Index

Note: All references are to document numbers

  • Abshire, David M., 383, 386, 388, 394
  • Adair, E. Ross, 314, 315
  • Ad Hoc Committee to Improve the Status of Women in the Foreign Affairs Agencies, 324, 325, 330
  • Africa, 85
  • Agency for International Development (AID), 1, 132, 147
  • Agnew, Spiro T., 15, 105, 218
  • Aiken, George, 133
  • Ainsworth, Robert, 144
  • Albright, Gen., 34
  • Ambassadors. See under State Department management.
  • American Foreign Service Association, 295, 350
  • Anderson, Dillon, 19
  • Anderson, Adm. George W., Jr., 212, 213, 218, 230, 233, 236, 238, 249
  • Anderson, Jack, 129, 164
  • Annenberg, Walter, 207, 220
  • Arms control, 9, 61, 64, 65, 85, 148
  • Armstrong, Willis C., 378
  • Ash, Roy L., 290, 370
  • Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 180, 237
  • Bahr, Egon, 29
  • Baker, George, 370
  • Baker, William O., 204, 218, 233
  • Bannerman, Robert, 220
  • Bator, Francis, 381
  • Beall, J. Glenn, 385, 387, 389
  • Beaudry, Bob, 285
  • Beecher, William, 39, 40, 41, 48, 222
  • Behr, Col. Robert M., 59, 60, 62, 72, 138
  • BeLieu, Kenneth, 83
  • Bendix Corporation, 343
  • Bennett, Lt. Gen. Donald V., 256, 261
  • Bentson, Lloyd, 385, 389
  • Bergsten, C. Fred, 72, 132, 138, 146, 147, 349, 351, 353, 357, 358, 364, 365, 375
  • Berry, William, 286, 335
  • Beshar, Bob, 376
  • Biltchik, David, 163
  • Binh, Madame, 123
  • Blair, Bill, 346
  • Blair, Stan, 105
  • Blue Ribbon Defense Panel, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215
  • Bowen, Vice Adm. Harold G., Jr., 202, 276, 277
  • Boylan, Col., 62
  • Braderman, Gene, 359
  • Brandt, Willy, 29
  • Bross, John A., 183, 213, 219, 220
  • Brower, Charles, 388, 392
  • Brown, Harold, 237
  • Brown, John, III, 224
  • Brown, Winthrop, 59, 62
  • Brunson, Capt. James S., 256
  • Buckley, James, 389
  • Buford, Sidney, 311
  • Bui Diem, 19, 51
  • Bundy, McGeorge, 19
  • Bundy, William P., 19, 26
  • Bunker, Ellsworth, 29
  • Bureau of Intelligence and Research (State Department), 180, 217, 229, 247
  • Bureau of the Budget (BOB), 82, 89, 110, 309, 353
  • Burgess, Carter, 296
  • Burke, Gerard P., 213, 233
  • Burns, Findley, 306
  • Burns, John H., 305, 306, 351, 353
  • Butterfield, Alexander, 233, 235, 304
  • Buzhardt, J. Fred, Jr., 225, 251, 257
  • Byrnes, John, 357
  • Calkin, Homer L., 324, 330
  • Campbell, Dick, 279
  • Campbell, John, 366
  • Cargo, William I., 126, 137, 153, 301, 334, 367
  • Carver, George, 108, 216
  • Casey, William J., 347
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (see also Intelligence reorganization), 21
    • Ambassadors’ relations with intelligence personnel, 311, 333
    • Control over intelligence material reaching President, 194
    • Covert operations policy, 184, 195
    • Defense Intelligence Agency, relations with, 190
    • Kissinger’s liaison with, 226
    • National Intelligence Estimates, 208
    • National Intelligence Program Memorandum and, 288
    • Nixon’s displeasure with, 234
    • OMB, relations with, 237
    • Organizational arrangements, 183
    • Personnel changes, 216, 220, 224, 273
    • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 181, 205
    • Publications of, 217
    • Reorganization issue, 179
    • Soviet military intelligence, 232
    • State Department, relations with, 201, 285
  • Central Security Service (CSS), 252, 253, 254, 255, 257, 258, 260, 267, 289
  • Chafee, John, 223
  • Chapin, Dwight, 174
  • Chapin, Frank M., 182, 185, 189, 205
  • Childs, Marquis, 85, 123
  • Chile, 218
  • China, People’s Republic of, 158
  • Church, Frank, 314
  • Clark, Gen. Mark, 179
  • Clarke, John, 277
  • Clifford, Clark, 179, 200
  • Cline, Ray S., 140, 201, 204, 209, 213, 226, 228, 247, 250, 251, 256, 279, 285, 286, 288, 294, 311
  • Coerr, Wymberley, 201, 203, 311
  • Coffey, John, 220
  • Colby, William E., 280, 284
  • Cole, Ken, 34
  • Colson, Charles, 392
  • Commerce, U.S. Department of. See Foreign economic policy.
  • Congress, U.S. (see also War Powers legislation):
    • Defense intelligence system, 222, 263
    • Foreign economic policy, 357, 377, 379, 380, 381
    • Foreign Relations Authorization Act of 1972, 334
    • Intelligence reorganization, 244
    • Mansfield amendment on reduction of U.S. troops in Europe, 148
    • NSC system, 83, 95, 133
    • State Department management, 305, 314, 315
  • Connally, John B., 14, 370, 380
  • Consolidated Cryptologic Program (CCP), 179
  • Consolidated Defense Intelligence Program (CDIP), 179, 193, 202, 215, 276
  • Consolidated Intelligence Resource Information System (CIRIS), 202, 215
  • Cooke, David O., 252, 257, 260
  • Cooper, Richard, 381
  • Costello, Bill, 296
  • Council on International Economic Policy (CIEP), 132, 138, 146, 147, 366, 367, 369, 370, 372, 373
    • Establishment of, 374
  • Covert operations policy, 184, 185, 189, 195, 203, 218
  • Coyne, J. Patrick, 186
  • Crane, Robert Dickson, 119
  • Cryptologic command (see also Central Security Service), 239, 242, 251
  • Curl, Richard, 256, 288
  • Cushman, Lt. Gen. Robert E., Jr., 48, 204, 213, 214
  • Cutler, Robert, 19, 179
  • Dahler, Sally, 24
  • Dam, Kenneth, 237, 248, 280
  • Davidson, Daniel I., 47, 49
  • Davies, Richard, 285
  • Davies, Rodger, 285
  • Davies, Roger, 62
  • Davis, Jeanne, 38, 72, 103, 115, 122, 125, 178, 251
  • Dean, John W., III, 385, 386, 392
  • Defense, U.S. Department of (DoD) (see also Defense intelligence system; Defense Program Review Committee; Defense Department-NSC relations under NSC system):
    • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 327, 331, 333, 337, 344, 345
  • Defense intelligence system, 180
  • Defense Program Review Committee (DPRC):
    • Budget planning and review, 82, 89, 171, 172
    • Establishment of, 74, 76, 79, 110
    • Fiscal crisis of Defense Department and, 110
    • Future role, 176
    • Issues to be addressed, 81, 84, 102, 176
    • Kennedy’s assessment of, 175
    • Program analysis problems, 88
    • Proper role of DPRC, debate re, 89, 90, 91, 98, 99, 100, 101
    • Reform proposals re, 144
    • Summary of meetings (1969-72), 178
    • Working Group, 93, 97, 98, 99
  • DeLoach, Cartha D., 39, 40, 41, 42, 47
  • Dent, Harry S., 307
  • DePalma, Samuel, 17
  • Dillon, Douglas, 381
  • Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) position, 216, 219, 229, 236, 239, 242, 247, 249
    • Defense Department-DCI relationship, 243, 277, 283
    • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms, 284
    • Staff support, 271
  • Dobbins, James, 335
  • Dobrynin, Anatoly, 19, 29, 50, 80, 85, 148, 173, 174
  • Doolin, Dennis, 75
  • Doolittle, Gen. James, 179
  • Downey, Arthur, 72
  • Drucker, Peter, 316
  • Duckett, Carl, 220, 256
  • Dulles, John Foster, 148, 370
  • Eagleburger, Lawrence S., 22, 24, 37, 41
  • Eagleton, Thomas, 385, 389
  • Eaton, Frederick M., 187
  • Eberle, William D., 339, 381
  • Ehrlichman, John D., 20, 48, 49, 82, 83, 87, 110, 135, 164, 166, 275, 278, 284, 290, 296, 303, 304, 347, 369, 370, 373, 380
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D., 1, 50, 148, 382
  • Eliot, Theodore L., Jr., 68, 123, 127, 128, 130, 134, 153, 155, 162, 334, 361, 367
  • Ellender, Allen, 239, 250, 251, 271
  • Ellsberg, Daniel, 154
  • Ellsworth, Robert F., 351, 353, 354, 355
  • Ervin, Sam, 389
  • European policy, 1
  • Farkas, Ruth, 299
  • Farland, Joseph, 29
  • Fazio, V. James, 205
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI):
  • Finch, Robert, 319, 369
  • Fischer, C. W., 185
  • Fitzhugh, Gilbert, 211
  • Flanigan, Peter M., 294, 299, 300, 304, 308, 317, 319, 328, 351, 353, 358, 369, 370, 373, 374
  • Fletcher, Arthur, 318
  • Foreign economic policy:
  • Foreign Relations Authorization Act of 1972, 334
  • Foulton, Robert, 329
  • 40 Committee, 18, 175, 203, 218
    • Functioning of, 246
  • Franklin, Benjamin, 338, 341
  • Froehlke, Robert F., 192, 193, 196, 202, 204, 213, 214, 222, 225, 230, 243, 254
