Sources

Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The 1991 Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. It also requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government engaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. U.S. foreign policy agencies and Departments—the Department of State, National Security Council, Department of Defense, Central Intelligence Agency, Department of the Treasury, the Nixon Presidential Materials at College Park Maryland, the Lyndon Johnson and Gerald Ford Presidential Libraries—have compiled fully with this law and provided complete access to their relevant records. In addition, Henry Kissinger and Eliot Richardson have approved access to their private papers at the Library of Congress. These papers are a key source for the Nixon–Ford sub series.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, Volume II

The sources for this volume are different from most other Foreign Relations volumes in the Nixon–Ford sub-series because of its primary focus on organization and management of the foreign policy and intelligence process. In addition, this volume draws from a more diffuse base of sources, many of which are not normally used in other volumes in the sub-series. For that reason, readers should pay special attention to the source and other footnotes in the volume which provided a wealth of citations that will lead the reader to key files. In this note on sources the emphasis is on the most important files.

For a thorough understanding of the organization of foreign policy as conceived and then implemented during the early years of the first Nixon administration, the Nixon Presidential Materials at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland, is the best starting point. Within this large collection of Nixon presidential materials are two key collections: the NSC Files and the NSC Institutional (H-Files). As its name implies, the NSC Institutional Files contain considerable information on the organization and working of the National Security Council and its sub-groups under the Nixon administration. Most important in this collection are the National Security Decision Memorandum [Page XII](NSDM) Policy Paper Files. President Nixon used the NSDM process to define and describe his actual foreign policy process as well as to help make policy decisions. Specific decision memoranda outlined NSC procedures: NSDM 1 established the NSC Decision and Study Memorandum (NSSM) series, NSDM 2 reorganized the NSC System, NSDM 7 directed, coordinated and supervised interdepartmental activities overseas, NSDM 8 set up a system for crisis management, NSDM 19 established the Washington Special Actions Group (WSAG), NSDM 25 created the Defense Policy Review Committee (DPRC), and NSDM 85 changed the Review Group to the Senior Review Group. Thus the NSDM sub-files of the Institutional Files are a key collection.

Also of value in the NSC Institutional (H-Files) are the Miscellaneous Institutional Files of the Nixon administration, especially the NSC System, which are located in the later boxes of the file. Included in these records is the Institutional General File (IGF) which has information on general organization matters. In the records prepared for initial WSAG, DPRC, Vietnam Special Studies Group, and the Verification Panel meetings, there is documentation on how and why these groups were established and what their role was to be in the NSC system. Initial WSAG and NSC meeting minutes provide insight into how these groups were expected to function.

The second key source at the Nixon Presidential Material is the extensive National Security Files. Within these files, the Agency Files are an important collection, including individual sub-files on the main national security and foreign policy agencies: the Department of State, Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense, DPRC and Defense Budget, DPRC General, Department of Commerce, Council on International Economic Policy (CIEP), and the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB). Also in the NSC Files are the equally valuable Subject Files, including such specific subjects as Congressional [relations], KissingerIrwin and KissingerRichardson meetings, Intelligence Reorganization, National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs), NSDMs, Presidential Directive on Reduction of Personnel Overseas, and the Office of the Special Trade Representative. Also of special value in the NSC Files are the Names Files, particularly those of Andrew Marshall. There is also an NSC System File in the NSC Files which is a valuable collection. Also part of the NSC Files are the Kissinger Office Files, Kissinger Administrative and Staff Files, the Agency, and Congressional Files. In the Kissinger Office Files, Agency Files, a key sub file is State-White House relations.

A third major collection of value for this volume at the Nixon Presidential Materials is the White House Central Files, Subject Files, Executive. The White House Special Files within the Central Files have Staff Member and Office Files, which are of value, especially those of [Page XIII] John Ehrlichman. Also of value are the Nixon Presidential Tape recordings. A number of transcripts are printed in this volume.

The Halperin Papers at the Lyndon B. Johnson Library have documentation on his tenure as a staff member of the National Security Council and especially relate to the issue of wiretapping his telephone. At the Gerald Ford Library, the files of National Security Adviser, Kissinger–Scowcroft West Wing Files, have Administrative Files that cover 1969–1977 as well as Subject Files that have documentation on the first Nixon administration, 1969–1972.

