, 133
      • VOA reorganization, 49, 51
      • VOA’s coverage of stories on Iran and Afghanistan, 199
      • VOA’s foreign language broadcast increases, 171, 179
    • Hesburgh, Theodore, 67
    • Hill, Ken, 126, 133
    • Hill, L. Paul, 1
    • Hill, Robert B., 73
    • Hillier, Carolyn, 1
    • Hindi (language), 165
    • Hinton, Deane R., 2, 111
    • Hiro (Yasuhiro Wakabayashi), 113
    • Hirschhorn, Eric L., 91, 99
    • Hispanics, 158
    • Hitchcock, William K., 10, 86, 97, 99
    • Hite, Richard, 92
    • Hoffman, Art, 2
    • Hoffman, Carl, 1
    • Holbrook, Hal, 39
    • Holbrooke, Richard, 35, 81, 152
    • Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 67, 125, 150
    • Honduras, 191, 196
    • Hopkins, Jack, 102
    • Hopper, 209
    • Horizons, 67, 115
    • Hormats, Robert, 9, 61
    • Horn of Africa, 90
    • Horton, Frank, 100
    • Hostage crisis, 188, 194, 199, 214, 215
    • House of Representatives, U.S.:
      • Appropriations Committee, 76
      • Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee, 35
      • Civil and Constitutional Rights Subcommittee, 92
      • Department of State policy guidance for ICA, 118
      • ICA, approval of plan for, 114
      • International Operations Subcommittee, 84, 100, 116, 124
      • International Organizations and Movements Subcommittee, 72
      • International Relations Committee, 33
      • Interstate Foreign Commerce Communications Subcommittee, 44
      • USIA/CU reorganization, 100
    • Houston, Charles, 67
    • Hovey, Alan, 180
    • Huang Chen, 80, 166
    • Huang Hua, 80, 152
    • Hubert Humphrey North-South Scholarships. See Humphrey Scholarships.
    • Hubert Humphrey School of Public Affairs, 129, 156
    • Hudson, John H., 1
    • Human rights:
      • Action proposals, 67, 87
      • Advocacy of as part of U.S. ideology, 17
      • In Africa, 215
      • Alert services, 67, 87
      • Arms sales to violators of, 146
      • Briefings on, 61
      • In Central and South America, 215
      • Clusters of, 102
      • Conferences on, proposed, 87
      • CU action program on, 27
      • As CU program objective, 10
      • Foreign media reactions to U.S. policy on, 12
      • Foreign public opinion on, 48
      • Free flow of information, 63, 141, 142
      • Indonesian perspectives on U.S. focus on, 83
      • As integral part of USIA information output, 67
      • Interagency action plans on, 27
      • International conference proposal for, 67
      • As issue during Rosalynn Carter’s trip to Latin America (May–June 1977), 53
      • Latin American views on U.S. policies on, 101
      • Marks’ views on, 25
      • Presentation of U.S. foreign policy to American people, 211
      • PRM/NSC–28, 13, 73
      • Programming in the Southern Cone, 102
      • Provision of information and guidance to USIS field offices on, 67
      • Soviet bloc violations of, 8
      • Soviet pushback against, 26
      • UNESCO actions in promotion of, 158
      • U.S. Advisory Commission on Information’s views on, 46
      • U.S. public opinion on, 96
      • U.S. support for organizations promoting, 27
      • USIA action program on, 27, 87
      • USIA’s promotion of, 13, 27, 67, 102
      • Value systems and, 27
      • Violations seen as necessary in fight against Communism, 102
      • VOA’s approach to issues of, 17, 23
      • Year-end assessment of U.S. foreign policy’s emphasis on, 109
    • Human Rights Action Plan, 27, 67
    • Human Rights Alert Service, 67
    • Human Rights Coordinating Committee (of USIA), 67
    • Human Rights Coordinating Group (HRCG), 67
    • Human Rights Day, 67
    • Human Rights Week, 107, 108
    • Humanitarianism, 87
    • Humphrey, Hubert H.:
      • BIB, 18, 32, 49
      • Defeat of McGovern-Pell amendment, 69
      • Disagreements over VOA administration, 21
      • Human rights organizations, support for, 27
      • Scholarship program as tribute to, 119, 129
    • Humphrey, Muriel F., 119, 127
    • Humphrey, Ronald L., 1
    • Humphrey Institute for Politics, 119, 129
    • Humphrey Scholarships:
      • Approval of program for, 145, 156
      • Briefing of Muriel Humphrey on, 127
      • Budgeting for, 160
      • Implementation of program for, 156, 159, 215
      • Proposals for creation of, 98, 119, 123, 128, 129
    • Hungary:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146
      • Cultural exchanges, 215
      • Fulbright-Hays programs with, 31
      • Jamming of broadcasts by, 212
      • RFE broadcasts to, 210
    • Hunter, Robert, 61, 119, 194, 195, 199
    • Huntington, Samuel, 42, 134
    • Huntoon, Elizabeth, 209
    • Hutcheson, Richard G., 7, 19, 38, 100, 121
    • Hyman, Sidney, 92
    • Iberoamerican University, 20
    • The Iceman Cometh (American Film Theater production of O’Neill play), 39
    • Ideas, 115, 130, 141, 142, 150, 155
    • Ideological warfare, 17
    • Ideology, 109
    • Ilchman, Alice Stone, 173, 175, 209
    • Immigration, 93, 211
    • IMV (Information-Motion Pictures-Television):
      • AID use of services of, 39
      • Burr trial documentary, 92
      • Electronic communication, 44
      • Human rights as focus of, 67
      • Interviews with Carter administration personnel, 3, 9
      • MPAA relationship with, 39
      • Reorganization of, 39
      • Research and development within, 39
      • U.S. Constitution Bicentennial, 92
      • VOA as compared to, 39
    • Inderfurth, Richard “Karl":
      • Arms control/disarmament, 147
      • Human Rights Week, 107
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 98, 119
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • NSC/USIA meetings, 52, 61
      • Persian-language broadcasting by VOA, 163
      • PRM (proposed) on information programs, 42
      • U.S.–PRC Cultural Agreement, 166
      • USIA reorganization, 65, 91
      • USIA support for U.S. diplomatic initiatives, 35
      • VOA correspondents’ guidelines, 133
    • India:
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Building of satellites by, 63, 158
      • Communications with non-aligned countries by, 63
      • Cultural exchanges, 215
      • Educational exchanges, 116, 215
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Pessimism about 1980 in, 204
      • Superpower code of conduct, 132
      • USIA activities in, 125
      • VOA broadcasting to, 171
    • Indian Ocean, 101, 138, 146, 149
    • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), 39
    • Individualism, 184
    • Indo-U.S. Subcommission, 215
    • Indochina, 171
    • Indonesia:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims in, 194
      • Human rights, 67, 83
      • Satellites as used by, 63
      • U.S. cultural exchange in, 215
      • U.S. public diplomacy in East Asia and the Pacific, 81, 83
    • Indonesian (language), 165, 215
    • Information:
      • As basic resource, 158
      • Biased sources in the Soviet Union of, 184
      • Free flow of, 63, 141, 142
      • General, 64, 72
      • Global flow of, 161
      • Guiding philosophy for programs abroad, 57
      • Management of, 39
      • Operational guidelines for ICA collection of, 183
      • Policy, 64, 72
      • PRN (proposed) on programs for, 42
      • Two-way flow of, 72
    • Information Center Service (ICS), 44, 92
    • The Inheritors (IMV film), 39
    • Inouye, Daniel K., 100
    • Inreach, 154
    • INSAT, 158
    • Instamatic cameras, 113
    • Institute for International Social Research (IISR), Princeton University, 5, 96
    • Institute for Scientific and Technical Cooperation, 158
    • Institute of World Economics and International Relations, 60
    • Integrity of the person, 102
    • Intellectuals, 150
    • Intelligence, 211
    • INTELSAT (International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium), 63, 158
    • Inter-American Human Rights Commission, 67
    • Interagency Art Group, 136
    • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134, 137, 138, 147, 153
    • Interagency Committee on the International Year of the Child, 209
    • Interdepartmental Committee for Scientific and Cultural Cooperation, 181
    • Interdepartmental Committee on Cooperation with the American Republics, 181
    • Interdependence, 93, 124, 213
    • Interim International Information Service, 181
    • Interior, U.S. Department of, U.S. Constitution Bicentennial, 92
    • International Affairs Seminar (Salzburg, 1980), 215
    • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 149
    • International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 101, 158
    • International broadcasting (see also Board for International Broadcasting; Jamming; Radio Free Europe; Radio Liberty; Voice of America):
      • Countries involved in, 63, 165
      • Issues of, 18
      • Reports on, 14, 24, 25, 180
      • Soviet attacks on, 32
    • International Center for Tropical Agriculture, 158
    • International Commission for the Study of Communications Problems, 158
    • International Committee of the American Studies Association, 92
    • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 188
    • International Communication Agency (ICA) (see also United States Information Agency):
      • Academic exchange programs, 159, 160, 175
      • Accomplishments during Carter administration of, 215
      • Activities in the People’s Republic of China funded by, 152, 175
      • Agriculture-USA exhibit (Soviet Union, 1978), 125, 184
      • Approval for, 114
      • Arms control/disarmament, 138, 146, 147, 149, 155
      • Arts America (programs for 1980), 172, 174, 176, 177, 178, 185
      • Assessment of performance from NSC perspective, 161
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Bray’s speech on (Oct. 1980), 213
      • Carter’s mission statement for, 121, 181, 213
      • Communications development, 158
      • Coordination with other agencies, 181
      • As coordinator of policy on educational and cultural exchanges, 175
      • Core management of, 120
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 194, 195, 197, 200
      • Creation of, 181
      • Cuban refugees, 206, 207, 208
      • Cultural projects in Cuba, 186, 207, 208, 215
      • Department of State’s relations with, 118, 131, 155
      • Domestic broadcast restrictions on, 185
      • Field operations of, 150, 181
      • Focus nations for research by, 183
      • Guidelines for audience analysis, 150
      • Guidelines for information collection, 183
      • Guidelines for transition from USIA to, 122
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 156
      • Inauguration ceremony (Apr. 3, 1978), 121, 125
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134, 137, 138, 147, 153
      • International arts policy, 136
      • International public views on arms control/disarmament, 138, 146
      • Islamic Revival, 170
      • Issues facing (GAO study), 181
      • Libraries’ role in, 154
      • New mandates for, 125
      • New programs vs. old in, 181
      • NSC’s relationship with, 155, 181