  • Fubini, Eugene, 187
  • Fulbright, J. William, 244, 382, 387, 389, 392
  • Gandhi, Indira, 167, 251
  • Gardiner, James R., 201, 285
  • Gayler, Vice Adm. Noel A. M., 257, 260, 261, 267
  • Germany, Federal Republic of, 29
  • Getler, Michael, 222
  • Getz, John, 35, 162
  • Gilbert, Carl, 358
  • Gleysteen, D., 55, 311
  • Godfrey, E. Drexel, 181, 205
  • Goldwater, Barry, 388, 389
  • Goodpaster, Gen. Andrew, 1, 3, 6, 17, 20, 56, 233
  • Gravel, Mike, 389
  • Gray, Gordon, 19, 218, 280
  • Green, Marshall, 68, 92, 113, 127, 344
  • Gromyko, Andrei A., 62
  • Gurney, Edward, 389
  • Habib, Philip, 85
  • Haig, Brig. Gen. Alexander M., Jr., 33, 53, 59, 62, 66, 103, 118, 147, 176, 252, 266, 268, 274, 279, 317, 362, 375, 388, 392
    • Central Intelligence Agency personnel changes, 216, 224
    • Central Security Service, 255
    • Defense Program Review Committee:
      • Program analysis problems, 88
      • Proper role of DPRC, debate re, 100
    • Foreign economic policy, 146
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Control over intelligence material reaching President, 194
      • Director of Central Intelligence position, 216
      • Economic intelligence, 236
      • FBI’s role, 278
      • Intelligence information handling, 204
      • Kissinger’s intelligence needs, 282
      • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 5, 205
      • Schlesinger’s appointment as top White House man on intelligence, 290
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • OMB/NSC Study re, 229
      • PFIAB consideration of, 218, 233, 236, 238
      • Schlesinger’s leadership role, 229
    • Kissinger’s assessment of, 22
    • NSC Staff:
      • Leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49
      • Meetings, 37
      • Organization of, 22, 24, 177
      • Paper-processing system, 24
      • Planning Staff, 77
      • “Sub-contracting” by staffers, 36
    • NSC system:
      • African issues, 85
      • Arms control issues, 85
      • Cable-clearance policy, 50, 85
      • Country programming, 149, 153, 155, 162
      • Foreign contacts by U.S. personnel, Nixon’s instructions to be kept informed about, 169
      • Foreign economic policy and, 146
      • Information and intelligence processing, 5
      • JCS spy operation, 164, 166
      • Kissinger resignation issue, 96
      • Korean military contingency planning, 35
      • Latin American issues, 85
      • Leaks by State Department personnel, 129
      • Middle Eastern issues, 85
      • Pentagon Papers leak, 154
      • Reform proposals, 30, 116
      • RogersKissinger conflict, 96, 112, 124
      • Security assistance issues, 146, 160, 162
      • Southeast Asian planning, 111
      • State Department-NSC relations, 52, 63, 84, 86, 104, 129
      • USIA Director’s role, 115
      • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 52
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 58
      • Zumwalt’s response to Nixon–Kissinger approach, 159
    • State Department management:
      • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 327
      • Personnel loyal to Nixon, advancement of, 320
  • Haldeman, H. R. (Bob), 34, 200, 234, 294, 302, 356, 369
    • Central Intelligence Agency personnel changes, 273
    • Foreign economic policy:
      • Council on International Economic Policy, 370, 374
      • Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, 358
      • Transfer of responsibility from State to Commerce issue, 375
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • FBI’s role, 275
      • Schlesinger’s appointment as top White House man on intelligence, 290
      • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms as DCI, 284
    • Mansfield amendment on reduction of U.S. troops in Europe, 148
    • National Security Council, 14
    • NSC Staff leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 48, 49
    • NSC system:
      • Arms control issues, 148
      • Cable-clearance policy, 20
      • Foreign contacts by U.S. personnel, Nixon’s instructions to be kept informed about, 168, 169, 170
      • Foreign officials, direct communications with, 29
      • JCS spy operation, 164, 165
      • Leaks by State Department personnel, 129, 167
      • Legislative coordination in national security affairs, 145
      • Public information policy, 32, 44, 54
      • RogersKissinger conflict, 80, 96, 112, 124, 142
      • Secretary of State’s role, 148, 152
      • Soviet officials, communications with, 148
      • Soviet Union visit by Nixon and, 173, 174
      • State Department-NSC relations, 129, 135
      • “State Department’s loss of influence in foreign policy” issue, 133
      • USIA Director’s role, 115
    • State Department management:
      • Ambassadorial appointments, 296, 300
      • Nixon’s plans for second term, 347
      • Personnel loyal to Nixon, advancement of, 320
      • Personnel reductions overseas, 304
  • Hall, Albert C., 237, 241, 243, 251, 252, 254, 256
    • Defense intelligence system:
      • Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence) position, 265
      • Central Security Service, 257, 258, 267, 289
      • DCI’s role, 283
      • Hall’s assessment of, 263
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Defense Department issues arising from, 272, 276, 277
  • Hall, W. G., 123
  • Hall, William O., 341, 376
  • Halperin, David, 224
  • Halperin, Morton H., 1, 17, 36, 37, 106, 310
    • NSC Staff:
      • Halperin’s departure, 72
      • Leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 41, 43, 47, 49
    • NSC system:
      • Korean military contingency planning, 60
      • Procedural problems, 66
      • Reform proposals, 30
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 60
  • Hannah, John A., 304, 309
  • Hardin, Clifford, 353, 359
  • Harlow, Bryce N., 83, 105, 296, 314, 315, 356, 359, 369
  • Harper, Elizabeth J., 324, 325
  • Hartley, Muriel, 24
  • Hartman, Arthur A., 126, 137, 138, 301, 316, 327
  • Hays, Wayne L., 305, 314, 315
  • Helms, Richard M., 51, 316
    • Central Intelligence Agency:
      • Organizational arrangements, 183
      • Personnel changes, 216, 220, 224
      • Reorganization issue, 179
      • State Department, relations with, 285
    • Defense intelligence system:
      • Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence) position, 261
      • Assistant Secretary of Defense for Administration position, 192, 196
      • Central Security Service, 267
      • DCI’s role, 243, 277, 283
      • National Reconnaissance Program, 192
      • Reorganization of, 179, 192, 196, 214
      • SIGINT programs, 187
      • Tactical intelligence, 250, 251
    • Defense Program Review Committee, 74
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Ambassadors’ responsibilities for intelligence activities, 280, 311
      • Coordination of U.S. foreign intelligence effort, 196
      • Covert operations policy, 184, 195
      • Director of Central Intelligence position, 216, 219, 249, 271, 277, 283, 284
      • Economic intelligence, 179
      • Facts and opinions in intelligence reports, 191
      • Helms’ assessment of, 179
      • Intelligence information handling, 200, 204
      • Intelligence Resources Advisory Committee, 271
      • Intra-community procedures and understandings, 271
      • Kissinger’s initial briefings on, 182
      • National Intelligence Estimates, 208, 209, 232
      • National Intelligence Program Memorandum, 288
      • National Intelligence Resources Board, 196
      • Net assessments, 228
      • NSC Intelligence Committee, 251, 271
      • Organizational arrangements, 183
      • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 186, 188
      • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 181, 205
      • Product evaluation projects, 206
      • Resource allocation within, 279
      • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms as DCI, 284
      • Soviet military intelligence, 179, 227, 232
      • 303 Committee, 185, 195