The Kissinger Papers at the Library of Congress are a useful source. While they are not available for public research, copies of the most useful collection, Transcripts of the Kissinger Telephone Conversations, are available at the Nixon Presidential Materials. Also at the Library of Congress are the Eliot Richardson Papers which have good documentation on organization and management issues during his tenure as Deputy Secretary of State.

The Lot Files and the Central Files of the Department of State at the National Archives are a key source for this volume. Within the Lot Files are a series of S/S (Executive Secretariat) files that deal with NSC matters. The most important is S/S–I Files, Lot 80 D 212, containing NSDM studies and responses, although S/S–I Under Secretaries Files, Lot 83 D 277, S/SNSDM Files, Lot 83 D 305, S/S General NSC Matters Files, Lot 73 D 288, and S/S-Presidential Reading and Under Secretary’s Meetings, Lot 64 D 164 also have useful material. The Office Files of William P. Rogers, E–5439 (formerly Lot 73 D 443), have some useful information as do the U. Alexis Johnson Files, Lot 96 D 695. An important series of Lot Files relate to the Work of Deputy Under Secretary for Management, William Macomber, who was a key figure in reorganization and management of the Department of State. Of the seven Macomber files listed in the list below, the most important is Lot 74 D 394, the Management Reform Task Force’s Records of Macomber’s Office, including documentation on women in the Foreign Service and the role of Foreign Service spouses.

As for the Central Files of the Department of State, the most useful is ORG 1, general organization of the Department, but ORG 1 COM–STATE has documents on control of foreign economic policy. The list below cites other subject-numeric files used in the volume. An intelligence collection of value, still under the custody of the Department of State, is the INR/IL Historical Files.

The Records of the Central Intelligence Agency were key to this volume, especially for the chapter on Intelligence and the White House. The best files are the Files of the Executive Registry, Job 80–R01284A and Job 80–B1086A. Other useful CIA files are listed below. The Nixon Intelligence Records, including records of the 303/40 Committee, at the [Page XIV]National Security Council when research was undertaken, were also of value.

As for Defense Department Files, two collections stand out among the rest in the list below: OSD Files, FRC 330–76–0197 and OSD Files, FRC 330–77–0094, decimal files of the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary for 1971 and 1972 respectively. These files contain substantial material on reorganization of intelligence organizations at the Department of Defense.

