No. 1222
The Ambassador to the Soviet Union (Harriman) to the Secretary of State

top secret

Memorandum to the Secretary of State

Subject: Yalta Agreement Affecting China

When Dr. Soong arrives in Moscow Stalin will expect Soong to have instructions from Chiang Kai Shek to sign promptly an agreemerit [Page 1247] along the lines of Stalin’s proposals presented early in July. Unless the Chinese give in or unless the United States takes a firm position on the interpretation of the Yalta agreement the negotiations will break down and Chinese-Soviet relations will be severely strained.

It would be contrary to the interests of the United States for Soong to go beyond his counter proposals previously submitted and since Soong cannot remain in Moscow after disagreement has arisen, I recommend that I be instructed to inform Stalin at that time:

that at Yalta President Roosevelt declined to agree to Stalin’s original proposal for a Soviet lease of the port of Dairen and insisted upon its internationalization as a commercial free port (as set forth in my memorandum dated July 181);
that we cannot agree to the inclusion of the port in the Soviet military zone or its use as a Soviet naval base, and
that if Stalin does not agree to Soong’s proposal for a free port under Chinese administration with a commercial lease of a certain section of the port for Soviet transit traffic we propose the creation of an international commission consisting of representatives of the Chinese, Soviet, United States and possibly British Governments to supervise the operation of Dairen as a free port.

The differences regarding the operation of the railroads are not as fundamental. I am hopeful that Soong and Stalin will be able to compose the points at issue.

In connection with these proposed arrangements between the Soviet and Chinese governments21 recommend that I be instructed to propose to Stalin a protocol, along the lines of the draft3 attached to my memorandum of July 28,4 reaffirming in writing Stalin’s verbal assurances to observe the “open door” policy in Manchuria.5

W A H[arriman]
  1. Attachment 2 to document No. 1215.
  2. For translations of the Sino-Soviet treaty concluded on August 14, 1945, and of related notes and agreements, see Department of State Bulletin, vol. xiv, p. 201; United States Relations With China, With Special Reference to the Period 1944–1949 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1949; Department of State publication No. 3573), p. 585.
  3. See the attachment to document No. 1217.
  4. Document No. 1218.
  5. Byrnes took no action on this recommendation during the Berlin Conference.