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Agencies’ attitudes toward, 230
      • Defense Department issues arising from, 276, 277
      • Helms’ proposals, 179
      • Implementation of, 268, 269, 271, 279
      • Kissinger/Shultz package proposal, 235
      • Presidential Directive re, 240, 242
    • NSC system:
      • Cable-clearance policy, 70
      • China visit by Nixon and, 158
      • Information and intelligence processing, 107, 108
      • Laos Ad Hoc Group, 92
      • Public information policy, 70
      • Southeast Asian planning, 111
      • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 107, 108
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 45
  • Hersh, Seymour, 43, 164
  • Heymann, Phil, 313
  • Hillenbrand, Martin J. A., 134, 173, 323, 341
  • Holdridge, John H., 62, 72, 146
  • Hoopes, Townsend, 378
  • Hoover, Herbert, 360
  • Hoover, J. Edgar, 39, 40, 41, 43, 46, 47, 49
  • Hormats, Robert, 72, 379
  • Houdek, Robert, 24
  • Howe, Jonathan, 279
  • Hruska, Roman, 389
  • Hughes, Col., 5
  • Hughes, Tom, 19, 29
  • Huizenga, John, 183, 220, 256
  • Hurwitch, Robert A., 119, 201
  • India, 167, 251, 286
  • Intelligence community/programs (see also Central Intelligence Agency; Defense intelligence system; Intelligence reorganization; National Intelligence Estimates):
    • Ambassadors’ responsibilities for intelligence activities, 199, 280, 311, 333
    • Atomic Energy Commission, 180, 237
    • Budget for, 221, 234, 237, 242
    • Consumers of intelligence, relationship with, 256, 286
    • Control over intelligence material reaching President, 194
    • Coordination of U.S. foreign intelligence effort, 196
    • Cost trends, 229
    • Covert operations policy, 184, 185, 189, 195, 203, 218
    • Deputy Director of Central Intelligence position, 249
    • Director of Central Intelligence position, 216, 219, 229, 236, 239, 242, 247, 249
      • Defense Department-DCI relationship, 243, 277, 283
      • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms, 284
      • Staff support, 271
    • Distribution of intelligence functions, 229
    • Duplication of activities, 229
    • Economic intelligence, 179, 233, 236, 270
    • Facts and opinions in intelligence reports, 191, 210
    • FBI’s role, 180, 275, 278
    • 40 Committee, 18, 175, 203, 218
    • Functioning of, 246
    • Helms’ assessment of, 179
    • History of, 229
    • Human source intelligence, 274
    • Intelligence information handling, 200, 204
    • Intelligence Resources Advisory Committee, 239, 242, 247, 271, 272
    • Intra-community procedures and understandings, 271, 279
    • Kissinger’s initial briefings on, 180, 182
    • Kissinger’s intelligence needs, 281, 282
    • Marshall’s assessment of, 268, 279
    • Military aides in Embassies abroad, reduction innumber of, 207
    • National Indications Center, 204
    • National Intelligence Program Evaluation Staff, 229
    • National Intelligence Program Memorandum, 287, 288
    • National Intelligence Resources Board, 179, 187, 196, 229
    • Net assessments, 228, 239, 242, 243, 247, 265, 266, 287
    • Nixon’s displeasure with intelligence product, 191, 210, 234
    • NSC Intelligence Committee, 178, 239, 242, 247, 256, 264, 268, 271, 275, 278, 279, 286, 288
      • First meeting, 250, 251
      • Functioning of, 245
    • NSC Intelligence Directives, 239, 242, 248
    • Office of National Estimates, 206, 208
    • Organizational arrangements, 183, 229
    • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 180, 186, 200, 204, 210, 212, 218, 219, 229, 230, 231, 233, 236, 238, 270, 274, 290
      • Establishment of, 188
    • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 5, 181, 205
    • Product evaluation projects, 206, 229, 256, 264, 268
    • Publications and their distribution, 217
    • Recuitment of supporters of U.S. Vietnam policy for, 273
    • Resource allocation within, 279
    • Schlesinger’s appointment as top White House man on intelligence, 290
    • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms as DCI, 284
    • Soviet military intelligence, 179, 198, 206, 208, 218, 226, 227, 228, 232
    • State Department’s involvement, 180, 201, 217, 229, 247, 285
    • 303 Committee, 18, 92, 182, 185, 189, 195
    • U.S. Intelligence Board, 116, 180, 187, 214, 217, 229, 233, 236, 239, 242, 247
    • Vietnam Special Studies Group’s intelligence activities, 107, 108
  • Intelligence reorganization:
    • Agencies’ attitudes toward, 230
    • Congressional response, 244
    • Cost savings, 229
    • Defense Department issues arising from, 272, 276, 277
    • Functional boundaries, changing of, 229
    • Helms’ proposals, 179
    • Implementation of, 268, 269, 271, 279
    • Improvements in intelligence product and, 229
    • Kissinger/Shultz package proposal, 235
    • Laird’s assessment of, 243
    • Leadership proposals, 229
    • OMB/NSC Study re, 229
    • PFIAB consideration of, 218, 233, 236, 238
    • Presidential Directive re, 239, 240, 242
    • Schlesinger’s leadership role, 229
    • Schlesinger’s views on, 237
    • Smith/Marshall “limited options” proposal, 234
    • State Department, impact on, 247
  • Intelligence Resources Advisory Committee (IRAC), 239, 242, 247, 271, 272
  • Irwin, John N., II, 125, 134
    • Defense Program Review Committee:
      • Budget planning and review, 172
      • Reform proposals re, 144
    • Foreign economic policy:
      • Embassy economic officers’ role, 350
      • Transfer of responsibility from State to Commerce issue, 376
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Consumers of intelligence, relationship with, 286
      • National Intelligence Program Memorandum, 288
      • Net assessments, 228
      • NSC Intelligence Committee, 250, 251
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Presidential Directive re, 242
      • State Department, impact on, 247
    • NSC system:
      • Country programming, 132, 153, 155, 161, 162
      • Foreign officials, direct communications with, 127, 130
      • Presentation of issues to President, 126
      • Security assistance issues, 160, 161, 162
      • Under Secretaries Committee, 109
    • State Department management:
      • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 327
      • Irwin’s appointment as Under Secretary, 319
      • Planning and Coordination Staff, 301
      • Policy Analysis and Resource Allocation system, 343
      • 7th Floor (top echelon) reorganization, 334
  • Isaacson, Walter, 43, 164
  • Israel, 169
  • Jackson, C. D., 179
  • Jackson, Henry, 83
  • Japan, 1
  • Javits, Jacob, 384, 385, 388, 389, 392
  • Jefferson, Thomas, 338, 341
  • Jessup, Peter, 246, 316
  • Johnson, Lyndon B., 1, 5, 15, 152, 200, 205, 303, 382
  • Johnson, Vice Adm. Nels C., 35, 59, 62
  • Johnson, U. Alexis, 123, 126, 134, 142, 203, 235, 301, 311, 319, 327, 344, 347, 367
    • CIA-State Department relations, 285
    • NSC Staff leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 48
    • NSC system:
      • Country programming, 153, 155, 161, 162
      • Korean military contingency planning, 35, 59, 62
      • Middle Eastern issues, 62
      • New system proposed by Kissinger, 2
      • RogersKissinger conflict, 68
      • Security assistance issues, 161, 162
      • Under Secretaries Committee, 109
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 59, 62
    • State Department management:
      • Ambassadorial appointments, 294, 299
      • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 331, 335, 337
      • Executive and policy responsibilities, 297
      • Nixon’s letter to Ambassadors, 310
      • 7th Floor (top echelon) reorganization, 334
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS):
    • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 327
    • Defense intelligence system, 193
    • NSC system:
  • Jones, Curtis, 286
  • Jones, Roger, 255
  • Jordan, Everett, 389
  • Joyce, Charles C., Jr., 204, 205
  • Joyce, Jean, 324
