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Public Diplomacy


1. Petition Prepared by Employees of the United States Information Agency

Source: National Archives, RG 306, USIA Historical Collection, Subject Files, 1953–2000, Entry A–1 1066, Box 44, United States International Communication Agency, Reorganization, 1978–1985. No classification marking. The petition is entitled “USIA and the Future of Public Diplomacy.” On November 7, The New York Times reported that the petition, signed by 148 USIA employees, “was ‛by committee’ and ‛with the knowledge’” of Keogh, who had tendered his resignation to Ford following the election. (David Binder, “U.S.I.A. Workers Ask Carter to Keep Unit Independent,” p. 26)


2. Information Memorandum From the Deputy Assistant Director, East Asia and Pacific, United States Information Agency (Forster) to the Acting Director (Kopp)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of the Director, Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980, Entry P–104, Box 109, 7700010–7700019. No classification marking. Copies were sent to IOP and IEU.


4. Action Memorandum From the Assistant Director for Research, United States Information Agency (Monsen) to the Director-designate (Reinhardt)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of the Director, Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980, Entry P–104, Box 109, 7700140–7700149. No classification marking. A copy was sent to Kopp. Concurred in by Vallimarescu and Shirley, who did not initial the memorandum.


5. Report Prepared in the Office of Research, United States Information Agency

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of Research, Special Reports, 1953–1997, Entry P–160, Box 37, S–1–77. No classification marking. Drafted by Crespi. The report is entitled “Trends in the Image of U.S. Strength in Foreign Public Opinion: A Review of Survey Indications from 1955 to 1976.”


6. Information Memorandum From the Assistant Director, Motion Pictures and Television Service, United States Information Agency (Scott) to the Acting Director (Kopp)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of the Director, Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980, Entry P–104, Box 113, 7700600–7700609. Limited Official Use.


7. Memorandum From Secretary of State Vance to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, Office of the Staff Secretary, Handwriting File, Presidential File, Box 9, 2/24/77. No classification marking. Under an undated covering memorandum, which Aaron initialed, Brzezinski sent the President a copy of Vance’s memorandum. (Ibid.) The President wrote: “cc: Rosalynn” in the top right-hand corner of Brzezinski’s memorandum. Attached to these memoranda are a February 24 note from Hutcheson to Brzezinski indicating that the copies of both memoranda were forwarded to Brzezinski for his information and a handwritten note by Inderfurth: “cc Brz also RSC—if we haven’t already sent her one—I believe we have.” (Ibid.) Copies of both Brzezinski’s and Vance’s memoranda are also in the Carter Library, White House Central Files, Subject File, Foreign Affairs, Information-Exchange Activities, Executive, Box FO–35, FO–5 1/20/77–9/30/77. A notation on the copy of Brzezinski’s memorandum in this file indicates that the Vance memorandum and the Brzezinski covering memorandum were sent to Carter on February 22.


8. Telegram From the Embassy in the Soviet Union to the United States Information Agency and the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, D770052–0417. Limited Official Use; Priority. Sent for information to Leningrad.


9. Information Memorandum From the Associate Director for Policy and Plans, United States Information Agency (Bastian) to the Director-designate (Reinhardt)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of the Director, Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980, Entry P–104, Box 128, 7702560–7702569. No classification marking. Fraser initialed the upper right-hand corner of the memorandum.


10. Memorandum From the Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs (Hitchcock) to all Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Office and Staff Directors

Source: University of Arkansas Libraries, Special Collections Division, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Historical Collection (CU), MC 468, Group I, CU Organization and Administration, Series I: General Program Policies, Procedures, and Plans, Box 4, CU Policy Papers, 1970s, folder 18. No classification marking. Copies were sent to members of all working groups.


11. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special (Henze), Box 1, Chron File: 2/77. Confidential; Outside System.


12. Memorandum From the Director-designate of the United States Information Agency (Reinhardt) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Agency File, Box 9, International Communication Agency: 2–7/77. No classification marking.


13. Memorandum From the Deputy Director for Policy and Plans, United States Information Agency (Bastian) to Jessica Tuchman of the National Security Council Staff

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence Council, Job 91M00696R: Subject Policy Files, Box 5, Folder 12: Human Rights. Confidential. Bastian’s memorandum is attached to a February 28 memorandum for the record, drafted by Meyer, summarizing the February 28 meeting, during which the interagency participants discussed the draft version of a Presidential Review Memorandum (PRM) on human rights. The February 28 memorandum for the record is printed in Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, vol. II, Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, Document 22. During the February 28 meeting, Tuchman indicated that she hoped to provide Brzezinski with a draft PRM by March 4 and circulate a final draft to member agencies during the next week. The final version of PRM/NSC–28, May 20, is printed in Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, vol. II, Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, Document 46.


14. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special (Henze), Box 1, Chron File: 3/77. No classification marking. Sent for action.


