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Sources

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, Volume XXX, Public Diplomacy

The Presidential papers of Jimmy Carter are a key source of high-level decision making documentation on public diplomacy. A number of collections from the National Security Affairs (NSA) files are relevant to research in this area. Within the Brzezinski Material, the Agency File (particularly the files for USIA, USICA, Department of State, BIB/VOA/RFE/RL) contains the most relevant documentation, especially concerning the 1977 USIA reorganization proposal. Within the Staff Material, the Horn/Special File, containing the files of NSC staffer Paul Henze, prove the most significant, given Henze’s overall interest in international broadcasting. Also of interest in the Staff Material collection are the Putnam Subject File, located within the Europe, USSR, and East/West File, and the Country and Subject files in the North/South Pastor Files. Both Robert Putnam and Robert Pastor engaged in a series of public diplomacy initiatives related to Europe and Latin America, and their files contain valuable information on public diplomacy and disarmament and the creation of the Hubert H. Humphrey North-South Scholarships. Beyond the National Security Affairs files, the White House Central Files are also an excellent source of documentation on public diplomacy. The Subject Files yield substantial material on USIA, USICA, BIB, VOA, and RFE/RL, in addition to including information regarding the 1977 USIA reorganization proposal, fiscal matters, governmental and non-governmental educational and informational exchanges, and the President’s relationships with foreign press.

The National Archives and Records Administration also houses essential documentation on the conduct of public diplomacy during the Carter administration. Within the Department of State Record Group, RG 59, the records of Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher feature some high level documentation, as do the records of the Director of the Policy Planning Staff Anthony Lake. Of particular importance is Record Group 306, the records of the United States Information Agency/United States International Communication Agency. These collections are a rich source of information about USIA/USICA’s ever-evolving organizational structure and its various programs and products. The USIA Historical Collection includes Subject Files (containing records relating to USIA function, mission, organization, and programs compiled by former USIA archivist Martin Manning), Office [Page XIV]of the Director Files (containing biographical material on USIA senior personnel and major speeches), and Reports and Studies Files. The Records of the Associate Directorate for Programs contains the Subject Files of Basic Operating Documents, which yield some of the most important high-level USIA policy formulation documents. The Office of the Director Files is also an excellent source of high-level documentation; particularly useful files include the Executive Secretariat Correspondence Files and Subject Files. The Office of Research files contain a variety of USIA printed products, including the Foreign Opinion Notes, Briefing Papers, Special Reports, and Research Memoranda.

Records of the Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (CU) were transferred to the special collections of the University of Arkansas Libraries in 1983. The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Historical Collection includes, primarily, the records produced when CU was located within the Department of State, from 1938 until late 1977-early 1978. Of particular interest for this volume are the CU Organization and Administration Files (Group I). Group I contains 6 series. The General Program Policies, Procedures, and Plans; Country Program Plans; and CU Reorganization 1978 files yielded important documentation on the issues facing CU during the early months of the Carter administration, CU’s role in implementing the country program plans, and CU’s role following its integration within USIA.

In addition to the paper files cited below, a growing number of documents are available on the Internet. The Office of the Historian maintains a list of these Internet resources on its website and encourages readers to consult that site on a regular basis.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State, Washington, D.C.
    • Central Foreign Policy File. These files have been transferred or will be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park, Maryland.
      • P Reels
      • D Reels
      • N Reels
    • Lot Files. These files have been transferred or will be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park, Maryland
      • HA Files: Lot 82D180
        • Human Rights Subject Files, 1980
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
  • Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
    • Lot Files
      • D Files: Lot 81D113 (Entry P–14)
        • Records of Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher, 1977–1980
      • S/P Files: Lot 82D298 (Entry P–9)
        • Records of the Director of the Policy Planning Staff Anthony Lake, 1977–1981
      • C Files: Lot 87D241
        • Records of the Office of the Counselor, International Sports and International Sporting Events, 1980–1983
  • Record Group 306, Records of the United States Information Agency/United States International Communication Agency
    • USIA Historical Collection
      • Subject Files, 1953–2000 (Entry A–1 1066)
      • Office of the Director, Biographic Files Relating to USIA Directors and Other Senior Officials, 1953–2000 (Entry A–1 1069)
      • Reports and Studies, 1953–1998 (Entry A–1 1070)
    • Associate Directorate for Programs
      • Subject Files of Basic Operating Documents (Entry P–100)
    • Bureau of Information
      • Library, Program Division, Special Collections, Bureau of Historical Librarian, Records Relating to the U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy, 1980–1998 (Entry P–146)
      • Office of Information Resources, Library Programs Division, Special Collections Branch, Office of the Historical Librarian, Subject Files, 1953–1999 (Entry P–195)
    • Office of the Director
      • Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Correspondence Files, 1973–1980 (Entry P–104)
      • Executive Secretariat, Secretariat Staff, Subject Files, 1973–1978 (Entry P–116)
    • Office of Research
      • Briefing Papers, 1979–1999 (Entry P–49)
      • Research Memoranda, 1963–1999 (Entry P–64)
      • Foreign Opinion Notes, 1973–1989 (Entry P–118)
      • Library, Archives, Office of the Archivist/Historian, Records Relating to the U.S. Advisory Commission on International Educational and Cultural Affairs, 1962–1978 (Entry P–138)
      • Office of the Associate Director, Program Files, 1973–1978 (Entry P–119)
      • Special Reports, 1953–1997 (Entry P–160)
  • Jimmy Carter Library, Atlanta, Georgia
    • Brzezinski Material
      • Agency File
      • Brzezinski Office File
      • Subject Chron File
      • Country File
      • Name File
      • Staff Evening Reports File
      • Subject File
    • Donated Historical Material
      • Brzezinski Donated Material
      • Jagoda Donated Material
    • Office of the Staff Secretary
      • Handwriting File
        • Presidential File
    • Plains File
      • Subject File
    • Presidential Materials
      • President’s Daily Diary
    • Staff Material
      • Europe, USSR, and East/West
        • Putnam Subject File
      • Horn/Special File
        • Henze File
      • North/South Pastor Files
        • Country File
        • Subject File
      • North–South Thornton File
        • Subject File
      • Office File
        • Meetings File
        • Outside the System File
        • Presidential Advisory File
    • Staff Office Files
      • Domestic Policy Staff
        • Eizenstat Files
    • White House Central Files
      • Subject Files
        • FG 266: Includes information on the United States Information Agency
        • FG 298: Includes information on the International Communication Agency
        • FG 298–1: Includes information on the Voice of America
        • FG 999–7: Includes information on the proposed Agency for International Communications (Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1977, 10/11/77)
        • FI 4/FG–266: Includes information on financial matters related to the United States Information Agency
        • FO–5: Includes information on governmental and non-governmental information-exchange activities, including exchange programs, studies, proposals, and requests
        • FO 5–1: Includes information on governmental and non-governmental educational exchange activities, including exchange programs, proposals, and organizations
        • FO 5–3: Includes materials on the President’s relations with foreign press
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • Central Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence Council, Job 91M00696R: Subject Policy Files, Box 5, Folder 12: Human Rights.
  • University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
  • University Libraries, Special Collections
    • Manuscript Collection 468
      • Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Historical Collection (CU)
        • Group I: CU Organization and Administration
          • Series 1: General Program Policies, Procedures and Plans
          • Series 2: Country Program Plans
          • Series 5: CU Reorganization 1978: CU–USIA Liaison