  • Jurich, Anthony J., 105
  • Kappel, Fred, 370
  • Karamessines, Thomas H., 35, 182, 184, 189, 220, 280, 284, 311
  • Katzenbach, Nicholas deB., 295
  • Kearns, Henry, 360
  • Keeny, Spurgeon, 17
  • Kennedy, David M., 14, 15, 94, 339, 354, 365, 373
  • Kennedy, John F., 19, 205, 228
  • Kennedy, Col. Richard T., 72, 106, 119, 122, 138, 140, 143, 146, 155, 156, 176, 178, 246, 317
    • NSC Staff organization, 177
    • NSC system:
      • Foreign economic policy and, 147
      • Kennedy’s assessment of, 175
      • Reform proposals, 103, 175
      • Senior Review Group, 120
  • Killian, James, 179
  • Kirkpatrick, Lyman, 193
  • Kissinger, Henry A., 53, 66, 113, 230, 249, 252, 293, 296, 297, 310, 356, 362
    • Central Intelligence Agency:
      • Kissinger’s liaison with, 226
      • Personnel changes, 216, 220, 224
    • Defense intelligence system:
    • Defense Program Review Committee:
      • Budget planning and review, 82, 89, 171
      • Establishment of, 74, 76
      • Future role, 176
      • Issues to be addressed, 81, 102, 176
      • Program analysis problems, 88
      • Proper role of DPRC, debate re, 90, 91, 98, 99, 100, 101
      • Working Group, 93, 97, 98, 99
    • Foreign economic policy:
      • Council on International Economic Policy, 370, 372, 373, 374
      • NSC system and, 1, 146, 147
      • Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, 351, 352, 353, 357, 358
      • Organizational arrangements, 369
      • Trade Commissioner Corps proposal, 360
      • Trade policy administration, 349
      • Transfer of responsibility from State to Commerce issue, 364, 365, 375, 379
    • Haig, assessment of, 22
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Budget for, 221, 234
      • Consumers of intelligence, relationship with, 286
      • Control over intelligence material reaching President, 194
      • Covert operations policy, 184, 185, 189, 195, 203
      • Director of Central Intelligence position, 216, 284
      • Economic intelligence, 236, 270
      • FBI’s role, 278
      • 40 Committee, 246
      • Intelligence information handling, 200, 204
      • Kissinger’s initial briefings on, 180, 182
      • Kissinger’s intelligence needs, 281, 282
      • Marshall’s assessment of, 268
      • Military aides in Embassies abroad, reduction in number of, 207
      • National Intelligence Estimates, 198, 208, 209, 232
      • Net assessments, 228, 266, 287
      • NSC Intelligence Committee, 245, 251
      • NSC Intelligence Directives, 248
      • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 186
      • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 5, 205
      • Product evaluation projects, 206, 264
      • Publications and their distribution, 217
      • Resource allocation within, 279
      • Schlesinger’s appointment as top White House man on intelligence, 290
      • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms as DCI, 284
      • Soviet military intelligence, 198, 206, 208, 232
      • 303 Committee, 182, 185, 189, 195
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Congressional response, 244
      • Implementation of, 268, 269, 271, 279
      • Kissinger/Shultz package proposal, 235
      • OMB/NSC Study re, 229
      • PFIAB consideration of, 218, 236, 238
      • Presidential Directive re, 239, 242
      • Schlesinger’s leadership role, 229
      • Smith/Marshall “limited options” proposal, 234
    • Korean shootdown incident, 35
    • National Security Council, 1, 14, 15
    • National Security Decision Memoranda:
      • Establishment of Memoranda series, 10
      • Purpose of, 1
    • National Security Study Memoranda:
      • Establishment of Memoranda series, 10
      • Purpose of, 1
      • Reform proposals re NSSM system, 143
    • NSC Staff:
      • Categories and functions of staffers, 1
      • Halperin’s departure, 72
      • Lake/Morris resignations, 106
      • Leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 39, 40, 41, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49
      • Meetings, 37
      • Organization of, 22, 24, 177
      • Paper-processing system, 24
      • Planning Staff, 77
      • Revised NSC Staff arrangements, 72
      • “Sub-contracting” by staffers, 36
      • Watts’ comments and recommendations re, 87
    • NSC system:
      • Ad Hoc Groups, 1
      • Annual review of international situation, 1
      • Arms control issues, 64, 65, 148
      • Cable-clearance policy, 20, 50, 70, 134, 135, 139, 141
      • China visit by Nixon and, 158
      • Country programming, 1, 78, 132, 149, 150, 151, 155, 156, 157
      • Crisis anticipation and management, 31
      • Defense Department-NSC relations, 16, 90, 91
      • Foreign affairs research, coordination of, 140
      • Foreign contacts by U.S. personnel, Nixon’s instructions to be kept informed about, 168, 169, 170
      • Foreign economic policy and, 1, 146, 147
      • Foreign officials, direct communications with, 19, 29, 127, 130, 136
      • Implementation of Presidential decisions, 28
      • Interdepartmental Groups, 1
      • Information and intelligence processing, 5, 107, 108
      • Information support and communications, 34
      • JCS spy operation, 164, 166
      • Kennedy’s assessment of, 175
      • Kissinger resignation issue, 96
      • Korean military contingency planning, 35, 59, 60, 62
      • Laos Ad Hoc Group, 92
      • Latin American issues, 85
      • Major policy issues, 1
      • Middle Eastern issues, 62, 136
      • Military assistance and overseas deployments issue, 90
      • Naval force requirements issue, 90
      • New system proposed by Kissinger, 1, 2, 6, 8
      • Office of Emergency Planning Director’s role, 83
      • Outside consultants, 1
      • Presentation of issues to President, 126
      • Procedural problems, 38
      • Program analyses, 13, 33, 69, 71
      • Public information policy, 32, 44, 70
      • Reform proposals, 30, 103, 116, 122, 175
      • Review Group, 1, 7, 15, 17
      • RogersKissinger conflict, 68, 70, 80, 86, 96, 112, 123, 124, 142
      • Secretary of State’s role, 7, 12, 28
      • Security assistance issues, 146
      • Senior Review Group, 118, 120, 122
      • Southeast Asian planning, 111, 114, 117
      • Soviet officials, communications with, 131, 134, 148
      • Soviet Union visit by Nixon and, 173, 174
      • Special Review Group for Southeast Asia, 117
      • “State-centered system” alternative, 3
      • State Department assessment of, 119
      • State Department-NSC relations, 27, 52, 63, 84, 86, 104, 114, 135, 136
      • “State Department’s loss of influence in foreign policy” issue, 133
      • State Department’s resistance to interagency coordination, 125
      • Treasury Secretary’s role, 94
      • Under Secretaries Committee, 1, 23, 138
      • USIA Director’s role, 115
      • Verification Panel, 64, 65
      • Vietnam Ad Hoc Group, 25, 26
      • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 51, 52, 56, 57
      • Vietnam Program Analysis Group, proposed, 67
      • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 73, 75, 107, 108
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 45, 58, 59, 60, 62, 122
      • Zumwalt’s response to Nixon–Kissinger approach, 159
    • State Department management:
      • Ambassadorial appointments, 298
      • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 327
      • Hostility toward Nixon among Foreign Service officers, 317, 318
      • Nixon’s plans for second term, 347
      • Personnel loyal to Nixon, advancement of, 307, 317, 320
      • Personnel reductions overseas, 303, 306
      • Radical reform, proposed need for, 313
      • Shelton’s assessment of personnel situation, 317
      • Under Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs position, 309, 315
    • War Powers legislation:
      • Commission to study, proposed, 385, 387
      • Javits Resolution, 384
      • Javits-Stennis Bill, 388, 392
      • Nixon Administration’s strategy for dealing with, 385, 392, 393