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 202
      • Optimism vs. pessimism—prospects for 1980, 204
      • Organizational structure of, 120
      • Partnerships with outside groups, 203
      • Photography-USA exhibit (Soviet Union, 1977), 113
      • Policy guidelines for media of, 126
      • Problems of Communism, 140, 144, 185
      • Proposals for, 93, 94, 99, 107, 120, 121
      • Proposed budget for, 108, 111, 112
      • Public affairs officer in the Caribbean, 208
      • Public awareness of, 181
      • Reinhardt’s letters to PSOs, 150, 154
      • Report on first six months of, 155
      • Research Directorate, 161
      • Research precepts, 183
      • Search for recognition by, 181
      • Second Mandate, 173, 181, 185, 213
      • Secretary of State’s role with, 120
      • Soviet attacks on, 155
      • Soviet public’s attitudes toward the United States, 184
      • Studying the general public, 182
      • Survey of Soviet citizens by, 162
      • Terrorism abroad, 193
      • U.S.–PRC Cultural Agreement, 166
      • V–E Day anniversary, 205
      • VOA policy commentaries, 148, 157
      • White House relationship with, 141, 142
      • Working groups for establishment of, 114, 120
    • International communications policy of the United States, 39, 44, 58, 72, 141, 155
    • International Development Agency (IDA), 101
    • International Development and Food Assistance Act (1975), 96
    • International Development Cooperation Act (1979), 158
    • International Directory of Specialists in American Studies, 92
    • International exchange of persons, 7
    • International Exhibitions Committee, 136
    • International Finance Corporation (IFC), 101
    • International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 158
    • International Genocide Convention, 205
    • International Institute for Mass Communications Research, 158
    • International Institute of Communications, 142, 158
    • International Institute of Education (IIE), 31, 203
    • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 158
    • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, 158
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 101
    • International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), 149
    • International Olympic Committee (IOC), 202
    • International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX), 60
    • International Rice Research Institute, 158
    • International Telecommunications Convention, 212, 212
    • International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT), 63, 158
    • International Visitor Program:
      • Benefits from, 7
      • For Canadians, 41
      • Human rights action proposals, 67, 87
      • As part of effective communication, 150
      • As part of Second Mandate, 185
      • For Soviets, 60
    • International Year of the Child, 209
    • Investment, 101
    • IOP (Office of Policy and Plans):
      • Functions of, 73
      • Guidance from Department of State to, 54, 105
      • Human rights programming in the Southern Cone, 102
      • As provider of VOA guidelines, 47
      • Reorganization of, 68, 73
      • U.S. Constitution Bicentennial, 92
    • IOR (Office of Research and Assessment), 44, 115
    • IPS (Press and Publications Services), 44, 67, 125
    • Iran:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Audiences for USIS centers and libraries, 115
      • Countering of Soviet propaganda in, 164
      • Criticism of U.S. policy in, 193
      • Cross-cultural contact as affecting, 203
      • Failure of hostage rescue attempt in, 214
      • Hostage crisis, 188, 194, 199, 214, 215
      • ICA activities in, 215
      • Oil embargo, 188
      • Persian-language broadcasting by VOA to, 163, 164, 165, 171, 179, 188
      • U.S. image in, 164
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
      • VOA’s coverage of stories on, 199
    • Iraq, 194, 211, 215
    • Irwin, Phil, 113
    • Islamic Revival, 170, 189, 194, 200
    • Israel:
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Human rights, 107
      • Sinai disengagement, 138
      • Suez Crisis (1956), 182
      • U.S. support for, 101, 113
      • USIA outreach programs in, 125
    • Issues and Answers (ABC program), 39
    • Italian (language), 165
    • Italy:
      • American culture as seen by elites of, 117
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Attentive publics in, 182
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Lack of vitality in culture of, 97
      • Pessimism about 1980 in, 204
      • U.S. power as seen in, 214
      • U.S. public opinion surveys in, 4, 214
    • Jackson, John, 215
    • Jacobs, George, 1
    • Jacobs, John, 1
    • Jagoda, Barry:
      • Carter’s mission statement for ICA, 121
      • ICA’s performance as assessed from NSC perspective, 161
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 153
      • International arts policy, 136
      • NSC’s role in international communications and culture, 141
      • Transition ’77 film series, 20
      • USIA reorganization, 69, 70, 85, 86, 91
      • VOA reorganization, 56, 85
      • White House-ICA relationship, 142, 143
    • Jamieson, Donald, 41
    • Jamming (see also International broadcasting):
      • By People’s Republic of China, 80
      • Countermeasures against, 212
      • As Helsinki Accords violation, 63, 210, 212
      • By Soviet bloc, 25, 27, 63, 210, 212
      • Types of, 212
    • Japan:
      • American culture as seen by elites of, 117
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Audiences for USIA products in, 115
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Cultural and information activities of, 155
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Human rights, 48
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Law of the Sea, 35
      • Okinawa as factor in U.S relations with, 182
      • Public opinion research in, 96
      • Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security with the United States, 182
      • U.S. and European communication on issues with, 2
      • U.S. cultural exchange in, 215
      • U.S. power as seen in, 214
      • U.S. sale of reprocessing plant to, 12
      • USIA programs in, 125
    • Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association, 2
    • Japanese (language), 213
    • Javits, Jacob, 30, 49, 51, 92
    • Jazz music, 113
    • “Jazz USA" (VOA program), 63
    • Jefferson, Thomas, 63
    • Jenkins, Kempton, 58
    • “The Jetsons," 209
    • Jews, Soviet, 184
    • John F. Kennedy: Years of Lightning, Day of Drums (USIA film), 37
    • John Paul II, Pope, 180
    • Johnson, Deanna I., 1
    • Johnson, Lyndon B., 92, 124, 149
    • Johnson, Samuel, 203
    • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 134
    • Joint U.S. Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO), 96
    • Jones, William M., 116
    • Jordan, Hamilton, 3, 9, 19, 24, 38
    • Jornal de Brasilia, 12
    • Jose Limon (IMV film), 39
    • Journalism training, 63
    • Judicial Conference of the United States, 92
    • Juergens, Jack W., 1
    • Jurvis, Lorin A., 1
    • Justice, U.S. Department of, 92
    • Kadar, Saleh Abdel, 209
    • Kaiser, Robert G., 67, 202
    • Kampuchea, 171, 188
    • Kane, Robert, 202
    • Kasagi, Masaaki, 2
    • Katzir, Ephraim, 112
    • Keats, Ezra Jack, 209
    • Kennedy, John F., 7, 84, 96, 158
    • Kenya, 63, 115, 149
    • Keogh, James, 1
    • Kerr, Malcolm H., 15
    • Kesey, Ken, 6
    • Kettering Foundation, 213
    • KGB, 113
    • Khan, Rukanuzzaman, 209
    • Khokhlov, Rem V., 26
    • Kilpatrick, Clayton, 63
    • Kincaid, Nancy E., 1
    • Kisic, Bonnie L., 1
    • Kissinger, Henry A., 2, 12, 22, 39, 73
    • Kleiman, Carol, 209
    • Klose, Kevin, 189
    • Knopes, Robert, 1
    • Kohler, Foy D., 14, 18
    • Kohls, L. Robert, 1
    • “Kojak," 174
    • Kol Israel, 212
    • Komai, Ray, 1
    • Komsomol, 113, 184
    • Komsomol’ skaya pravda, 113
    • Kopp, Eugene P., 2, 3, 4, 6, 15, 17
    • Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 63
    • Korea, Republic of:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Optimism about 1980 in, 204
      • U.S. aid to, 113
      • U.S. withdrawal of troops from, 35, 101
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • Korean UN debate, 39
    • Kotcheff, Ted, 41
    • Kotok, Alan, 1
    • Kraft, Timothy E., 86
    • Kraus, Robert, 209
    • Krecke, David K., 1
    • Kreisberg, Paul H., 157
    • Kreisky, Bruno, 12
    • Kuftaro, Ahmed Muhammad Amin (Grand Mufti of Syria), 170
    • Labor, U.S. Department of, 203
    • Labor unions, 100
    • Lage, Alice, 1
    • Lahey, Charles J., 1
    • Lake, W. Anthony, 27, 54, 110, 211
    • Lance, Bert, 3, 9, 21, 69, 70, 71
    • Language studies, 130, 168
    • Laos, 171
    • Larabee, Steven, 180, 210
    • Latin America:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Audiences for USIA products in, 115
      • Briefings on, 61
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Panama Canal Treaty, 101
      • Presentation of U.S. foreign policy to American people, 211
      • Telephones in, 158
      • U.S. human rights policies as seen in, 101
      • U.S. scholarships for students from, 98
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • Latin American Institute for Transnational Studies, 63
    • Lattanzi, Frank, 1
    • Latvian (language), 212
    • Laugel, Pilar, 1
    • Lavin, Bernard, 83
    • Law of the Sea, 35, 39, 101
    • Leach, James A.S., 76, 124
    • League of Women Voters (LWV), 27, 92
    • Lebanon, 115
    • Leblanc, Napoleon, 158
    • Lederer, Leon, 1, 34
    • The Legacy (IMV film), 39
    • Legal reform, 215
    • “The Legislator is Educator" (Fulbright), 182
    • Lenin, Vladimir I., 155
    • Leningrad State University, 60
    • Leo the Late Bloomer (Kraus), 209
    • Leonard Bernstein (IMV film), 39
    • Lescaze, Lee, 21, 46, 51
    • Less-developed countries (LDCs):
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Anti-Americanism in, 200
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Free flow of information, 63, 141, 142
      • Growth and political stability in, 211
      • Lack of communications development in, 158
      • North-South issues as seen in, 101
      • U.S. scholarships for students from, 98
    • Levine, R. A., 96
    • Lewinsohn, Jodie, 78
    • Lewis, Art, 202
    • Lewis, Flora, 200
    • Lewis, Hobart, 39, 46
    • Libraries, 115, 120, 154
    • Library of Congress, 92, 167, 209
    • Lingala (language), 165, 171
    • Linowitz, Sol, 85
    • Linowitz Commission, 85
    • Lippmann, Walter, 150
    • Lipshutz, Robert, 3, 9
    • Lisle, Leslie, 1
    • Lite, Jeffrey H., 1
    • Literature, 117
    • Lithuanian (language), 212
    • Liu, Theodore M., 78, 92, 102, 152
    • Lon Nol, 85
    • Long, Loretta, 16
    • Lopez Portillo, José, 44
    • Lord Bryce, 182
    • Losev, Sergi, 158
    • Lowenstein, Allard K., 102
    • Lowitz, Donald, 99