Two final collections worthy of special mention are the Haldeman Diary, Multimedia Edition, a key source for appointments and personalities, and RG 460, Records of the Watergate Special Prosecution Forces, relating to the Plumbers Task Force and Wire Tap Investigations.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State
    • Central Files. See National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • Lot Files. For lot files already transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland, Record Group 59, see National Archives and Records Administration below.
    • INR/IL Historical Files
      • Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1980s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
  • Record Group 59, Records of the Department of State
    • Subject–Numeric Indexed Central Files
      • DEF 1 US, national security
      • DEF 1–1 US, national security contingency planning
      • DEF 18, arms control and disarmament
      • E 1, economic affairs: general policy, plans, programs
      • ORG 1, organization: general policy, plans, coordination
      • ORG 2, general reports
      • ORG 8, agency reorganization plans
      • ORG 10, management improvement
      • ORG 1 COM–STATE, organization: general policy, plans, coordination, Departments of Commerce and State
      • PER, general personnel policy
      • PER 1, personnel: general policy, plans, coordination
      • PER 4–1, personnel: reduction-in-force
      • POL 1 US, political affairs and relations: general policy
      • POL 2, general reports and statistics
      • POL US–USSR, U.S.-Soviet Union relations
      • POL 27 INDIA–PAK, India-Pakistan war
      • POL 27 LAOS, military operations in Laos
    • Lot Files
      • Office Files of William P. Rogers, Entry 5439 (formerly S/S Files: Lot 73 D 443)
        • Official and personal files of Secretary of State Rogers, including correspondence, speeches, statements, and chronological and alphabetical files, 1969–1973
      • Office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Management, Management Reform Task Force Papers: Lot 74 D 394
        • Working papers, background papers, correspondence, and other material, 1970–1973
      • Office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Management, Macomber Files: Lot 73 D 421
        • Subject and correspondence files, 1970–1973
      • Office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Management, New Management Methods and PARA Files: Lot 74 D 436
        • Management subject files, 1970–1971
      • Office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Management, Interagency Committee Files: Lot 76 D 185
        • Administrative files for interagency committees, 1969–1975
      • Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Management, Management Subject Files: Lot 76 D 210
        • ORG 10 (management improvement) and other subject files, 1968–1971
      • Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Management, Management Subject Files: Lot 76 D 235
        • Management subject files, 1964–1973
      • Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Management, General Correspondence Files: Lot 78 D 295
        • Administrative correspondence and policy and procedural files of the Deputy Under Secretary for Management, 1968–1975
      • Pedersen Files: Lot 75 D 229
        • Chronological and subject files of Richard F. Pedersen, 1956–1973
      • Policy Planning Council, Subject Files: Lot 73 D 363
        • Subject and Country Files of the Policy Planning Council and the Planning and Coordination Staff, 1967–1973
      • S/SNSC Files: Lot 73 D 288
        • Memoranda and other material concerning National Security Council committees, issues, and administration, 1970–1972; also Cabinet memoranda, 1970–1972
      • S/S Memos Files: Lots 72 D 371, 72 D 372, and 72 D 373
        • Memoranda from the Executive Secretary and other Department officials concerning administrative issues and some substantive matters, 1964–1976
      • S/S–I (Executive Secretariat) Files, President’s Evening Reading and KissingerIrwin Meetings: Lot 74 D 164
        • Department of State reports for the President’s evening reading and memoranda concerning Under Secretary John Irwin’s weekly lunches with Henry Kissinger, 1970–1972
      • S/S–I NSSM Files: Lot 80 D 212
        • National Security Study Memoranda (NSSMs) and follow-up studies, organized by NSSM number, 1969–1976
      • S/S–I Files: Lot 82 D 126
        • Files concerning Senior Review Group meetings and other NSC matters, 1969– 1977
      • S/S–I Files: Lot 83 D 113
        • PARA review material, 1971–1972; miscellaneous NSC material, 1971–1975; Presidential Review Memoranda and Presidential Directives, 1977–1980
      • S/S–I Under Secretaries Files: Lot 83 D 277
        • Under Secretaries Committee Notes (NSC–U/N), 1969–1977
      • S/S–I NSDM Files: Lot 83 D 305
        • National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDMs), 1969–1977
      • U. Alexis Johnson Files: Lot 96 D 695
        • U. Alexis Johnson’s files as Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, 1969–1973, together with some personal material and files reflecting his career as Ambassador to Thailand, 1958–1961, Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, 1961–1964 and 1965–1966, Ambassador to Japan, 1966–1969, and Ambassador at Large, 1973–1977
  • Nixon Presidential Materials
    • National Security Council Files
      • Agency Files
      • Country File, Laos
      • Haig Chronological File
      • Haig Special File
      • Kissinger Office Files
      • Name Files
      • NSC Nixon Files
      • President’s Daily Briefing
      • President/HAK Memcons
      • Saunders Subject Files
      • Staff Files—Lake Chron
      • Staff Files—Staff Memos
      • Subject Files
      • Vietnam Country Files
    • NSC Institutional Files (H-Files)
      • National Security Council Meetings and Minutes
      • Review Group/Senior Review Group Meetings and Minutes
      • Washington Special Action Group Meetings and Minutes
      • Verification Panel Meetings and Minutes
      • Defense Program Review Committee Meetings and Minutes
      • Study Memoranda
      • Policy Papers: National Security Study Memoranda
      • Policy Papers: National Security Decision Memoranda
      • Miscellaneous General Institutional Files: NSC System, NSC Administrative Files
    • White House Central Files
      • Staff Member and Office Files: Houthaker Files, President’s Daily Diary, Subject Files
    • White House Special Files
      • Staff Member and Office Files: Butterfield Files, Ehrlichman Files, Flanigan Files, Haldeman Files, President’s Office Files, President’s Personal Files, Young Files
    • White House Tapes
  • Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
    • Halperin Papers
  • Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
    • National Security Adviser, Kissinger–Scowcroft West Wing Files, 1969–1977
  • RG 460, Records of the Watergate Special Prosecution Force
    • Plumbers Task Force, Gray/Wiretap Investigation Files
  • Central Intelligence Agency, Langley, Virginia
    • DCI Files: Job 80B01285A
      • Files of Directors of Central Intelligence John McCone and Richard Helms
    • DDI Files: Jobs 79R01012A, 79T01159A, 80R01621R
      • Files of the Deputy Director for Intelligence and the Intelligence Directorate
    • DDO Files: Jobs 79480A, 7901440A, 8000037
      • Files of the Deputy Director for Plans and the Directorate for Plans
    • Executive Registry: Jobs 80B01086A, 80M00165A, 80M01048A 80R01284A, 80R01580R, 86B00269R
    • Files of the Director of Central Intelligence’s Office
  • Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
    • Henry Kissinger Papers
      • Chronological File
      • Files on the Department of State
      • Files on the National Security Council
      • Telephone Records
    • Elliot Richardson Papers
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
  • RG 56, Records of the Department of the Treasury
    • FRC 74 A 7
      • Secretary’s Memos/Correspondence, 1966–1970
  • RG 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense
    • FRC 330–74–0045
      • Chron Files of the Secretary of Defense, 1969–1973
    • FRC 330–74–0132
      • Subject Files of the Assistant to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 19691971
    • FRC 330–74–0142
      • Files from the immediate office of Secretary of Defense Laird, 1969–1972
    • FRC 330–75–0089
      • Decimal Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1969
    • FRC 330–75–0104
      • Files of the Military Assistant, 1966–1971
    • FRC 330–76–0028
      • OSD Office Chron Files, 1958–1973
    • FRC 330–76–0067
      • Decimal Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1970
    • FRC 330–76–0076
      • Decimal Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1970
    • FRC 330–76–0197
      • Decimal Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1971
    • FRC 330–76–0207
      • Decimal Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1971
    • FRC 330–77–0094
      • Decimal Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1972
    • FRC 330–77–0095
      • Decimal Files of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1972
  • Personal Papers of William P. Rogers
    • Appointment Books
[Page XIX]