      • Zablocki Resolution, 392
  • Klein, Herbert G., 32, 54
  • Kleindienst, Richard, 14
  • Korean military contingency planning, 35, 59, 60, 62
  • Korean shootdown incident, 35
  • Korologos, 389
  • Krogh, Egil, 83
  • Kux, 286
  • Ladd, Bruce, 376
  • Laingen, 286
  • Laird, Melvin R., 1, 22, 80, 347, 361
    • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 327, 333, 344, 345
    • Defense intelligence system:
      • Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence) position, 261, 262, 265
      • Assistant Secretary of Defense for Administration position, 193, 196
      • Central Security Service, 252, 253, 255, 257, 258, 267, 289
      • Constitutional concerns re intelligence activities, 222, 223, 225
      • DCI’s role, 243, 277, 283
      • Defense Investigative Service, 259
      • Hall’s assessment of, 263
      • Intelligence resource management, 202
      • Reorganization of, 193, 215
      • SIGINT programs, 187
      • Tactical intelligence, 243
    • Defense Program Review Committee:
      • Budget planning and review, 89, 171
      • Establishment of, 74, 76
      • Fiscal crisis of Defense Department and, 110
      • Future role, 176
      • Issues to be addressed, 84, 176
      • Program analysis problems, 88
      • Proper role of DPRC, debate re, 89, 90, 91, 98, 99, 100, 101
      • Working Group, 97, 98, 99
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 186, 188
      • Soviet military intelligence, 198
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Agencies’ attitudes toward, 230
      • Defense Department issues arising from, 272, 277
      • Laird’s assessment of, 243
      • Presidential Directive re, 242
    • NSC Staff leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 48
    • NSC system:
      • Cable-clearance policy, 50, 53, 70
      • China visit by Nixon and, 158
      • Country programming, 132, 153, 156, 157
      • Defense Department-NSC relations, 16, 21, 90, 91
      • JCS spy operation, 16
      • Laos Ad Hoc Group, 92
      • Military assistance and overseas deployments issue, 90
      • New system proposed by Kissinger, 6, 9
      • Presentation of issues to President, 126
      • Procedural problems, 38
      • Public information policy, 70
      • Reform proposals, 116, 122
      • Review Group, 15
      • Senior Review Group, 122
      • Vietnam Ad Hoc Group, 25
      • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 51, 56, 57
      • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 75
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 45, 116, 122
  • Laise, Carol, 332
  • Lake, W. Anthony, 30, 68
    • Resignation from NSC Staff, 106
    • State Department management, 313
    • State Department-NSC relations, 86
  • Land, Edwin, 179, 218, 233
  • Laos Ad Hoc Group, 92
  • Latimer, Thomas K., 206, 217, 228, 233, 274, 278, 281, 282
  • Latin America, 9, 85
  • Lehman, John F., Jr., 384, 386, 387, 388
  • Lemos, Adm. Bill, 75
  • Lincoln, Franklin, 188, 218
  • Lincoln, Gen. George A., 15, 83
  • Lindjord, Haakon, 17
  • Linen, Jim, 298
  • Livesay, R. Eugene, 243
  • Lodge, Henry Cabot, 15, 85
  • Lord, Winston, 66, 72, 118
  • Lynn, James T., 376
  • Lynn, Laurence E., Jr., 36, 72, 74, 102, 204, 206, 208, 364
    • Defense intelligence system reorganization, 211
    • Defense Program Review Committee:
      • Budget planning and review, 82
      • Establishment of, 110
      • Fiscal crisis of Defense Department and, 110
      • Issues to be addressed, 81
      • Program analysis problems, 88
      • Proper role of DPRC, debate re, 90, 91, 101
      • Working Group, 97
    • NSC system:
      • Arms control issues, 64
      • Country programming, 90
      • Defense Department-NSC relations, 90, 91
      • Information and intelligence processing, 108
      • Military assistance and overseas deployments issue, 90
      • Naval force requirements issue, 90
      • Program analyses, 33
      • Verification Panel, 64
      • Vietnam Program Analysis Group, proposed, 67
      • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 108
  • Mace, Howard P., 325, 339
  • MacGregor, Clark, 385, 389, 390, 392
  • Macomber, William B., Jr., 120, 294, 305, 320, 357, 371, 376
    • State Department management:
      • Ambassadorial appointments, 328
      • Policy Analysis and Resource Allocation system, 343
      • Radical reform, proposed need for, 313
      • 7th Floor (top echelon) reorganization, 334, 336
      • Task Force recommendations for managerial reform, 312, 321, 322, 323, 329, 332, 339, 346
      • Wives of Foreign Service employees, role of, 338
      • Women employed by foreign affairs agencies, 324, 325, 326, 330
  • Magnuson, Warren, 340, 377, 379, 380
  • Mansfield amendment on reduction of U.S. troops in Europe, 148
  • Mardian, Robert C., 256
  • Marshall, Andrew W., 204, 208, 209, 226, 232, 248, 249, 251, 252, 269, 270, 278, 286, 287
    • Defense intelligence system:
      • Central Security Service, 255
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Consumers of intelligence, relationship with, 256
      • Kissinger’s intelligence needs, 282
      • Marshall’s assessment of, 268, 279
      • Net assessments, 266, 287
      • NSC Intelligence Committee, 245
      • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 205
      • Product evaluation projects, 206, 264
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Smith/Marshall “limited options” proposal, 234
  • Martin, Graham, 298, 316
  • Mayo, Robert P., 74, 82, 89, 110, 185, 303, 309, 354, 356
  • McAfee, William, 285
  • McCafferty, Art, 5, 24
  • McCarthy, Joan, 24
  • McCone, John, 179, 237
  • McConnell, Gen., 25
  • McCracken, Paul W., 353, 354, 366
  • McGee, Gale, 389
  • McManis, David Y., 29, 205
  • McNamara, Robert S., 228, 298, 321
  • Meir, Golda, 59
  • Mellenberg, Isabelle, 394
  • Merchant, Livingston, 179, 187
  • Meyer, Cord, 59, 62, 184, 185, 281, 344
  • Middle East, 1, 62, 85, 136, 169, 218
  • Mills, Wilbur, 357
  • Mitchell, John, 70, 80, 135, 152, 182, 203, 251, 275
    • Intelligence community/programs, 185, 186
    • National Security Council, 14
    • NSC Staff leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 42
    • NSC system:
      • Cable-clearance policy, 50
      • Foreign contacts by U.S. personnel, Nixon’s instructions to be kept informed about, 168, 169, 170
      • JCS spy operation, 16, 164, 166
      • State Department-NSC relations, 63
      • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 56, 57
  • Moore, Jonathan, 92, 301, 344
  • Moorer, Adm. Thomas H., 157, 164, 166, 172, 243
    • Defense intelligence system:
      • Central Security Service, 253, 258, 260
      • Constitutional concerns re intelligence activities, 223
      • Cryptologic command, 251
      • Reorganization of, 213, 215
      • Tactical intelligence, 251
  • Moose, Dick, 24, 30, 38
  • Moot, Robert C., 252, 255, 272, 283
  • Morgan, Thomas E. (Doc), 314, 315, 389, 390, 392, 394
  • Morris, Roger, 1, 5, 43, 72, 86
    • Resignation from NSC Staff, 106
  • Morton, Rogers, 307
  • Mosley, Ruth, 324
  • Moynihan, Daniel P., 318
  • Murphy, Dan, 260
  • Murphy, Franklin, 218
  • Murphy, John, 72
  • Murphy, Robert, 218, 219
  • Nachmanoff, Arnold, 72, 130
  • National Indications Center (NIC), 204
  • National Intelligence Estimates, 180, 208, 209, 217
    • NIE 11-3-71, “Soviet Strategic Defenses,” 232
    • NIE 11-8-69, “Soviet Strategic Attack Forces,” 198
    • NIE 11-8-70, “Soviet Forces for Intercontinental Attack,” 226, 227, 228
  • National Intelligence Program Evaluation (NIPF) Staff, 229
  • National Intelligence Program Memorandum (NIPM), 287, 288
  • National Intelligence Resources Board (NIRB), 179, 187, 196, 229
  • National Reconnaissance Program (NRP), 179, 187, 192, 196
  • National Security Action Memoranda, 1, 10
    • NSAM 341, 3
  • National Security Agency (NSA) (see also Central Security Service), 217
  • National Security Council (NSC) (see also NSC system), 1, 4, 11, 178