    • Lubis, Mochtar, 158
    • Luers, William H., 43
    • Luttberg, Norman, 182
    • Luxembourg, 205
    • Macalester College, 63
    • MacBride, Sean, 158
    • McCall, Richard L., Jr., 69
    • McCulloch, David, 98
    • McDevitt, Elaine M., 1
    • McGee, James H., 7
    • McGovern, George S.:
      • BIB Chairman selection, 18, 19
      • Defeat of McGovern-Pell amendment, 69
      • Gronouski appointment as BIB Chairman, 32
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL Boards, 49, 51
      • USIA reorganization, 58, 100
    • McGovern Subcommittee, 49, 58, 63
    • MacGregor, Clark, 18
    • McGurn, Barrett, 92
    • McIntyre, James T., Jr.:
      • Academic exchange programs, 160
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 197
      • Human Rights Week, 107
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 127, 128
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134, 153
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL Boards, 180
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 198
      • USIA reorganization, 70, 93, 100
      • VOA, 171
    • McKee, Jean, 181
    • McNeil, Donald E., 1
    • McNertney, Donald E., 1
    • McNichols, William H., Jr., 7
    • Mahoney, Thomas E., 1
    • Maisel, Jay, 113
    • Maitrejean, Sigrid, 1
    • al-Majal, 115
    • The Making of the President (series)(White), 182
    • Malawi, 68
    • Malta, 125
    • Mamet, David A., 174
    • Mammen, Jean E., 1
    • Mandel, Marvin, 7
    • Manilow, Lewis, 181
    • Mann, Janean, 116
    • Many Voices, One World (report), 158
    • Marcy, Mildred, 92, 209
    • Margaret Mead (IMV film), 39
    • Marks, Leonard H.:
      • Cultural exchange, 25, 26, 31, 34, 41
      • Defeat of McGovern-Pell amendment, 69
      • Educational exchanges, 116
      • Free flow of information, 63
      • “Future of U.S. Diplomacy" hearing, 72
      • Gronouski appointment as BIB Chairman, 32
      • Human rights, 25
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL Boards, 32, 49, 51, 180
      • Reappointment of, 51
      • Sister cities program, 25, 31
      • U.S. Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs report, 76, 124
      • USAC/IECA role of, 36
      • As USIA director, 73, 124
    • Marquis, Bernie T., Jr., 1, 20
    • Marshall, George C., Jr., 124, 130
    • Marshall Plan, 124
    • Martin, Louis, 201
    • Masirah Island, 164
    • Masmondi, Mustapha, 158
    • Mass communications, 1
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 129
    • Massoud, Louise H., 1
    • Mathews, B. Ellen, 1
    • Mathews, Jessica Tuchman, 13, 61, 107
    • Mathias, Charles, 92
    • Matlock, Jack F., Jr., 60
    • Mauritania, 194
    • Mauritius, 67
    • Mayak jamming, 212
    • M’Bow, Amadou Mahtar, 158
    • Mead, Margaret, 39
    • Meany, George, 39
    • Media:
      • Analysis of audience for, 106, 150
      • Carter’s lack of discussion of human rights, 107
      • Coverage of Photography-USA exhibit, 113
      • Development in LDCs of, 158
      • Foreign reaction to Carter’s speech on U.S.-Soviet relations, 82
      • Guidance on promoting human rights in, 102
      • ICA policy guidance for, 126
      • Lecturers on issues in, 16
      • Legal provisions against ICA use in the United States of, 185
      • Operational coordination of, 73
      • Procurement vs. production of materials, 68
      • Reports on foreign reactions by, 12, 27, 35, 103
      • Satellite broadcasting, 18, 125
      • Soviet, 184
      • Television interviews of Middle East leaders, 15
      • U.S.-Soviet relations as seen by, 12
      • VOA correspondents’ guidelines, 133, 135
    • Medium-Term Plan for 19771982 (UNESCO), 158
    • Menard, D. L., 215
    • Mercurio, M., 105
    • Meridian House International, 209
    • Mershon Center for International Security Studies, 213
    • Mexico:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Attentive publics in, 182
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 196, 198
      • Optimism about 1980 in, 204
      • USIA programs in, 125
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • Meyner, Helen Stevenson, 84, 116
    • Miami Herald, 209
    • Michelson, Sig, 14
    • Middle East:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Audiences for USIA products in, 115
      • Camp David Summit (Sept. 1978), 151
      • Kissinger’s disengagement program, 39
      • Terrorism in, 182
      • U.S. disengagement from, 39
      • U.S. role in, 101
      • USIA support for U.S. diplomatic initiatives in, 15
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
      • Wireless File access in, 15
      • Working Group for, 74
    • Milburn, Beryl B., 76, 124
    • Mill, John Stuart, 125
    • Miller, Arthur, 67
    • Miller, Jean, 1
    • Miller, Paul A., 1
    • Miller, William J., 1
    • Milton, John, 57
    • Milton, Robert P., 1
    • Ministry of Culture (Soviet Union), 60
    • Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education (Soviet Union), 60
    • Mink, Patsy, 33, 40
    • Missiles, 12, 149
    • Missouri, 213
    • Modic, Paul, 1, 105
    • Mohr, Charles, 93
    • Mondale, Joan, 136
    • Mondale, Walter:
      • Carter’s mission statement for ICA, 121
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 127, 128
      • Public perception of Carter’s foreign policy, 38
      • Visit to People’s Republic of China (Aug. 1979), 167, 215
      • Visit to Europe and Japan (Jan.–Feb. 1977), 9, 35
    • Mongolian (language), 165, 171
    • Monsen, G. Richard, 4, 73
    • Moore, Arch A., Jr., 7
    • Moore, Frank, 49, 51
    • Moore, Richard D., 1
    • Moose, Richard M., 58, 201
    • Morgan, Edward P., 3, 9, 21
    • Morison, Samuel Eliot, 39
    • Morocco, 194, 203, 215
    • Morris, Richard, 92
    • Morrisett, Lloyd, 209
    • Morton, Herwald H., 1
    • Moscow State University, 60
    • Motion Picture Association of America, 6, 39
    • Moyers, Bill, 35
    • “Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood," 209
    • Multi-Regional Program, 60
    • Multilateral aid, 101
    • Multinational corporations, 101
    • Mundt, Karl, 1
    • Munoz Ledo, Porfirio, 45
    • Murphy, John T., 14
    • Murphy, Robert D., 30
    • Murphy Commission Report, 30, 50, 58, 86
    • Murrow, Edward R., 84, 125
    • Music, 113, 117
    • Muskie, Edmund S., 206, 211
    • Muslims:
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among, 194, 195, 197, 200
      • Hostage crisis as affecting, 194
      • In the Soviet Union, 189, 192, 195
    • Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction (MBFR), 138, 146, 147, 149
    • Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchanges Act (1961), 7, 41, 93, 124
    • MX missiles, 149
    • Nagai, Michio, 158
    • Nalle, David:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 138
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Educational exchanges, 116
      • Formation of Middle East Working Group, 74
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 156
      • ICA as coordinator of U.S. policy on educational and cultural exchanges, 175
      • Second Mandate, 173
      • U.S./Egyptian Joint Working Group, 175
      • USIA employees’ petition, 1
      • USIA support for U.S. diplomatic initiatives, 15
    • Narcotics, 211
    • Nasser, Gamal Abdul, 211
    • National 4–H Foundation, 7
    • National Academy of Science (NAS), 67
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 39, 44
    • National Archives, 92
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 27, 67
    • National Association of Educational Broadcasters, 209
    • National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 209
    • National Conference of Mayors, 31
    • National Council for International Visitors (NCIV), 209
    • National Educational Television (NET), 16
    • National Endowment for the Arts, 177, 178, 185, 186
    • National Endowment for the Humanities, 92, 136, 167, 177, 178, 185
    • National Foundation for the Arts, 136, 167
    • National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities, 100
    • National Governors’ Conference, 7
    • National Institute of Health (NIH), 175
    • National League of Cities, 31
    • National Park Service (NPS), 92
    • National Public Radio (NPR), 209
    • National Science Foundation (NSF), 175
    • National Security Council (NSC):
      • Academic exchange programs, 160
      • Arms control/disarmament, 138, 149
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 195, 200
      • CU’s restructuring, 75
      • Disagreements over VOA administration, 21
      • Educational and cultural exchange programs as ignored by, 161
      • Eurocommunism, 12
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 127, 128, 145
      • ICA’s performance as assessed from perspective of, 161
      • ICA’s relationship with, 155, 181
      • International communications and culture role of, 141
      • Meetings with USIA, 52, 61
      • NSSMs as produced by, 73
      • Stanton Report, 21, 22
      • USIA contacts with, 9
      • USIA reorganization, 62, 75, 91
      • USIA’s relationship with, 30, 73, 96, 103
      • V–E Day anniversary, 205
      • VOA’s expansion of broadcast facilities, 215
    • National Security Study Memoranda (NSSMs), 15, 73
    • National Symphony Orchestra, 215
    • Nationalization, 101
    • NBC News, 67
    • Netherlands, 4, 205, 215
    • Neutron bomb, 113, 143, 146, 149, 182
    • Nevelson, Louise, 174
    • Nevitt, Robert L. M., 1
    • New International Economic Order, 101
    • New Statesman, 12
    • New York Times, 1, 12, 184, 200, 209
    • Newman, Edwin, 67
    • News Agencies Pool, 63
    • News reporting, 72, 120, 125
    • Newsom, David D., 133, 164, 211
    • Newsweek, 76
    • Nicaragua, 196
    • Nichols, Robert L., 1, 156
    • Nicholson, Jack, 6
    • Nielsen, Arthur C., 46
    • Nieman, Agnes Wahl, 63
    • Nieman Fellowship, 63
    • Nigeria, 107, 146, 149, 159, 183, 215
    • Nihon Keizai, 2
    • Nik: An Experience in Sight and Sound (IMV film), 39
    • Nikolais Dance Group, 39
    • Nixon, Richard M., 11, 20, 46, 92, 96, 113
    • Nobel Prize, 63
    • Noel, Philip W., 7
    • Noh, 117
    • Noise jamming, 212
    • Non-Aligned Conference (Havana, 1979), 132
    • Non-Aligned Movement Summit (Colombo, Aug. 1976), 63
    • Non-aligned Symposium on Information (Tunis, Mar. 1976), 63
    • Non-governmental organizations (NGOs):
      • Activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 187, 190, 191, 196, 198
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Exchange programs, 7
    • Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT)( 1968), 149
    • Non-tariff barriers, 101
    • North Africa, 67, 72, 96, 101, 130, 194
    • North Atlantic Council, 72, 130
    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 67, 149, 205, 215
    • North Carolina A&T, 129
    • North-South dialogue, 109
    • North-South issues, 101
    • North-South Scholarships. See Humphrey Scholarships.
