25. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)1


  • Leonard Marks on Cultural Exchange, Human Rights and Related Issues

Following up on your instruction of last week, I had lunch with Leonard Marks today. I found him bouncy, voluble and feisty. He had a lot to say about cultural exchange in general, about Turkey (where he visited in November) and about contacts with Arbatov and other Soviets. His main messages which he wanted passed to you are these:

• He gave me a letter (Tab A)2 in which he advocates four positive moves in respect to the Soviets:

1—Increase in the Sister City program3

2—A dramatic increase in professors and researchers invited to U.S. from USSR and Eastern Europe

3—A Presidential appeal on jamming, and

4—U.S. offer to operate bookstores in USSR & Eastern Europe

He believes these initiatives will keep the Soviets on the defensive and counter the maneuvers they are going to make against us at Belgrade.4

• He reported that all living former directors of USIA had met with John Reinhardt a couple of evenings ago to discuss issues that had been raised in Stanton Report. Advice was unanimous that VOA should remain in USIA and that State CU should be amalgamated with USIA which should oversee all cultural and information programs. He says there is strong Congressional sentiment for this viewpoint. He hopes White House will support Reinhardt.

• He says seven vacancies are coming up on U.S. Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs (USAC/IECA) which he heads. He would like to have our help in getting good people appointed to it. All are Presidential appointees. He would also like to be reappointed to head it—says he is in complete harmony with [Page 63] this Administration and is eager to push information and exchange programs energetically.

• He had very positive things to say about RFE/RL and President’s Report on International Broadcasting.5 He is eager to help in Congress if we need it. I told him Gronouski being appointed.6 He said he considered him a very good choice.


1) Leonard Marks’ verve and energy are impressive. Unless someone has a much better candidate, I recommend he be continued as Chairman of USAC/IECA. I suggest we give some thought to new members of this group too; I will develop a list if you wish.

2) There is a good case to be made for a friendly, aggressive approach to cultural and information exchange as Marks suggests in his letter. Suggest you send the letter to Reinhardt and Vance for their comments. With some refinements, these initiatives are worth pursuing at the right time, I believe.

3) Suggest you may wish to get together with John Reinhardt because I think he feels the need for support and help in carrying out his responsibilities. If we accept the idea that information programs are part of our national security effort, just as our military and intelligence programs are, there is a good case for your asserting yourself a bit in this field and not leaving it only to State, which always tends to give it short shrift.

  1. Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special (Henze), Box 1, Chron File: 3/77. Confidential. Sent for information.
  2. Attached and printed as Document 26.
  3. See footnote 8, Document 7.
  4. Reference is to the CSCE Review Conference, scheduled to take place in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in October 1977.
  5. See footnote 3, Document 14.
  6. See footnote 5, Document 24.