    • Meeting procedures, 15
    • OMB/NSC Study on intelligence reorganization, 229
    • Participants of meetings, 14, 15
  • National Security Decision Memoranda, 9
    • Drafting procedures, 103
    • Establishment of Memoranda series, 10
    • Implementation of Presidential decisions and, 30
    • National security matters, proposed limitation to, 116
    • NSDM 1, “Establishment of NSC Decision and Study Memoranda Series,” 10
    • NSDM 2, “Reorganization of the National Security Council System,” 11
    • NSDM 3, “The Direction, Coordination and Supervision of Interdepartmental Activities Overseas,” 12
    • NSDM 4, “Program Analyses,” 13
    • NSDM 4 (Revised), “Program Analysis Studies,” 71
    • NSDM 5, 10
    • NSDM 8, “Crisis Anticipation and Management,” 31
    • NSDM 12, “NATO,” 55
    • NSDM 13, “Policy Toward Japan,” 55
    • NSDM 16, 64
    • NSDM 17, “Relaxation of Economic Controls Against China,” 55
    • NSDM 18, “Review of Underground Nuclear Tests,” 55
    • NSDM 19, 59
    • NSDM 23, “Vietnam Special Studies Group,” 73
    • NSDM 26, “Defense Program Review Committee,” 79
    • NSDM 27, “U.S. Military Posture,” 81
    • NSDM 40, “Responsibility for the Conduct, Supervision and Coordination of Covert Action Operations,” 203
    • NSDM 52, “Quarterly Report on the State of the War and Vietnamization,” 107
    • NSDM 79, “Establishment of Special Review Group for Southeast Asia,” 117
    • NSDM 85, “The National Security Council Senior Review Group,” 118, 121
    • NSDM 89, “Cambodia Strategy,” 126
    • NSDM 98, “Coordination of Foreign Affairs Research Sponsored by the Federal Government,” 140
    • NSDM 112, “Country Programming,” 151, 153, 155, 156, 157, 161, 162
    • Numbering of, 9
    • Purpose of, 1, 4
  • National Security Study Memoranda, 9, 119
    • Establishment of Memoranda series, 10
    • NSSM 1, “Situation in Vietnam,” 67
    • NSSM 4, “U.S. Foreign Aid Policy,” 55
    • NSSM 10, “East-West Relations,” 27
    • NSSM 21, “Vietnam,” 26
    • NSSM 25, “Cape Keraudren Nuclear Excavation Project and Limited Test Ban Treaty,” 55
    • NSSM 26, “U.S. Military Supply Policy for South Asia,” 94
    • NSSM 27, “Interagency Planning Programming Budgeting Study for Korea,” 69
    • NSSM 34, “Contingency Study for Korea,” 59
    • NSSM 38, “Post Vietnam Asian Policy,” 33
    • NSSM 43, “Implementation of President’s Proposals to NATO Ministerial Meeting,” 55
    • NSSM 46, “Spain,” 94
    • NSSM 51, “Policy Toward Thailand,” 94
    • NSSM 60, “U.S. Policy Toward Postde Gaulle France,” 94
    • NSSM 69, “U.S. Nuclear Policy in Asia,” 137
    • NSSM 77, “Program Budgets,” 78
    • NSSM 83, “U.S. Approach to European Security Issues,” 104
    • NSSM 84, “U.S. Strategies and Forces for NATO,” 137
    • NSSM 99, “U.S. Strategy for Southeast Asia,” 126
    • NSSM 100, “Military Cooperation with France,” 137
    • NSSM 112, “U.S. Post-Vietnam Policy on Use of Riot Control Agents and Herbicides in War,” 138
    • Purpose of, 1, 4
    • Reform proposals re NSSM system, 36, 103, 137, 143
    • Review prior to issuance, 103
  • Negroponte, John, 138
  • Nelson, Bill, 62
  • Nepal, 332
  • Newsom, David, 68, 201, 341
  • New York Times, 39, 40, 41, 48, 133, 154, 167, 222
  • Nguyen Cao Ky, 123
  • Nguyen Van Thieu, 25, 51, 63
  • Nixon, Richard M.:
    • Central Intelligence Agency personnel changes, 216, 224, 273
    • Defense intelligence system:
      • Central Security Service, 257
      • Reorganization of, 179
    • Defense Program Review Committee:
      • Establishment of, 74, 79, 110
      • Fiscal crisis of Defense Department and, 110
      • Issues to be addressed, 102
      • Proper role of DPRC, debate re, 101
    • Foreign economic policy:
      • Congressional oversight, 381
      • Council on International Economic Policy, 367, 369, 370, 373, 374
      • Embassy economic officers’ role, 350
      • Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, 351, 354, 356, 358
      • Organizational arrangements, 369
      • Trade Commissioner Corps proposal, 360
      • Trade policy administration, 349
      • Transfer of responsibility from State to Commerce issue, 359, 362, 363, 364, 365, 375, 377, 378, 380
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Budget for, 221, 234, 242
      • Control over intelligence material reaching President, 194
      • Covert operations policy, 184, 185, 195, 203
      • Director of Central Intelligence position, 216, 249, 284
      • Economic intelligence, 233, 270
      • Facts and opinions in intelligence reports, 191, 210
      • 40 Committee, 203
      • Helms’ assessment of, 179
      • Human source intelligence, 274
      • Intelligence information handling, 200
      • Military aides in Embassies abroad, reduction in number of, 207
      • National Intelligence Estimates, 198, 232
      • Nixon’s displeasure with intelligence product, 191, 210, 234
      • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 188, 233
      • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 181, 205
      • Recruitment of supporters of U.S. Vietnam policy for, 273
      • Schlesinger’s appointment as top White House man on intelligence, 290
      • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms as DCI, 284
      • Soviet military intelligence, 198, 227
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Helms’ proposals, 179
      • Kissinger/Shultz package proposal, 235
      • OMB/NSC Study re, 229
      • PFIAB consideration of, 233
      • Presidential Directive re, 239, 240, 242
    • Mansfield amendment on reduction of U.S. troops in Europe, 148
    • National Security Council, 11, 14, 15
    • NSC Staff leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 15, 43, 47, 48, 49
    • NSC system, 87
      • Ad Hoc Groups, 11
      • Arms control issues, 65, 85, 148
      • Cable-clearance policy, 20, 50, 53, 70, 85
      • China visit by Nixon and, 158
      • Congressional involvement, 95
      • Country programming, 78, 132, 150, 151
      • Crisis anticipation and management, 31
      • Defense Department-NSC relations, 16
      • Foreign affairs research, coordination of, 140
      • Foreign contacts by U.S. personnel, Nixon’s instructions to be kept informed about, 168, 169, 170
      • Foreign officials, direct communications with, 29, 127
      • Inderdepartmental Groups, 11
      • Information support and communications, 34
      • JCS spy operation, 164, 165, 166
      • Kissinger resignation issue, 96
      • Korean military contingency planning, 35, 59
      • Laos Ad Hoc Group, 92
      • Latin American issues, 85
      • Leaks by State Department personnel, 129, 167
      • Legislative coordination in national security affairs, 145
      • New system proposed by Kissinger, 1, 6, 8, 11
      • Office of Emergency Planning Director’s role, 83
      • Pentagon Papers leak, 154
      • Presentation of issues to President, 126
      • Program analyses, 69
      • Public information policy, 32, 44, 54, 70
      • Review Group, 11
      • RogersKissinger conflict, 80, 96, 112, 124
      • Secretary of State’s role, 7, 12, 148, 152
      • Senior Review Group, 118, 121
      • Southeast Asian planning, 113, 114, 117
      • Soviet officials, communications with, 131, 148
      • Soviet Union visit by Nixon and, 173, 174
      • “State-centered system” alternative, 3
      • State Department assessment of, 119
      • State Department-NSC relations, 86, 129
      • “State Department’s loss of influence in foreign policy” issue, 133
      • Treasury Secretary’s role, 94
      • Under Secretaries Committee, 11
      • USIA Director’s role, 115
      • Vietnam Ad Hoc Group, 25
      • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 51, 56, 57
      • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 73
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 45
    • State Department management, 341
      • Ambassadorial appointments, 296, 298, 299, 300