Published Sources

  • Brzezinski, Zbigniew. Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era. New York: Viking, 1970.
  • Carter, Jimmy. Why Not the Best? Nashville: Broadman Press, 1975.
  • Chicago Tribune.
  • Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy (Murphy Commission). Report of the Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1975.
  • Commission on United States-Latin American Relations (Linowitz Commission). The Americas in a Changing World: Report. New York: Center for Inter-American Relations, 1974.
  • ______. The United States and Latin America; Next Steps, a Second Report. New York: Center for Inter-American Relations, 1976
  • Comptroller General of the United States, Public Diplomacy In The Years Ahead—An Assessment Of Proposals For Reorganization. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977.
  • Congress and the Nation, 1977–1980, volume V. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1981
  • Foreign Affairs.
  • Foreign Policy.
  • International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems. Many Voices One World: Towards a New More Just and More Efficient World Information and Communication Order. Paris: UNESCO, 1980.
  • Legum, Colin and John Cornwell. A Free and Balanced Flow: Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on the International Flow of News. Lexington, MA: Lexington Press, 1978.
  • McCullough, David. The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977.
  • The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt with a Special Introduction and Explanatory Notes by President Roosevelt, 1937 volume: The Constitution Prevails. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1941.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents: Harry S Truman. 1947, 1949. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963, 1964.
  • ______. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy. 1961, 1963. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1962, 1964.
  • ______. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1968–1969. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1970.
  • ______. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard M. Nixon, 1972. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1973.
  • ______. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Gerald R. Ford, 1974, 1975, 1976. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1975, 1976, 1977.
  • ______. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1977–1981. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978–1982.
  • The New York Times.
  • Panel on International Information, Education, and Cultural Relations (Stanton Panel). International Information, Education, and Cultural Relations: Recommendations for the Future Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1975.
  • Roth, Lois W. “Public Diplomacy and the Past: The Search for an American Style of Propaganda, 1952–1977.” The Fletcher Forum, Summer 1984.
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. Paris: UNESCO, 1978
  • U.S. Agency for International Development. Socio-Economic Performance Criteria for Development: A Report on the Assessment of Commitment and Progress Submitted by the U.S. Agency for International Development Pursuant to Section 102 (d) of the Foreign Assistance Act. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977.
  • U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Strength Through Wisdom: A Critique of U.S. Capability, A Report to the President From the President’s Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, November 1979. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1979.
  • U.S. House of Representatives. Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on International Organizations and Movements. The Future of United States Public Diplomacy: Report No. 6 together with Part XI of the Hearings on Winning the Cold War: the U.S. Ideological Offensive. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968.
  • U.S. House of Representatives. Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on International Operations. Public Diplomacy and the Future: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on International Operations of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session, June 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, and 24. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977.
  • ______. Foreign Relations Authorization for Fiscal Year 1979: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on International Relations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session, January 31; February 1, 7, 8, 14, 16, 21, 23; March 14, 15; and April 5, 1978. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978.
  • U.S. House of Representatives. Committee on House Administration. The Presidential Campaign, 1976. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978.
  • U.S. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Departments of State, Justice, and Commerce, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1981: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States State, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, Part 1–(Pages 1–788). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1980.
  • U.S. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1977, Hearing Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session, October 25, 1977. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977.
  • U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy, Basic Documents, 1977–1980. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1980.
  • ______. Bulletin, 1974–1980. Washington: 1974–1981
  • Vance, Cyrus R. Hard Choices: Critical Years in America’s Foreign Policy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.
  • The Washington Post.
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