15. Memorandum From the Assistant Director, North Africa, Near East, and South Asia, United States Information Agency (Nalle) to the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs (Atherton)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of the Director, Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980, Entry P–104, Box 113, 7700540–7700549. Limited Official Use. Copies were sent to Quandt and Day. Blind copied to Reinhardt, Kopp, Bastian, and Scott. Reinhardt’s handwritten notations on the memorandum are illegible.


16. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassies in Ghana, Nigeria, Zambia, Kenya, Cameroon, and France

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, D770077–0226. Unclassified. Drafted by Wilkinson; cleared by Smith; approved by Dalsimer. On March 17, the Department repeated telegram 49454 to Kinshasa. (Ibid.)


17. Memorandum From the Deputy Assistant Director, Broadcasting Service, United States Information Agency (Tuch) to the Acting Director (Kopp)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of the Director, Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980, Entry P–104, Box 113, 7700580–7700589. No classification marking. Copies were sent to Bastian, Shirley, and Reinhardt. Reinhardt and Fraser both initialed the memorandum, indicating that they saw it.


18. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special (Henze), Box 1, Chron File: 3/77. Confidential. Printed in Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, vol. XX, Eastern Europe, Document 47.


19. Memorandum From the Chief of Staff (Jordan) to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Subject File, Box 9, Board for International Broadcasting (RFE, RL, VOA): 2–12/77. No classification marking. A stamped notation indicates that the President saw it. In the top right-hand corner of the memorandum, Carter wrote: “cc: Ham Zbig. What are key elements of the Stanton report? J.” An attached March 15 note from Hutchenson indicates that the copy was returned in the President’s outbox and forwarded to Brzezinski and Jordan “for appropriate handling.” (Ibid.)


20. Memorandum From Larry Ewalt of the Office of Assistant Director, Motion Pictures and Television Service, United States Information Agency, to the Deputy Assistant Director, Motion Pictures and Television Service (Russell)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, Office of the Director, Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980, Entry P–104, Box 114, 7700690–7700699. No classification marking. Sent through Marquis, who initialed the memorandum. Russell sent a copy of the memorandum to Jagoda under a March 15 memorandum, stating: “We have a good feeling about the project and its value and were grateful for your office’s fine cooperation on it.” (Ibid.)


21. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special (Henze), Box 1, Chron File: 3/77. No classification marking.


22. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski) to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Subject File, Box 9, Board for International Broadcasting (RFE, RL, VOA): 2–12/77. Confidential; Outside System. Sent for information. A stamped notation indicates the President saw it. Another copy is in the Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Office, Outside the System File, Box 47, Chron: 3/77.


23. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in the Soviet Union

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, D770094–0588. Confidential; Priority. Drafted by Shirley; cleared by Garrison and by telephone by Reinhardt and Tuch; approved by Hartman.


24. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the Associate Press Secretary (Schecter)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special (Henze), Box 1, Chron File: 3/77. No classification marking.


25. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special (Henze), Box 1, Chron File: 3/77. Confidential. Sent for information.


26. Letter From the Chair of the United States Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs (Marks) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Agency File, Box 1, Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs: 3–12/77. No classification marking. An attached NSC Correspondence Profile indicates that Brzezinski “noted” the letter on March 24. (Ibid.)


27. Paper Prepared in the Policy Planning Staff

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, P770118–2014. Secret. Attached as Tab 5 to an undated action memorandum from Lake and Derian to Vance, sent through Habib and Christopher, regarding a general approach and a specific action program concerning the administration’s human rights policy. The final version of the S/P and D/HA action memorandum, March 25, is printed as an attachment to a March 25 memorandum from Lake to Christopher. See Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, vol. II, Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, Document 29. Christopher subsequently directed the Policy Planning Staff to redraft the March 25 memorandum as a memorandum from Christopher to Vance. For additional information, see Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, vol. II, Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, Document 34.


28. Memorandum From the Senior Program Adviser, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (Espinosa) to the Director, Office of Policy and Plans, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (Roth)

Source: National Archives, RG 306, USIA Historical Collection, Subject Files, 1953–2000, Entry A–1 1066, Box 50, Educational Exchanges, Robin Winks’ Study of Academic Exchange, 1977. No classification marking.


29. Memorandum From the Director of the United States Information Agency (Reinhardt) to all USIA Employees

Source: National Archives, RG 306, USIA Historical Collection, Office of the Director, Biographic Files Relating to USIA Directors and Other Senior Officials, 1953–2000, Entry A–1 1069, Box 23, John E. Reinhardt, Speeches, 1977–1978. No classification marking.


30. Memorandum From the Director of the United States Information Agency (Reinhardt) to all USIA Heads of Offices and Services

Source: National Archives, RG 306, USIA Historical Collection, Office of the Director, Biographic Files Relating to USIA Directors and Other Senior Officials, 1953–2000, Entry A–1 1069, Box 23, John E. Reinhardt, Speeches, 1977–1978. No classification marking.