      • Ambassadors’ qualifications, analysis of, 293
      • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 310
      • Irwin’s appointment as Under Secretary, 319
      • Nixon’s dissatisfaction with Rogers’ leadership, 340
      • Nixon’s letter to Ambassadors, 310
      • Nixon’s plans for second term, 347
      • Personnel loyal to Nixon, advancement of, 296, 307, 317, 320
      • Personnel reductions overseas, 303, 304, 306, 316
      • Shelton’s assessment of personnel situation, 317
      • Under Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs position, 309, 314, 315
      • Young people, recruitment of, 300
    • War Powers legislation:
      • Javits-Stennis Bill, 389, 392
      • Nixon Administration’s strategy for dealing with, 385, 389, 391, 392, 393
      • Nixon’s views on, 382, 390
  • Norstad, Gen. Lauris, 187
  • NSC Intelligence Committee (NSCIC), 178, 239, 242, 247, 256, 264, 268, 271, 275, 278, 279, 286, 288
    • First meeting, 250, 251
    • Functioning of, 245
  • NSC Intelligence Directives (NSCIDs), 239, 242, 248
  • NSC Net Assessment Group, 247
  • NSC Staff, 9
    • Administrative Assistant, 24
    • Categories and functions of staffers, 1
    • Executive Assistant, 24
    • Halperin’s departure, 72
    • Information and intelligence operations, 24
    • Lake/Morris resignations, 106
    • Leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 15, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49
    • Meetings, 37
    • Military Assistant, 1, 24
    • Morale problem, 177
    • Operations Staff, 72
    • Organization of, 22, 24, 177
    • Paper-processing system, 24
    • Planning Staff, 72, 77
    • President’s morning intelligence reading package and, 205
    • Program Analysis Staff, 72
    • Public information policy re, 44
    • Revised NSC Staff arrangements, 72
    • Secretarial staff, 24
    • Secretariat, 72
    • “Sub-contracting” by staffers, 36
    • Under Secretaries Committee and, 138
    • Watts’ comments and recommendations re, 87
  • NSC system (see also Defense Program Review Committee; National Security Council; National Security Decision Memoranda; National Security Study Memoranda; NSC Intelligence Committee; NSC Staff):
  • Nutter, G. Warren, 35, 59, 62, 75, 157
  • Odeen, Philip A., 171, 176, 249, 251, 266
  • Office of Emergency Planning (OEP), 83
  • Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 132, 171, 221
    • CIA, relations with, 237
    • OMB/NSC Study on intelligence reorganization, 229
  • Office of National Estimates (ONE), 206, 208
  • Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations (STR), 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 370
  • Olmsted, Mary S., 324, 326, 330, 341
  • Osgood, Robert E., 37, 72, 77
  • Pace, Frank, 218
  • Packard, David, 74, 88, 90, 91, 97, 110, 157, 185, 223, 235, 237, 252, 254
    • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 331, 337
    • Defense intelligence system:
      • Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence) position, 241
      • Cryptologic command, 251
      • DCI’s role, 243
      • Reorganization of, 192, 193
      • SIGINT programs, 187
      • Tactical intelligence, 243, 251
    • Defense Program Review Committee, 81
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Military aides in Embassies abroad, reduction in number of, 207
      • National Intelligence Estimates, 209
      • NSC Intelligence Committee, 251
  • Paget, Dick, 370
  • Pakistan, 251, 286
  • Parker, Pat, 266
  • Parrot, Thomas, 251, 256
  • Peck, Edward L., 285, 335
  • Pedersen, Richard F., 11, 12, 17, 134, 292, 297, 301, 306, 334, 368
  • Pell, Claiborne, 305
  • Pentagon Papers, 154
  • Perkins, James, 1
  • Peterson, Peter G., 146, 147, 370, 374, 381
  • Petrow, Christopher, 325, 326
  • Pickering, Thomas, 327, 344
  • Pinckney, T. C., 163
  • Platt, Nicholas, 335
  • Porter, William J., 29, 347
  • Prados, John, 164
  • President’s Advisory Council on Executive Organization (Ash Council), 367, 368, 370, 373
  • President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB), 180, 186, 200, 204, 210, 212, 218, 219, 229, 230, 231, 233, 236, 238, 270, 274, 290
    • Establishment of, 188
  • Proctor, Edward W., 190, 220, 256
  • Pursley, Lt. Gen. Robert E., 9, 76, 223, 272
  • Rabin, Yitzhak, 169
  • Radford, Charles, 164, 166
  • RAND Corporation, 34
  • Rehnquist, William, 383
  • Resor, Stanley, 223
  • Ribicoff, Abraham, 388
  • Richardson, Elliot L., 125, 310, 351
    • Defense Program Review Committee, 81
      • Establishment of, 74
      • Fiscal crisis of Defense Department and, 110
      • Future role, 176
    • Departure from State Department, 319
    • Foreign economic policy:
      • Embassy economic officers’ role, 350
      • Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, 352, 355
      • Transfer of responsibility from State to Commerce issue, 359, 363, 365
    • National Intelligence Estimates, 209
    • National Security Council, 4
    • National Security Decision Memoranda, 4
    • National Security Study Memoranda, 4
    • NSC Staff leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 48
    • NSC system:
      • Ad Hoc Group, 4
      • Annual review of international situation, 4
      • Arms control issues, 61
      • Committee of Principals, 61
      • Inderdepartmental Groups, 4
      • New system proposed by Kissinger, 2, 4, 8
      • Outside consultants, 4
      • Program analyses, 69
      • Secretary of State’s role, 152
      • State Department-NSC relations, 86, 104
      • Under Secretaries Committee, 4, 23, 109
    • State Department management:
      • Ambassadorial appointments, 294, 299, 300, 308
      • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 327
      • Congressional interest in, 305
      • Executive and policy responsibilities, 297
      • Hostility toward Nixon among Foreign Service officers, 318
      • Ombudsman procedure, 295
      • Personnel loyal to Nixon, advancement of, 307, 317
      • Personnel reductions overseas, 303, 306
      • Personnel system, 302
      • Planning and Coordination Staff, 301
      • Promotion system, 295
      • Under Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs position, 315
      • Women employed by foreign affairs agencies, 299
      • Young people, recruitment of, 300
  • Rickenbacker, Edward, 179
  • Rimestad, Idar, 301, 302, 350
  • Robinson, Rear Adm. Rembrandt, 159, 164
  • Rockefeller, Nelson, 85, 218, 309, 314
  • Rodman, Peter W., 72, 119
  • Rogers, Gladys P., 330
  • Rogers, William P., 1, 6, 11, 184, 350, 353, 362
    • Foreign economic policy:
      • Congressional oversight, 381
      • Council on International Economic Policy, 367, 373
      • Integration with political and strategic foreign policy, 368
      • Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations, 355
      • Transfer of responsibility from State to Commerce issue, 359, 361, 363, 365, 371, 376, 378, 380
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • NSC Intelligence Committee, 250
      • President’s morning intelligence reading package, 181
    • National Security Council, 15
    • National Security Study Memoranda, 143
    • NSC Staff leak problem and wiretapping of staffers, 48
    • NSC system:
      • Arms control issues, 61, 85, 148
      • Cable-clearance policy, 20, 50, 53, 70, 134, 139, 141
      • China visit by Nixon and, 158
      • Committee of Principals, 61
      • Country programming, 149, 153, 155
      • Foreign contacts by U.S. personnel, Nixon’s instructions to be kept informed about, 168, 169, 170
      • Foreign officials, direct communications with, 19, 29, 136
      • Laos Ad Hoc Group, 92
      • Latin American issues, 85
      • Leaks by State Department personnel, 167
      • Middle Eastern issues, 85, 136
      • New system proposed by Kissinger, 2
      • Presentation of issues to President, 126
      • Public information policy, 70
      • RogersKissinger conflict, 68, 70, 80, 86, 96, 112, 123, 124, 142