    • Norway, 4, 146
    • Novak, Robert D. S., 12
    • Now Music-USA (VOA music show), 113
    • Nowak, Jan, 180
    • Nuclear exports, 33, 40
    • Nuclear-free zones, 138, 146
    • Nuclear fuel, 146
    • Nuclear nonproliferation:
      • ICA initiative for public diplomacy effort on, 149
      • IMV Special Report on, 39
      • Public attitudes toward, 146, 147
      • U.S. policies as seen in South Asia, 101
      • USIA support for, 33, 40
    • Nuclear power, 12, 147
    • Nuclear war, 146, 149
    • Nuclear weapons, 5, 182
    • Nye, Joseph S., 33, 40
    • Nyerere, Julius, 155
    • O Estado de Sao Paulo, 12
    • Oates, Joyce Carol, 215
    • Observer (London), 12
    • O’Connell, Joseph D., Jr., 1
    • Office of Coordinator of Commercial and Cultural Relations between the American Republics, 181
    • Office of Education, 167, 175
    • Office of Education International Division, 92
    • Office of Educational Exchange, 181
    • Office of Facts and Figures, 181
    • Office of Inter-American Affairs, 181
    • Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs, 181
    • Office of International Information and Educational Exchange, 181
    • Office of International Visitors, 185
    • Office of Management and Budget (OMB):
      • Academic exchange programs, 160
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Arts America programs for 1980, 177, 178
      • Carter’s meeting with acting director of, 111
      • CU budget, 76
      • Cultural and educational exchanges, 85, 124
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 128
      • ICA budget proposals, 108, 111, 112
      • Report on international broadcasting, 24
      • Savings through electronic communications, 44
      • USIA reorganization, 85, 90, 91
      • VOA reorganization, 85
      • VOA’s budget, 180
      • Working groups for establishment of ICA, 114
    • Office of Press Relations (S/PRS), 105
    • Office of Private Sector Programs, 185
    • Office of Telecommunications Policy, 39, 44
    • Office of the Coordinator on Inter-American Affairs, 181
    • Office of War Information, 181
    • Official development assistance (ODA), 101
    • Oil, 101, 213
    • Oil embargo, 188
    • Okinawa, 182
    • Oksenberg, Michel, 166
    • Olason, Victor B., 156
    • Old Believers, 113
    • Oldham, Dorch, 76, 124
    • Olympic Games (Montreal, 1976), 202
    • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 201, 202, 205
    • Olympic Task Force, 202
    • Oman, 164, 203
    • Omu, Fred Isaac Akporuaro, 158
    • One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (film), 6
    • O’Neill, Eugene, 39
    • O’Neill, Thomas P. “Tip," 49
    • Openness, 46
    • Opinion leaders, 1, 35
    • Opinion research, 96
    • Optimism, 204
    • Oravec, Mona, 1
    • Oregon Public Broadcasting Service, 209
    • The Oregonian, 209
    • Organization of American States (OAS), 43
    • Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 67
    • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 101, 213
    • Orter, Al, 202
    • Osolnik, Bogdan, 158
    • Oteifi, Gamal el, 158
    • O’Toole, Thomas, 67
    • Outreach, 154
    • Owen, David, 164
    • Owen, Henry D., 98, 119, 166
    • Owens, Buck, 215
    • Owens, Sarale A., 1
    • Padilla, Antonio, 209
    • Painting, 117
    • Pakistan, 146, 149, 165
    • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 12, 85
    • Palmeiri, Robert J., 1
    • Pan-American Health Organization, 158
    • Panama, 138, 182, 196, 215
    • Panama Canal Commission, 215
    • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
      • Carter’s commitment to, 12
      • Fairness in, 109
      • And scholarships for LDC students, 98
      • As seen in Latin America, 101
      • Senate discussion with Carter on, 93
      • U.S. public opinion on, 96, 182
    • Panitz, Sol, 1
    • Paraguay, 67, 102
    • PARM objectives, 68
    • PARM process, 77, 81
    • Parry, Gerald J., 1
    • Partners of the Americas, 7, 187, 190
    • Pastor, Robert:
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Cuban refugees, 207, 208
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 98, 119, 123, 127, 156
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 196
      • NSC briefings of USIA, 61
      • Rosalynn Carter’s visit to Latin America, 53
    • Pastore, John O., 18
    • Path Between the Sea (McCulloch), 98
    • Peace Scholarships, 175
    • Peaceful coexistence, 17
    • Peaceful nuclear energy (PNE), 138
    • Pearson, James B., 51
    • Peled, Matti, 15
    • Pell, Claiborne de B., 32, 49, 51, 69, 92
    • Penetration Index, 212
    • Penney, Edward T., 1
    • People-to-people initiatives. See Non-governmental organizations.
    • Percy, Charles H.:
      • Amendment for USIA reorganization by, 46, 51, 58, 76
      • BIB Chairman selection, 18, 19, 32
      • Defeat of McGovern-Pell amendment, 69
      • Disagreements over VOA administration, 21
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL Boards, 32, 49
      • VOA reorganization, 49, 51, 85
    • Pérez Rodriguez, Carlos Andrés, 123
    • Perkins, James, 168, 213
    • Perrin, James, 1
    • Persian (language), 163, 164, 165, 171, 179, 188
    • Peru, 138
    • Peskov, Vasilii, 113
    • Pessimism, 204
    • Peterson, Robert, 1
    • Petrovits-Androutsopoulou, Loty, 209
    • Pettigrew, 100
    • Petty, Wilbert C., 1
    • Pezzullo, Lawrence, 102
    • Philippines, 35, 67, 125, 215
    • Photography-USA exhibit (Soviet Union, 1977), 113
    • Pipes, Richard E., 202
    • Pisano, Jane, 52, 56
    • Pistor, Michael T. F., 30, 209
    • Pleven, René, 182
    • Plutonium, 40, 146
    • Poland:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146
      • Bicentennial of U.S. Revolution, 92
      • Fulbright-Hays programs with, 31
      • Human rights violations in, 8
      • Jamming of broadcasts by, 212
      • Opposition to government of, 210
      • RFE broadcasts to, 210
      • Screening of U.S. films in, 6
      • U.S. cultural exchange in, 215
      • U.S. sister city relationships in, 31
    • Polaroid cameras, 113
    • Policy advice, 64
    • Policy commentaries, 148, 157
    • Policy explication, 68
    • Policy information, 64, 72
    • Policy Planning Staff (S/P), 110, 118
    • Polish Psychiatric Association, 6
    • Political liberties, 102
    • Polling methodologies, 182
    • Pollock, James C., 1
    • Ponomarev, Valeri, 113
    • Pop Concert I and II (VOA music shows), 113
    • Population issues, 101
    • Portuguese (language), 165
    • Povich, Shirley, 202
    • Powell, Jody, 3, 9, 20, 38, 70, 141
    • Powell, Phillip O., 1
    • Pravda, 8, 12
    • Presidential Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, 168, 185, 200, 213
    • Presidential Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 92
    • Presidential Decisions (PDs), 73, 186
    • Presidential Review Memoranda (PRMs):
      • On information programs (proposed), 42
      • PRM/NSC–10, 42, 155
      • PRM/NSC–17, 73
      • PRM/NSC–24, 73
      • PRM/NSC–28 (on human rights), 13, 73
      • PRM/NSC–35, 161
      • USIA receipt of, 73
    • Press, Frank, 166
    • Press Conference, USA (VOA program), 39, 82
    • Prillaman, Kenneth G., 1
    • Private investment, 101
    • Private voluntary organizations (PVOs), 196
    • PRIX JEUNESSE festival, 209
    • Problems of Communism, 67, 87, 140, 144, 185
    • Problems of Democracy, 87
    • Program Design, 178
    • Program for International Legal Exchange, 27
    • Programming, 150
    • Project ’87, 92
    • Project Camelot, 96
    • Projection of U.S. society, 68
    • Pronk, Johannes Pieter, 158
    • Propaganda, 155
    • Public affairs advice, 72
    • Public Affairs Officers (PAOs):
      • Area Directors as management over, 68
      • Arts America programs, 176, 178
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Conference of (Brussels, Apr. 1978), 125, 150
      • Conference of (Jakarta, Sept. 1978), 150
      • Functions of, 46
      • Human Rights Action Plan, 67
      • Human rights programming meeting, 102
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 156
      • ICA’s name as lacking public awareness, 181
      • Reinhardt’s letters to, 150, 154, 178, 185
      • Second Mandate, 185
      • Survey of LDC views of the United States, 101
    • Public Broadcasting System (PBS), 16, 209
    • Public diplomacy:
      • Definition of, 39
      • In East Asia and the Pacific, 81, 83
      • Principal functions within, 64, 72
      • Purposes of, 72
      • Reinhardt’s speech at Knoxville College on, 57
      • Target audiences for, 42
      • Undercapitalization of, 59, 62
      • VOA as function of, 64
    • Public laws. See Congress, Acts of.