Published Sources

  • Documentary Collections and Diaries
    • Haldeman, H. R. The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House: The Complete Multimedia Edition. Santa Monica, CA: Sony Electronic Publishing Co., 1994.
    • U.S. Department of State. Bulletin, 1969–1972.
    • –––. Diplomacy for the 70’s: A Program of Management Reform for the Department of State. Publication 8551. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.
    • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard M. Nixon, 1969–1972. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971–1974.
  • Memoirs
    • Cargo, William I. and Margaret L. Wherever the Road Leads: A Memoir. Privately published, 1997.
    • Cline, Ray S. Secrets, Spies, and Scholars: Blueprint of the Essential CIA . Washington: Acropolis Books, 1976.
    • Ehrlichman, John. Witness to Power: The Nixon Years. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.
    • Haig, Alexander M., Jr. Inner Circles: How America Changed the World, A Memoir. New York: Warner Books, 1992.
    • Hillenbrand, Martin J. Fragments of Our Time: Memoirs of a Diplomat. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1998.
    • Johnson, U. Alexis. The Right Hand of Power. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984.
    • Kissinger, Henry. White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979.
    • Meyer, Jr., Cord. Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA . New York: Harper & Row, 1980.
    • Nixon, Richard M. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1978.
    • Smith, Gerard. Disarming Diplomat: The Memoirs of Ambassador Gerard C. Smith, Arms Control Negotiator. New York: Madison Books, 1996.
    • –––. Doubletalk: The Story of SALT I. New York: Doubleday, 1980.
    • Smith, Russell Jack. The Unknown CIA: My Three Decades with the Agency. Washington: Pergamon-Brassey’s International Defense Publishers, 1989.
    • Steeves, John M. Safir (Ambassador). Hershey, PA: Privately Published, 1991.