      • Secretary of State’s role, 7, 12, 148, 152
      • Security assistance issues, 160
      • Southeast Asian planning, 113, 114
      • Soviet officials, communications with, 131, 134, 148
      • Soviet Union visit by Nixon and, 173, 174
      • State Department assessment of, 119
      • State Department-NSC relations, 21, 52, 63, 86, 135, 136
      • State Department policy on NSC machinery, 297
      • “State Department’s loss of influence in foreign policy” issue, 133
      • Under Secretaries Committee, 113
      • Vietnam Ad Hoc Group, 26, 51
      • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 51, 52, 57
      • Washington Special Actions Group, 45
    • State Department management, 341
      • Ambassadors’ qualifications, analysis of, 293
      • Ambassadors’ relations with military and intelligence personnel, 311, 333, 344, 345
      • Country Directors, 297
      • Executive and policy responsibilities, 292, 297
      • Irwin’s appointment as Under Secretary, 319
      • Nixon’s dissatisfaction with Rogers’ leadership, 340
      • Nixon’s plans for second term, 347
      • Personnel loyal to Nixon, advancement of, 307
      • Personnel reductions overseas, 304, 306
      • Planning and Coordination Staff, 301
      • Policy Analysis and Resource Allocation system, 343
      • 7th Floor (top echelon) reorganization, 334, 336
      • Task Force recommendations for managerial reform, 312, 321, 329
      • Under Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs position, 309, 314
      • Wives of Foreign Service employees, role of, 341
      • Women employed by foreign affairs agencies, 330
      • Young people, recruitment of, 297
      • War Powers legislation:
        • Nixon Administration’s strategy for dealing with, 385, 391, 392, 393
        • Rogers’ views on, 394
        • Zablocki Resolution, 386
  • Romney, George, 347
  • Roosa, Robert, 381
  • Ross, Claude, 285
  • Rossell, Idris M., 324
  • Rosson, Lt. Gen. William, 17
  • Rostow, Walt, 19
  • Roth, William, 381, 388
  • Rouse, Andrew, 370
  • Ruser, Claus W., 55, 367
  • Rush, Kenneth, 29, 172, 283, 347
  • Rusk, Dean, 152, 303
  • Ryan, Hugh, 17
  • Safire, William, 54
  • Salans, Carl, 386
  • SALT agreement, 148
  • Samuels, Nathaniel, 109, 301, 334, 350, 355, 357, 359, 367, 373
  • Sarris, Lou, 108
  • Saunders, Harold H., 72, 115, 205
  • Savage, Eleanor W., 324
  • Schlesinger, James R., 226
    • Defense intelligence system, 213
    • Intelligence community/programs:
      • Atomic Energy Commission, 237
      • Budget for, 221, 237
      • CIA-OMB relations, 237
      • Schlesinger’s appointment as top White House man on intelligence, 290
      • Schlesinger’s appointment to replace Helms as DCI, 284
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Agencies’ attitudes toward, 230
      • OMB/NSC Study re, 229
      • Schlesinger’s leadership role, 229
      • Schlesinger’s views on, 237
  • Scott, Harold B., 376
  • Scott, Hugh, 388
  • Scowcroft, Gen. Brent, 29, 176
  • Seidel, W. E., 256
  • Selective service reform, 9
  • Selin, Ivan, 41
  • Shakespeare, Frank J., Jr., 14, 115, 304, 320
  • Shelton, Turner, 317, 320
  • Shultz, George P., 110, 132, 135, 149, 226, 234, 249, 303, 366
    • CIA-OMB relations, 237
    • Foreign economic policy:
      • Council on International Economic Policy, 369, 370, 372, 373, 374
      • Organizational arrangements, 369
      • Transfer of responsibility from State to Commerce issue, 380
    • Intelligence reorganization:
      • Agencies’ attitudes toward, 230
      • Congressional response, 244
      • Kissinger/Shultz package proposal, 235
      • OMB/NSC Study re, 229
      • PFIAB consideration of, 238
      • Presidential Directive re, 239, 242
    • National Security Council, 14
    • NSC system, 150
    • State Department management, 334
      • Nixon’s dissatisfaction with Rogers’ leadership, 340
  • Siciliano, Rocco, 362, 376
  • SIGINT programs (see also Central Security Service), 187, 196
  • Simkus, Lora, 24
  • Sisco, Joe, 80, 85, 127, 344
  • Slocombe, Walter, 208
  • Sloss, Leon, 144
  • Smith, Abbot E., 183, 206, 220
  • Smith, Bromley, 24
  • Smith, Gerard C., 61, 85, 148
  • Smith, Hedrick, 48
  • Smith, K. Wayne, 125, 132, 140, 146, 149, 150, 156, 212, 213, 221, 226, 230, 232, 234, 235, 238
  • Smith, R. Jack, 17, 27, 180, 205, 216, 220
  • Smyser, William, 111
  • Sneider, Richard L., 50, 52, 322
  • Sonnenfeldt, Helmut, 17, 36, 37, 49, 72, 104, 281
  • Soviet Union:
  • Spiers, Ronald I., 144, 153, 160, 161, 172, 327, 331, 344
  • Sprague, Mansfield, 179
  • Stans, Maurice H., 361, 374
    • Foreign economic policy:
  • State, U.S. Department of (see also Foreign economic policy; State Department management; State Department subheads under NSC system):
  • State Department management, 341
  • Steakley, Gen., 182
  • Steeves, John M., 308
  • Stennis, John, 244, 249, 385, 388, 389
  • Stern, Thomas, 376
  • Steven, Robert, 339, 341, 346
  • Stevenson, John R., 134, 386, 394
  • Strachan, Kristine, 386
  • Stukel, Donald, 178
  • Sullivan, William C., 39, 40, 41, 42, 46, 47, 49
  • Sullivan, William H., 26, 29, 51, 75, 85
  • Symington, Stuart, 133, 244, 392
  • Symmes, Harrison, 386
  • Szulc, Tad, 85
  • Taylor, Gen. Maxwell D., 2, 28, 179, 180, 186, 188, 196, 200
  • Thayer, Walter, 370
  • Thieu. See Nguyen Van Thieu.
  • Thomas, John, 173, 174
  • Thomson, John, 130
  • 303 Committee, 18, 92, 182, 185, 189, 195
  • Timmons, William, 314, 315, 383
  • Tolson, Clyde, 39, 40, 41
  • Tower, John, 388
  • Treasury, U.S. Department of, 94
    • Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations and, 354
  • Trezise, Philip H., 367, 371, 373, 376
  • Trueheart, William, 185
  • Tucker, Gardiner L., 98, 99, 110, 272, 283
  • Tuthill, John, 303
  • Tweedy, Bronson, 220, 226, 256, 269, 277, 283
  • Under Secretaries Committee. See under NSC system.
  • U.S. Information Agency (USIA), 115
  • U.S. Intelligence Board (USIB), 116, 180, 187, 214, 217, 229, 233, 236, 239, 242, 247
  • Vaky, Viron P., 72, 309, 314, 315
  • Veliotes, Nicholas A., 126, 127, 130, 144
  • Verification Panel, 64, 65, 95, 175, 178
  • Vietnam Ad Hoc Group, 25, 26, 51, 75
  • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 51, 52, 56, 57
  • Vietnam policy, 1, 9, 273
  • Vietnam Program Analysis Group, proposed, 67
  • Vietnam Special Studies Group (VSSG), 73, 75, 95, 107, 108, 114
  • Volcker, Paul, 369
  • Volpe, John A., 347
  • Walsh, John P., 357
  • Walsh, Paul V., 190, 256
  • Warnke, Paul, 17, 21
  • War Powers legislation:
    • Commission to study, proposed, 385, 387
    • Congressional hearings on, 385
    • Javits Resolution, 384
    • Javits-Stennis Bill, 388, 389, 392
    • Nixon Administration’s strategy for dealing with, 385, 389, 391, 392, 393
    • Nixon’s views on, 382, 390
    • Rogers’ views on, 394
    • Zablocki Resolution, 383, 386, 392
  • Warren, Leonard, 335
  • Washington Post, 164, 222
  • Washington Special Actions Group (WSAG), 35, 45, 58, 59, 60, 62, 95, 114, 116, 122, 175, 178
  • Watson, Marvin, 41
  • Watts, William, 72, 86, 87, 103
  • Weber, Arnold, 83
  • Weinberger, Caspar W., 221, 226, 234, 237, 273
  • Weinel, Vice Adm. John P., 213, 251, 256
  • Weintraub, Sidney, 381
  • Weiss, Len, 228
  • Weiss, Seymour, 137, 144, 251, 256
  • Welander, Adm. Robert O., 159, 164
  • Wells, Benjamin, 167
  • Westmoreland, Gen. William, 159
  • Wheeler, Gen. Earle G., 9
    • Defense Program Review Committee, 74
    • Vietnam cabinet-level working group, 51, 56, 57
  • Whitaker, John, 359
  • White, Lawrence K., 21, 203, 237
  • White House Communications Agency (WHCA), 34
  • White House Working Group, 145
  • Wise, David, 43
  • Women employed by foreign affairs agencies, 299, 324, 325, 326, 330
  • Wyman, Louis, 299
  • Young, David, 103, 278
  • Zablocki, Clement, 383, 385, 388, 391, 392, 393
  • Zayac, Mildred, 24
  • Ziegler, Ronald L., 44, 80, 123, 148
  • Zumwalt, Adm. Elmo, 159