    • Public opinion, foreign:
      • On arms control/disarmament, 5, 138, 146
      • In Europe, 205
      • On human rights, 48, 96
      • Paper on trends in, 5
      • Regarding U.S. actions, 35
      • Research on, 96
      • Surveys of, 4, 5, 162, 214
      • On U.S. involvement in Africa, 96, 101
    • Public Opinion and Foreign Policy (Rosenau), 182
    • Public Opinion and Public Policy (Luttberg), 182
    • Public Opinion Quarterly, 63
    • Publics, foreign, 35, 146, 182, 183
    • The Puritan Experience (documentary), 39
    • Pushtu (language), 171
    • Putnam, Robert, 134, 137, 147, 153
    • Quaid, Randy, 41
    • Quandt, William, 15, 170, 194
    • Quinn, Kenneth, 81
    • Quinn, Thomas H., 14, 49
    • Rabin, Yitzhak, 15
    • Racism, 158
    • Radio broadcasting, 158
    • Radio Free Europe (RFE) (see also International broadcasting):
      • Additional transmitters for, 14, 24, 63
      • BIB as overseeing agency of, 11, 18
      • Eastern Europe broadcasts by, 210
      • Fascell’s approach to, 58
      • Human rights action proposals, 87
      • As international broadcaster, 63
      • Jamming of, 210, 212
      • Merging corporate board with BIB, 32, 49, 51, 180
      • Reports on international broadcasting, 14, 24, 180
      • Soviet attacks on, 32
    • Radio Liberty (RL) (see also International broadcasting):
      • Additional transmitters for, 14, 24, 63
      • Azeri language broadcasting, 165
      • BIB as overseeing agency of, 11, 18
      • Fascell’s approach to, 58
      • As international broadcaster, 63
      • Jamming of, 210, 212
      • Merging corporate board with BIB, 32, 49, 51, 180
      • Reports on international broadcasting, 24, 180
      • Soviet attacks on, 32
    • Radio Luxembourg, 113
    • Radio Moscow, 63
    • Radio Peking, 212
    • Radio Working Group, 197
    • Radiological weapons, 138, 143
    • Rampton, Calvin, 7
    • Ramseger, Ingeborg, 209
    • Rappaport, Paul J., 1
    • Rasco, Roger C., 1
    • Ray, Robert D., 7
    • Read, Benjamin:
      • Department of State-ICA relations, 118, 131
      • Department of State policy guidance for USIA, 105
      • Department of State-USIA relations, 118
      • USIA/Policy Planning Staff relations, 110
      • USIA reorganization, 86, 99
      • Working groups for establishment of ICA, 114
    • Readers’ Digest, 124
    • Reagan, Ronald W., 92
    • Reddy, Leo, 182
    • Reflections (IMV film series), 39
    • Refugees, 205, 206, 207, 208, 211
    • Reinhardt, John E.:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159, 160, 175
      • Arms control/disarmament, 147, 149
      • “Books and Broadcasting for Children" (symposium), 209
      • Carter’s speeches on U.S.-Soviet relations, 82, 132
      • Confirmation as USIA director, 35
      • Confirmation hearing of, 30
      • Congressional appearances of, 30, 63, 203
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 195, 197
      • CU–USIA consolidation, 85, 88
      • Cuban refugees, 206, 208
      • Cultural exchange with the Soviet Bloc, 34
      • Director’s staff meeting notes, 30
      • Distribution of USIA materials within the United States, 37
      • Draft legislation on nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear exports, 33, 40
      • Educational exchanges, 116
      • Foreign media reaction reports, 12, 103
      • Future of electronic communications, 44
      • Human rights, Advocacy as U.S. ideology of, 17, 23, 48, 87, 102
      • Human Rights Week, 107, 108
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 127, 128, 145
      • ICA:
        • Accomplishments during Carter administration of, 215
        • Arts America programs for 1980, 172, 174, 176, 177, 178, 185
        • Budget proposals for, 112
        • Carter’s mission statement for, 121
        • As coordinator of U.S. policy on educational and cultural exchanges, 175
        • Cultural projects in Cuba, 186
        • Department of State’s relations with, 131
        • As director of, 114
        • GAO study on issues facing, 181
        • Inaugural ceremonies for, 125
        • Initiative on arms control/disarmament, 147, 149
        • Performance as assessed from NSC perspective, 161
        • Report on first six months of, 155
        • Research precepts, 183
        • Second Mandate, 173, 185
        • White House relationship with, 142
      • IMV reorganization, 39
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134, 153
      • International arts policy, 136
      • IOP functions, 73
      • Jamming of VOA broadcasts, 80, 212
      • Leadership of, 72
      • Letters to PSOs, 150, 154, 178, 185
      • Merging of BIB and RFE/RL Boards, 49
      • Middle East Working Group, 74
      • Muslims in the Soviet Union, 189, 192, 195
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 202
      • Presidential Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, 168
      • Problems of Communism, 140, 144
      • Public opinion surveys, 4, 162
      • Rosalynn Carter’s trip to Latin America (May–June 1977), 53
      • Speeches:
        • Before senior USIA officials, 120
        • At ICA’s inaugural ceremonies, 125, 181
        • Knoxville College (May 1977), 57
        • At meetings with USIA element heads (June 1977), 68
        • National Council for International Visitors (Feb. 1980), 203
        • Subcommittee on International Operations statement by, 63
        • UNESCO General Conference (Nairobi, Nov. 1976), 63, 158
        • UNESCO General Conference (Paris, Nov. 1978), 158
        • World Affairs Council (1977), 120
      • Stanton Report as opposed by, 25
      • Studying the general public, 182
      • Subcommittee on International Operations statement of, 63
      • Successor generation proposal of, 130
      • Undercapitalization of public diplomacy, 59, 62
      • Unofficial visits by leaders of smaller nations, 169
      • U.S.–PRC Cultural Agreement, 166
      • USAC/IECA appointments, 36
      • USIA:
        • Contacts with new Carter administration by, 9
        • Human Rights Action Plan of, 67
        • Operating guidelines for, 68, 95
        • Reorganization of, 58, 65
          • Basic plans for, 90
          • Carter’s message to Congress on, 93, 121
          • Christopher’s memo exchange with, 67
          • CU consolidation, 85, 88
          • Memo to USIA officials, 68
          • OMB perspectives on, 85
        • Role in Constitution Bicentennial of, 92
        • Role within executive branch of, 39
        • Support for U.S. diplomatic initiatives by, 15, 35
        • VOA integration into, 25
      • As USIA director, 21, 29
      • USIS actions around European political fluidity, 78
      • Visit to Europe (Apr. 1978), 125
      • VOA:
        • Approach to human rights issues by, 23
        • Correspondents’ guidelines, 133, 135
        • Coverage of stories on Iran and Afghanistan by, 199
        • Department of State policy guidance for, 104
        • Disagreements over administration of, 21
        • Foreign language broadcast increases by, 165, 171
        • Implementation of P.L. 94350 guidelines for, 47
        • As independent broadcaster, 85
        • Integration into USIA of, 25
        • Language priorities for, 165
        • Persian-language broadcasting by, 163, 165, 171, 188
        • Policy commentaries, 148, 157
        • Reorganization of, 25, 70
        • Soviet jamming of, 80, 212
        • Transmitter study, 165
        • Vance’s paper on, 56
      • Year-end (1977) assessment of U.S. foreign policy, 109
    • Reinhold, Robert, 168
    • Reinsch, J. Leonard, 46
    • Rentschler, James, 194, 195
    • Reorganization Plan No. 2 (1977):
      • Carter’s message to Congress on, 93, 94, 99, 120, 121, 125
      • Congressional hearings on, 124
      • Creation of ICA by, 181
      • Fulbright’s objections to, 99
      • As law, 114
      • Outcome of, 215
      • Proposed amendments to, 100
      • Second Mandate under, 185
      • U.S. Advisory Commission on International Communication, Culture and Educational Affairs as designated by, 124
    • Reorganization Plan No. 8 (1953), 93, 104, 105
    • Reorganization Project, 85
    • Republican National Convention (Aug. 1976), 9
    • Research and development (R&D), 39
    • Research Directorate (of USIA), 161
    • Rhodes Scholarships, 98
    • Ribicoff, Abraham, 100, 114, 124
    • Richardson, Elliot, 35, 39
    • Richardson, Henry, 119, 142, 161
    • Richardson, John, Jr., 119
    • Richler, Mordecai, 41
    • Richmond, 156
    • The Right to Believe (documentary), 39
    • Ritch, John, 32, 49
    • Rives, L. Michael, 83
    • Roberts, John, 41
    • Roberts, Walter, 18, 22, 32
    • Robison, Olin C., 181
    • Robock, Leonard, 1
    • Roche, John P., 14, 18
    • Rock music, 113
    • Rockefeller, David, 169
    • Rockefeller, Nelson A., 96
    • Rockefeller Foundation, 158, 215
    • Rodgers, David H., 7
    • Rogers, Fred, 209
    • Role of Information in the New International Order (seminar, Mexico City, May 1976), 63
    • “Role of Public Opinion" (Free), 182
    • Romania:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146
      • Fulbright-Hays programs with, 31
      • Jamming of broadcasts by, 212
      • RFE broadcasts to, 210
      • U.S. cultural exchange programs in, 215
      • U.S. interest in independence of, 12
      • U.S. sister city relationships in, 31
    • Roosevelt, Eleanor, 67
    • Roosevelt, Franklin D., 96
    • Roots the Saga of an American Family (Haley), 46
    • Rosacker, Harlan F., 1
    • Roscho, Bernard, 96
    • Rosenau, James N., 182
    • Rosenblum, Sanders, 1
    • Ross, Clathan, 1
    • Rostsel’mash factory, 184
    • Roth, Lois W., 96
    • Roth, Richard L., 28, 97, 99
    • Royer, William B., 1
    • Ruggiero, Robert R., 1
    • Rule of law, 27
    • Rusk, Dean, 149
    • Russell, Howard H., 1
    • Russell, John, Jr., 1
    • Russell, McKinney H., 1, 20
    • Russian (language), 165, 210, 212
    • Ryan, Leo J., Jr., 84
    • Sadat, Anwar, 15, 112, 125, 151, 155
    • Sakharov, Andrei N., 17, 205
    • Salvaterra, Arthur F., 1
    • Samuel Eliot Morison (IMV film), 39
    • San Francisco Bay, 213
    • Sandburg, Carl, 39
    • Sandburg’s Lincoln (David Wolper documentary), 39
    • Sarbanes, Paul S., 51
    • Saroyan, William, 215
    • Sasha and Yura (music group), 113
    • Satellite broadcasting, 18, 125
    • Satellites:
      • Allocation of orbital slots for, 63
      • ATS–6, 39, 63, 72
      • Brazilian, 63
      • Communications, 44, 72, 158
      • DSCS.II, 44
      • Indian, 63, 158
      • INTELSAT, 63, 158
      • Of non-aligned countries, 63
      • Sputnik I and II, 182
      • Television transmission through, 72
      • As used in Indonesia, 63
    • Saturation broadcasting, 212
    • Saturday Dance Show, 113
    • Saudi Arabia, 146, 149, 194, 200
    • Saunders, Harold H., 151
    • Sayre, Robert M., 169
    • Scandinavia, 146, 159
    • Schecter, Jerrold:
      • Daily digest of foreign media comments, 35
      • Foreign media reaction reports, 12, 103
      • NSC/USIA meetings, 52, 61
      • Report on international broadcasting, 24
      • USIA contacts with new Carter administration, 9
      • USIA reorganization, 65, 70, 91
      • VOA reorganization, 49
    • Schindel, Morton, 209
    • Schindler, Sol, 1
    • Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr., 96
    • Schlesinger, James R., 33
    • Schlossman, Alvin, 1
    • Schmidt, Helmut, 112, 130, 155, 182
    • Schneider, Michael, 1
    • Schneiders, 38
    • Schneidman, Harold F.:
      • Arts America programs for 1980, 172, 174, 176, 177
      • Audiences for USIA products, 106
      • Carter’s speech on U.S.-Soviet relations, 82
      • Distribution of USIA materials within the United States, 37
      • Educational exchanges, 116
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 156
      • ICA research precepts, 183
      • International arts policy, 136
      • Lack of vitality in European cultures, 97
      • Middle East Working Group, 74
      • Policy guidance for ICA media, 126
      • Studying the general public, 182
      • USIA human rights action proposals, 87
      • USIA/Policy Planning Staff relations, 110
      • USIA role in Constitution Bicentennial, 92
      • USIA’s operating guidelines, 95
      • USIS actions around European political fluidity, 78
    • Scholarships. See Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho scholarship program; Humphrey Scholarships; Peace Scholarships; Rhodes Scholarships.
    • Schreiter, Seymour L., 1
    • Science Report (IMV TV series), 39
    • Scientific exchanges, 125
    • Scott, Robert S., 1, 6, 15, 39
    • Sculpture, 117
    • Seal, E. David, 1
    • Seattle, 213
    • Secondary sources, 183
    • Senate, U.S.:
      • Appropriations Committee, 203
      • Department of State policy guidance for ICA, 118
      • Foreign Relations Committee:
        • Approval of Pell/McGovern Amendment by, 51
        • Bray’s confirmation hearing, 30
        • Foreign Assistance Subcommittee, 27, 102
        • International Operations Subcommittee (McGovern Subcommittee), 49, 58, 63
        • Reinhardt’s confirmation hearing, 30
        • Rejection of Percy Amendment by, 51, 58
        • USIA/CU reorganization, 100
        • USIA reorganization, 30
      • Governmental Affairs Committee, 99, 100
      • ICA as not disapproved by, 114
      • Judiciary Committee, 92
      • Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) (1968), 149
    • Senegal, 146
    • Senior Seminar in Foreign Policy, 87
    • Sermakashev, Vladimir, 113
    • “Sesame Street," 16, 209
    • Shaheen, John M., 46
    • Shakespeare, Frank J., 30, 73
    • Shaw, Dennis R., 1
    • Sheahan, Neila, 1
    • Sherburne, Neil C., 181
    • Shirley, John W., 4, 17, 23, 30, 34
    • Shub, Tony, 32
    • Shultze, Charles, 3
    • Sick, Gary G., 163, 194, 195, 200
    • Siemien, Patricia, 4, 173, 176
    • Sierra Club, 27
    • Silverman, Stanley M., 1, 116
    • Silverstein, Leonard L., 181
    • Silvis, Edward A., 1
    • Simon, Paul, 116
    • Sinai Peninsula, 138
    • Singapore, 125, 215
    • Siracusa, Ernest V., 102
    • Sisco, Joseph J., 39
    • Sister cities, 7, 25, 26, 31, 34
    • Sister Cities International, 187, 190
    • Skaggs, Ricky L., 215
    • Skywave jamming, 212
    • Slack, John, 116
    • Sloan Fellows Program, 129
    • Smith, H. Alexander, 1
    • Smith, J. P., 40
    • Smith, Morton S., 79, 80, 81, 116, 138, 152
    • Smith, Norris, 175
    • Smith, Paul, 140
    • Smith, Raymond, 215
    • Smith, Red, 202
    • Smith, Wayne, 7, 208
    • Smith, William French, 76
    • Smith-Mundt Act (1948), 1, 1, 30, 68
    • Smithsonian Institute, 92, 167, 175, 185
    • Snow, Christopher, 1
    • The Snowy Day (Keats), 209
    • Soares, Mario, 155
    • Social justice, 102
    • Social Scientists and International Affairs (Crawford and Biderman), 182
    • Solaris Dance Theater, 215
    • Solmssen, Peter, 136
    • Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 63
    • Somalia, 67, 194
    • Somavia, Juan, 158
    • Son of Sam murders, 113
    • Sonnenfeldt, Helmut, 12
    • Sontag, Susan, 215
    • Sorensen, Theodore C., 96
    • South Africa, Republic of, 113, 146, 149, 215
    • South America, 215
    • South Asia, 67, 101, 179
    • South Asian Committee on Human Rights and Development (SACOHRD), 215
    • South Carolina Educational Television, 209
    • South Pacific Television, 209
    • Southern Africa, 101, 158, 159
    • Southern Command, 215
    • Southern Cone, 102
    • Sovereign rights, 63
    • Soviet Bloc:
      • Fulbright-Hays program in, 31
      • Human rights violations in, 8
      • Jamming by, 25, 27, 63, 210, 212
      • Sister cities in, 26, 31
      • Transition from USIA to ICA in, 122
      • U.S. cultural exchange with, 26, 34
      • USIA bookstores in, 26, 31
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • Soviet Union:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Afghanistan as invaded by, 188, 199, 202, 205, 215
      • African mistrust of, 132
      • American Revolution as studied in, 92
      • Arms control/disarmament, 137, 146, 149
      • Attacks on international broadcasters, 32
      • Audiences for USIA products in, 115
      • Biased sources of information in, 184
      • Carter’s attitude toward, 113
      • CSCE review conference, 25
      • Cultural exchange programs, 25, 26, 59, 67, 155
      • Federal Republic of Germany, relations with, 210
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Foreign-language broadcasts by, 165
      • Foreign public perception of U.S. strength vs., 5, 214
      • Fulbright-Hays programs with, 31
      • Germans in, 184
      • Helsinki Accords, 63, 210
      • Human rights pushback by, 26
      • Human rights violations in, 8
      • Humphrey scholarships, 98
      • ICA as attacked by, 155
      • ICA’s survey of citizens of, 162
      • Ideological warfare, 17
      • Information programs of, 155
      • As international broadcaster, 63
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Jamming of Western broadcasts to, 210, 212
      • Media in, 184
      • Muslims in, 189, 192, 195
      • Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) (1968), 149
      • Nuclear weaponry of, 5
      • People’s Republic of China, relations with, 101
      • Photography-USA exhibit, 113
      • Propaganda expenditures, 155
      • Propaganda to Iran by, 164
      • Public attitudes toward the United States in, 184
      • Sakharov’s exile, 205
      • SALT II talks, 31
      • Solzhenitsyn’s exile from, 63
      • TASS criticism of VOA and USIA, 8, 32
      • Theater nuclear force, 215
      • Transition from USIA to ICA in, 122
      • United States, relations with:
        • Carter’s speeches on, 82, 109, 132
        • Foreign media perspectives on, 12
        • Grain purchases, 213
        • Sister city relationships, 31
        • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as affecting, 215
      • U.S. country plan for, 60
      • USIA activities in, 35, 60
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
      • VOA as jammed by, 210, 212
      • VOA as seen in, 113
      • VOA audience in, 155
    • Spain, 92
    • Spanish (language), 165
    • Sparkman, John J., 32, 41, 49, 51
    • Spasowski, Romauld, 6
    • Special Coordination Committee (SCC), 134, 197
    • Special Report, 39
    • Spectator, 12
    • Spencer, Charles S., Jr., 1
    • Spielberg, Steven A., 174
    • Springer, Craig, 1
    • Sputnik (satellites), 5, 182
    • Sri Lanka, 215
    • Staats, Elmer, 180, 181
    • Stanford Research Institute, 96
    • Stanley, Diane, 1
    • Stanton, Frank:
      • “Future of U.S. Diplomacy" hearing, 72
      • Message exchange with Vance, 86, 89
      • As possible BIB chair, 18, 19, 21, 32
      • VOA reorganization, 51, 86, 89
    • Stanton Report:
      • Comptroller-General’s report with discussion of, 50, 55
      • CU/USIA consolidation, 56, 85
      • Department of State views on, 64, 65
      • Fascell’s hearings on, 58
      • Former USIA directors’ opposition to, 25
      • NSC position, 21, 22
      • Senators’ disagreements on, 21
      • USIA employees’ disagreements with, 1
      • VOA reorganization, 55
    • Steele, Jonathan, 12
    • Steiner, Steven B., 1
    • Stern, Al, 92
    • Stoessel, Walter J., Jr., 111
    • Stone, J., 8
    • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I), 12
    • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II):
      • European reservations about, 182
      • Fairness in, 109
      • Foreign media reaction to, 12
      • International public views on, 138, 146, 147, 149, 182
      • Signing of agreement (Vienna, June 1979), 171
      • Soviet rejection of U.S. proposals on, 31
      • U.S. public opinion on, 96
      • Vance’s proposals on, 12, 35
    • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT III), 138, 146, 147, 149
    • Straus, R. Peter, 56, 99, 135, 148
    • Strauss, Richard, 156
    • Streibert, Theodore C., 96
    • Strovas, Frank, 1
    • Successor generation, 130, 155
    • Sudan, 194
    • Suez Crisis (1956), 182
    • Sugden, G. Scott, 1
    • Suib, Richard, 1
    • Superpower code of conduct, 132
    • Supreme Court, U.S., 92
    • Surinam, 68
    • Survey, 12
    • Surveys:
      • In Europe, 4
      • On foreign elite perceptions of American culture, 117
      • On LDC views of the United States, 101
      • Of people leaving Eastern Europe, 96
      • Perceived decline of U.S. power as seen in, 214
      • Of Soviet citizens, 162
      • On understanding of Carter’s foreign policy, 38
      • On U.S. military strength and arms control, 5
    • Swahili (language), 165, 215
    • Swan, Marshall W. S., 1
    • Sweden, 146, 149, 209
    • Swenson, John A., 1
    • SX–70 instant camera, 113
    • Syria, 194
    • Szanton, Peter, 86, 89
    • Tactical nuclear forces, 182
    • Tadzhikistan, 165
    • Taft, Robert A., Jr., 18
    • Taiwan, 63, 215
    • Takeyama, Yasuo, 2
    • Talley, Mae Sue, 181
    • Tamil (language), 171
    • Tangiers, 212
    • Tanzania, 146, 149
    • Tarnoff, Peter, 160, 163, 164, 187, 196
    • TASS, 8, 32, 113
    • Technology transfers, 101, 125
    • Telephones, 158
    • Television, 72, 158
    • Telkins, A. Stephen, 1
    • Terrorism, 101, 130, 182, 193, 211
    • Thai (language), 165
    • Thailand, 188
    • Tharp, Twila, 174
    • Thayer, Harry E. T., 152
    • The Gambia, 67
    • Theater, 60, 117
    • Theater nuclear forces, 138, 146, 147, 149, 215
    • Third World, 12, 63, 200
    • Third World News Agency, 63
    • Thome, Margaret H., 1
    • Thompson, Bob, 51
    • Thompson, Wendel, 1
    • Thompson, William F., 1, 74
    • Thomson, John, 152
    • Thorn, Gaston, 130
    • Thornton, Thomas, 98, 101, 119, 170, 199
    • 321 Contact, 209
    • Thurber, James P., 52, 54, 82, 104
    • Todman, Terence, 43, 102
    • Tompkins, Bertha T., 1
    • Toon, Malcolm, 8, 23
    • Topic (magazine), 115
    • Torrijos, Gen. Omar, 98
    • Toward a Law of the Sea (IMV Special Report), 39
    • Toweett, Taaitta, 158
    • Tower, John G., 49
    • Town Affiliation Association, 7
    • Trade, 2, 101, 211
    • Transition ’77 (USIA film series), 3, 9, 20
    • Transmitters, 14, 24, 63, 165, 179
    • Trattner, John H., 105, 157
    • Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security (U.S.-Japan), 182
    • Treaty of Paris (1783), 92
    • Treaty of Tlatelolco (1967), 146, 149
    • Trends (magazine), 115
    • Treverton, Greg, 69, 70, 75
    • Trilateral Commission, 2, 12
    • Trilateralism, 12
    • Trinidad and Tobago, 125
    • Trudeau, Pierre Elliott, 130
    • Truett, Cicely, 209
    • Truman, Harry S., 1, 124
    • Truman Doctrine, 124
    • Tubbs, Gordon, 1
    • Tuch, Hans N., 17, 23, 30, 47, 80, 135
    • Tuch, Thomas, 61, 179
    • Tuchman, Jessica, 13, 61, 107
    • Tunisia, 194, 215
    • Turkey, 125, 209, 212
    • Turkish (language), 165, 215
    • Turner, Stansfield M., 168, 197
    • Twentieth Century Fund Task Force, 158
    • 200 Years of American Art" (exhibit), 178
    • Tyler-Smith, Keith, 209
    • Ukrainians, 184
    • Ukrainian (language), 165, 210, 212, 213
    • Uncle Remus, 209
    • Underwood, Frank D., 1
    • Unemployment, 113
    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 125, 194
    • United Artists, 6
    • United Kingdom (UK):
      • American culture as seen by elites of, 117
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Attentive publics in, 182
      • Bicentennial of U.S. Revolution, 92
      • Camp David Agreements (Sept., 1978), 151
      • Common Market membership, 182
      • Cultural and information activities of, 155
      • Electronic communication to USIS offices in, 44
      • As focus nation for ICA research, 183
      • Foreign-language broadcasts by, 165
      • Human rights, 48
      • Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) (1968), 149
      • Pessimism about 1980 in, 204
      • Suez Crisis (1956), 182
      • U.S. power as seen in, 214
      • U.S. public opinion surveys in, 4, 214
      • V–E Day anniversary, 205
    • United Nations Charter, 67, 87
    • United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), 188
    • United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development (Vienna, Aug. 1979), 158
    • United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, 26, 63, 158
    • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 158
    • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO):
      • Medium-Term Plan for 19771982, 158
      • Meetings of:
        • General Conference (Nairobi, Oct.–Nov. 1976), 63, 158
        • General Conference (Paris, Oct.–Nov. 1978), 129, 141, 142, 143, 158
      • Promotion of human rights by, 158
    • United Nations General Assembly (UNGA):
      • Carter’s speeches before, 21, 26, 38, 67, 107
      • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, 149
      • Indian Ocean resolution (1971), 138
      • Korean debate (1976), 39
      • Resolution 424 (v), 212
    • United Nations Human Rights Commission, 67, 205
    • United Nations Special Sessions on Disarmament (SSOD), 134, 137, 149
    • United Press International (UPI), 158
    • United States Advisory Commission on Information, 46, 181
    • United States Advisory Commission on International Communication, Culture and Educational Affairs, 124, 181
    • United States Advisory Commission on International Communications, 93
    • United States Advisory Commission on International Education and Cultural Affairs (USAC/IECA), 25, 36, 76, 84, 85, 124
    • United States Advisory Committee on Information, 39, 46, 85, 93
    • United States Cultural Communications Agency (proposed), 91
    • United States Information Agency (USIA) (see also International Communication Agency):
      • Access to foreign publics and opinion leaders by, 35
      • Activities in the Soviet Union of, 35, 60
      • Advance texts of Brzezinski’s speeches to, 103
      • AID’s relationship with, 30
      • Areas for improvement in products and programs of, 115
      • Audiences for, 1, 106, 115
      • Broadcasting of President-elect Carter’s statement, 3, 9
      • Carter administration contacts with, 9
      • CIA’s relationship with, 30
      • Coverage of CSCE’s Belgrade review conference, 67
      • Creation of, 181
      • CSCE Conference, analysis of tactics for, 61
      • Cultural exchange, 34
      • Cultural exchange programs, 66, 155, 203
      • Diplomatic initiatives as supported by, 15, 35, 39
      • Director’s staff meeting notes, 30
      • Distribution within the United States of materials of, 37
      • Electronic technology’s impact on, 44
      • Employee petition, 1
      • Executive Committee, 30
      • Field activities, 39, 68
      • Foreign elites’ perceptions of American culture, 117
      • Foreign public reactions to U.S. actions, 35, 103
      • Guidelines for transition to ICA, 122
      • Human rights:
        • Action program on, 27, 87
        • Action proposals, 67, 87
        • As integral part of USIA information output, 67
        • Promotion of, 13, 27, 67, 102
      • Human Rights Action Plan, 67
      • Human Rights Week, 107, 108
      • ICA budget proposals, 112
      • Kennedy’s mandate for operations of, 84
      • Multi-media cooperative program, 39
      • National Security Council meetings with, 52, 61
      • North-South issues as seen in LDCs, 101
      • NSC contacts with, 9
      • NSC’s relationship with, 30, 73, 96, 103
      • Nuclear export policy, 33, 40
      • Nuclear nonproliferation, 33, 40
      • Openness as experiment of, 46
      • Operating guidelines for, 68, 95
      • Opinion research as utilized by U.S. foreign affairs agencies, 96
      • Organizing principles during Constitution Bicentennial for, 92
      • Outreach programs of, 125
      • Papers, S–177, 5
      • Photography-USA exhibit (Soviet Union, 1977), 113
      • Policy explication vs. projection of U.S. society, 68
      • Policy Planning Staff, relations with, 110
      • Programs for Western Europe, 97, 111
      • Public opinion on U.S. actions, 35, 103
      • Public opinion surveys, 4, 5
      • Receipt of PRMs and PDs, 73
      • Reorganization of:
        • Announcement of agreement on, 88
        • Brzezinski’s memos on, 71
        • Carter’s speeches on, 90, 93, 185
        • Changing of names of local institutions for transition to ICA, 122
        • Christopher-Reinhardt memo exchange on, 67
        • Christopher’s testimony before Fascell’s committee, 58, 64, 72
        • Comptroller-General’s report on, 50, 55
        • Integration of Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs into:
          • Agreement on, 88
          • Carter’s message to Congress on, 93, 94, 99, 120, 121, 125
          • Christopher’s testimony before Fascell’s committee, 72
          • Comptroller-General’s report with discussion of, 50, 55
          • Department of State position:
            • Action memorandum on issues for Department of State decisions on, 58
            • Vance’s memos on, 55, 64, 66, 69, 70, 71
          • Employee petition for, 1
          • Former USIA directors’ support for, 25
          • Fulbright’s opposition to, 99
          • International Operations Subcommittee recommendations on, 84
          • NSC comments on, 91
          • OMB preparation of text for, 91
          • Outcome of, 215
          • Proposed amendments to plan for, 100
          • Stanton-Vance message exchange on, 86, 89
        • Jagoda’s views on, 70, 91
        • Loose ends from, 85
        • Meeting with element heads, 68
        • NSC perspectives on, 65, 72, 75, 91
        • OMB perspectives on, 85, 90, 91
        • Options for, 64
        • Percy’s amendment, 46, 51, 58, 76
        • Petition for, 1
        • Plans for, 30, 90
        • Reinhardt’s memo to USIA officials, 68
        • Statement of incoming director on, 30
        • Treverton’s memo on, 70
        • Under CU rather than USIA, 66
        • U.S. Advisory Commission on Information report on, 46, 181
        • USIA programs seen as obsolete, 66, 70, 86
        • VOA’s role in event of, 85
      • Report on international broadcasting, 24, 25
      • Research Directorate, 161
      • Role in East Asia and the Pacific of, 81, 83
      • Role of, 1
      • Role of director of, 68
      • Role within executive branch of, 39
      • Sister cities, 34
      • Stanton Report as disliked by employees of, 1
      • TASS criticism of, 8
      • U.S.–EC-Japan communications on issues, 2
      • USAC/IECA appointments, 36
      • USIS as overseas operation of, 181
      • VOA approach to human rights issues, 17, 23, 27, 30, 67
      • Working groups for establishment of ICA, 114
      • Year-end (1977) assessment of U.S. foreign policy, 109
    • United States Information Service (USIS):
      • Actions around political fluidity in Europe by, 78
      • Aiding Mondale’s trip to Europe and Japan (Jan.–Feb. 1977)9, 35
      • Audiences for products of, 106, 115, 154
      • Defining objective in individual posts for, 68
      • Department of State policy guidance for, 54, 105
      • Human rights action proposals, 87
      • Human rights in the Southern Cone, 102
      • As overseas operations of USIA, 181
      • Provision of human rights information and guidance to field offices of, 67
      • Report on international broadcasting, 14
      • Rosalynn Carter’s trip to Latin America (May–June 1977), 53
      • Transmitters as included in budget requests for, 14, 24
    • United States International Communication Agency (USICA). See International Communication Agency (ICA).
    • United States International Information Administration, 181
    • United States Olympic Committee (USOC), 202, 205
    • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 26, 63, 87
    • UPI Broadcasting Advisory Board, 63
    • Uranium enrichment, 40
    • Urdu (language), 165, 189, 215
    • Uruguay, 67, 102, 204, 215
    • U.S. Art The Gift of Ourselves (documentary), 39
    • U.S./Egyptian Joint Working Group, 175
    • U.S. Information and Educational Exchange Act (1948), 1, 1, 93, 181
    • U.S.-Japan Friendship Commission, 2
    • U.S. Non-Profit Organizations in Development Assistance Abroad, 187
    • U.S. Youth Council, 7
    • USA–200 exhibit, 113
    • USA Institute, 60
    • Uzbek (language), 212, 213, 215
    • V–E Day, 205
    • V–E Day anniversary, 205
    • Vacuum tubes, 59
    • Vallimarescu, Serban, 4
    • Value systems, 27
    • Van Allen, 137
    • Van Viorst, Bruce, 69
    • Vance, Cyrus R.:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Appointment of BIB Chairman, 19
      • Arms control/disarmament, 149
      • Camp David Agreements (1978), 151
      • Carter’s speech on U.S.-Soviet relations, 132
      • Confirmation hearings of, 10
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 195, 197
      • Cultural exchange, 25, 34, 41, 155
      • Draft legislation on nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear exports, 33
      • Human rights, 27, 48
      • Humphrey Scholarships, 127, 128
      • ICA, 131, 155
      • Interagency Committee on Public Diplomacy and Disarmament, 134, 153
      • International exchange of persons, 7
      • Jamming of VOA broadcasts, 80
      • Meetings with Huang Hua, 152
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 187, 191, 196, 198
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 205
      • Persian-language broadcasting by VOA, 163, 171
      • Presidential Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, 168
      • SALT II talks, 12, 35
      • Speeches:
        • Asia Society (June 1977), 79, 83
        • OECD meeting (Paris, 1977), 67
        • UGA School of Law (Apr., 1977), 67, 102
      • Stanton’s exchange of messages with, 86, 89
      • Undercapitalization of public diplomacy, 59
      • U.S. policy in East Asia, 79
      • USAC/IECA appointments, 36
      • USIA reorganization:
        • Fascell Committee hearings, 58
        • NSC perspectives on, 65, 72, 75
        • OMB perspectives on, 85
        • Proposed amendments to plan for, 100
        • Vance’s memos on, 55, 64, 66, 69, 70, 71
      • Visits:
        • Africa, U.K. and Soviet Union (Apr. 1978), 125
        • Bali (July 1979), 215
        • Middle East (Feb. 1977), 12, 15
        • People’s Republic of China (Aug. 1977), 80, 86
        • Saudi Arabia, Jordan (Sept. 1978), 151
        • Soviet Union (Mar. 1977), 31, 35
      • VOA reorganization, 56, 75, 86
    • Vance, Grace, 53
    • Venezuela:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Ayacucho Declaration, 138
      • NGO activities in Central America and the Caribbean, 196, 198
      • Optimism for prospects for 1980 in, 204
      • U.S. scholarships for students from, 98
      • USIA’s promotion of human rights in, 67
    • Verba, Sidney, 182
    • Verghese, Boobli George, 158
    • Vernay, Alain, 12
    • Vest, George S., 97
    • Videla, Jorge Rafael, 102
    • Vienna Summit (June 1979), 171
    • Vietnam, Democratic Republic of, 171, 188
    • Vietnam, Republic of, 96
    • Vietnam War, 96, 182
    • Villarreal, Marti, 209
    • Vision (IMV TV series), 39
    • Vladivostok Agreement (Nov. 1974), 12
    • Voice of America (VOA) (see also International broadcasting):
      • Additional transmitters for, 14, 24, 63
      • Arms control/disarmament, 139, 149
      • Arts America programs for 1980, 178
      • Audiences of, 1
      • BIB as controlling body of, 18
      • Broadcast restrictions on, 185
      • Broadcasts to Czechoslovakia, 63
      • Broadcasts to the Soviet Union, Approach to human rights issues, 23, 30
      • Budget for, 180
      • Carter’s message to Congress on, 93
      • Carter’s speech on U.S.-Soviet relations, 82
      • Carter’s statement as President-elect, 9
      • Charter of, 47
      • Chinese-language broadcasts, 179, 213, 215
      • Correspondents’ guidelines, 133, 135
      • Countering anti-American sentiment among Muslims, 194, 195, 197
      • Coverage of stories on Iran and Afghanistan by, 199
      • Cuban refugees, 206, 207
      • Disagreements over administration of, 21
      • Educational level of listeners to, 115
      • Electronic communication, 44
      • Expansion of broadcasting, 215
      • Fascell’s approach to, 58
      • Fascell’s interview by, 67
      • Foreign language broadcast increases, 165, 171, 179
      • Foreigners as involved in programming of, 125
      • Forum Series, 67
      • As function of public diplomacy, 64
      • Human rights approach of, 17, 23, 27, 30, 67
      • Implementation of P.L. 94350 guidelines for, 47
      • IMV as compared to, 39
      • As independent broadcaster, 85
      • India, broadcasting to, 171
      • As international broadcaster, 63, 213
      • IOP as provider of guidelines for, 47
      • Iran hostage crisis, 199
      • Islamic Revival, 170
      • Jamming of broadcasts of, 80, 210, 212
      • Language priorities for, 165
      • Muslims in the Soviet Union, 189, 192, 195
      • News operation of, 120, 125
      • NSC meetings on, 75
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 202
      • Persian-language broadcasting by, 163, 164, 165, 171, 179, 188
      • Policy commentaries, 148, 157
      • Public awareness of, 181
      • Reorganization of:
        • Amendments to plan for, 100
        • Carter’s message to Congress on, 93
        • Comptroller-General’s report with discussion of, 50
        • Henze’s memo on, 51
        • International Operations Subcommittee conclusions on, 84
        • Lance’s memo on, 70
        • McGovern Subcommittee actions on, 49, 51
        • Opposition to, 35
        • Relationship to a consolidated USIA/CU, 85
        • Stanton Report’s position, 55
        • USIA employees’ position, 1
        • Vance’s paper on, 56
      • Report on international broadcasting, 14, 24
      • South Asian transmitters of, 179
      • Soviet audience for, 155
      • Soviet citizens’ views on, 113
      • TASS criticism of, 8, 32
      • Technical expansion of, 171
      • Transmitter study, 165
      • Undercapitalization of, 59, 62
    • Voluntary Speakers Program, 60
    • Voorde, Fran, 86
    • Walker, Jack, 182
    • Walker, Lannon, 201
    • Wall Street Journal, 44
    • Walmsley, Richard W., 1
    • Walsh, Edward, 40, 93
    • Warfield, Virginia L., 1
    • Warnke, Paul C., 12, 134, 149, 153
    • Warsaw Pact, 149, 205
    • Washburn, Abbott, 44, 49
    • Washington Post, 7, 12, 44, 51, 209
    • Washington Summit (June 1973), 60
    • WATCH, 209
    • Watergate scandal, 18
    • Watson, Jack, 191
    • Wattenberg, Ben J., 67
    • Weiler, Larry, 173
    • Weinhold, William J., 1
    • Weintraub, Richard, 46, 49
    • Weisman, Steven R., 205
    • Wellford, W. Harrison, 70, 75
    • Wells, H. G., 125, 150
    • Western Europe:
      • Academic exchange programs, 159
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 147, 149
      • Atlantic relationship, 130
      • Audiences for USIA products in, 115
      • Lack of vitality in cultures of, 97
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 205
      • Successor generation in, 130, 155
      • USIA programs for, 97, 111
    • Weston Wood Studios, 209
    • WGBH–TV (Boston), 209
    • Wheeler, Paul, 176
    • White, Priscilla, 1
    • White, Theodore, 182
    • White Line Fever (film), 184
    • Whitfield, Malvin, 202
    • Whitney, Craig R., 12
    • Wilke, Curtis, 32
    • Will, George, 202
    • The Will to Be Free (documentary), 39
    • Williams College, 129
    • Willis Conover’s Jazz Hour (VOA radio show), 113
    • Wilmington 10, 17
    • Wilson, Andrew, 12
    • Winkler, 176, 177, 182
    • Winks, Robin W., 28
    • Winks Report, 28
    • Wireless File:
      • Advance texts of Brzezinski’s speeches for USIA, 103
      • Arts America, 178
      • Carter’s message to Congress on USIA/CU reorganization, 94
      • Carter’s speech on U.S.-Soviet relations, 82
      • Computerized transmission of, 44
      • Islamic Revival, 170
      • Legal provisions against use in the United States, 185
      • Middle East access to, 15
      • Olympic Games (Moscow, 1980), 202
      • As part of effective communication, 150
      • As part of minimal USIS post, 68
    • Wisner, Frank G., 160
    • Wolcott, Peter C., 1
    • Wolff, Lester L., 84
    • Wolper, David, 39
    • Women’s status, 158
    • Woodcock, Leonard F., 152
    • “Word and their Stories" (VOA show), 113
    • World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC)(Geneva, 1979), 39, 44, 125, 212
    • World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC SAT 77)(Geneva, 1977), 63
    • World Bank, 101, 158
    • World Conference of Librarians (Manila, 1980, 209
    • World Health Organization (WHO), 158
    • World Press Freedom Development Committee, 63
    • World Press Institute, 63
    • World Psychiatric Congress, 113
    • World War II, 96
    • WPBT–TV (Miami), 209
    • WQED–TV (Pittsburgh), 209
    • Wyatt, Lawrence, 209
    • Yadin, Gen. Yigael, 15
    • Yemen, 203
    • “Yogi Bear," 209
    • Young, Andrew, 196
    • Youth for Understanding, 7
    • Yugoslavia:
      • Arms control/disarmament, 146, 149
      • Fulbright-Hays programs with, 31
      • Superpower code of conduct, 132
      • Transition from USIA to ICA in, 122
      • U.S. cultural exchange programs in, 215
      • U.S. interest in independence of, 12
      • U.S. sister city relationships in, 31
      • USIA activities in, 35, 125
    • Zablocki, Clement, 32, 41
    • Zero-base budgeting (ZBB), 68, 77, 79, 177
    • Zimmerman, Betty, 158
    • Zuckerman, Stanley A., 1