White House Files

Log of the Trip

Saturday, November 27th. (Cairo; en route Cairo to Teheran; and at Teheran.)

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5:58 a.m. The President and members of his party left his villa for the airport. All hands were up and ready for a 4:30 a.m. departure for the airport but word had been received that our take-off would have to be delayed temporarily due to fog over the field.
6:35 a.m. The President and his party arrived at Cairo West airport. A light fog still persisted over the field so the President and members of his party embarked in their planes to await the lifting of the fog.
7:07 a.m. The fog had lifted by now and the President’s plane took off for Teheran, Iran, where the President was to confer with Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal Stalin and their respective military staffs and political delegates. Riding in the President’s plane with him were: Mr. Hopkins, Ambassador Harriman, Admiral Leahy, Admiral Brown, Admiral McIntire, General Watson, Major Boettiger, Lieut-Commander Fox, Lieutenant (jg) Rigdon, Secret Service Agents Reilly, Fredericks and Kellerman, and Steward Prettyman.2
7: 40 a.m. Our plane passed over the Suez Canal near the town of Isma[i]lia.
8:30 a.m. Our plane passed over the city of Jerusalem. Major Bryan took us on a wide-circle tour of the city before continuing on, thus affording all passengers an excellent view of this ancient and inspiring city. Our route from Jerusalem took us east over Lake Habbaniya and the Euphrates River; then we turned northeast, passing Baghdad to the south. Just after we crossed the Tigris River we picked up the Abadan–Teheran motor highway and followed its course generally as far as Hamadan. The Iranian railroad, over which much of our lend-lease supplies for Russia travel, could also be seen at times. From the air we sighted train loads and motor convoys loaded with U. S. lend-lease supplies, bound from the Persian Gulf port of Basra to Russia. Our pilot took advantage of the almost perfect visibility prevailing and never flew above 8000 feet altitude, oft[t]imes flying through the mountain passes instead of flying over the mountains. From Hamadan we took a direct air-line route for Teheran. This entire flight offered a real bird’s-eye view of the many geological contrasts this generally desolate country has to offer, particularly in the low sandy desert country and in the bleak, nude mountains.
Before landing at Teheran we advanced our clocks and watches one and one-half hours to conform to Teheran local time (Zone Minus 3½ Time).
3:00 p.m. The President’s plane arrived at Teheran at 3:00 p.m., local time, covering the 1,310 miles from Cairo in approximately 6½ hours flying time. Our plane, as well as all other planes bearing members of the American and British delegations, landed at Gale Morghe airport—a Russian Army field—about five miles south of Teheran. This is a modern airfield, and on it were noted a large number of our lend-lease planes now bearing the Red Star of Russia.
The President was met at Gale Morghe airport by Major General D. H. Connolly, Commanding General of our Persian Gulf Service Command. For reasons of security, it had been requested that no other officials meet the President here. There were no honors, which was also by request.
The President left his plane and entered a waiting U. S. Army motor car and proceeded directly to the American [Page 461]Legation where he was greeted by Mr. Louis G. Dreyfus, Jr., the United States Minister to Iran, and Brigadier General Patrick Hurley, U. S. A.
The President, Admiral Leahy, Admiral Brown, Major Boettiger and Mr. Hopkins occupied quarters at the American Legation as guests of Minister Dreyfus. The other members of our party were quartered at General Connolly’s compound. Before leaving Cairo the President had been urged to make his quarters in Teheran at both the British and Russian Embassies.3 The decision to stay at the American Legation was made because of a wish to be more independent than a guest could hope to be and also as the British had issued their invitation first it was felt that the Russians might be offended if it were accepted. Immediately after our arrival at Teheran, Admiral Brown was sent to call on the Russian Chargé d’Affair[e]s to explain why the President had decided to live at the American Legation and why he could not accept the Russians’ invitation.4 We learned on our arrival here that Marshal Stalin and his party had arrived in Teheran earlier in the day. The President invited Marshal Stalin to dinner at the American Legation this evening but the Marshal declined because of having had a very strenuous day.5
4:30 p.m. Mr. Maximoff, Russian Chargé d’Affair [e]s at Teheran, called on the President at the American Legation.6
4:50 p.m. Ambassadors Harriman and Winant called at the Legation.7
6:00 p.m. The President retired to his study and wrote a number of personal letters.
7:30 p.m. The President dined at the American Legation and had as his guests Admiral Leahy, Admiral Brown, Admiral McIntire, General Watson, Ambassador Harriman, Ambassador Winant, and Mr. Hopkins.8
10:30 p.m. Lt-General Ismay called at the American Legation. He departed at 11:00 p.m.7

The following is a complete list of those comprising the American party visiting Teheran for this occasion

  • The President.
  • Mr. Harry L. Hopkins.
  • Ambassador Winant.
  • Ambassador Harriman.
  • Admiral William D. Leahy, TJSN.
  • General G. C. Marshall, USA.
  • Admiral E. J. King, USN.
  • General H. H. Arnold, USA.
  • Lt-General B. B. Somervell, USA.
  • Rear Admiral Wilson Brown, USN.
  • Rear Admiral Ross T. McIntire (MC), USN.
  • Rear Admiral C. H. [E.] Olsen, USN.
  • Major General E. M. Watson, USA.
  • Major General J. R. Deane, USA.
  • Major General T. T. Handy, USA.
  • Rear Admiral C. M. Cooke, USN.
  • Brig. General P. J. Hurley, USA.
  • Captain W. L. Freseman, USN.
  • Captain F. B. Royal, USN.
  • Colonel A. J. McFarland, USA.
  • Colonel Elliot[t] Roosevelt, AUS.
  • Colonel E. O’Donnell, USA.
  • Commander V. D. Long, USN.
  • Lt-Colonel Frank McCarthy, USA.
  • Lt-Comdr. George A. Fox (HC), USN.
  • Major DeWitt Greer, AUS.
  • Major George Durno, AUS.
  • Major John Henry, AUS.
  • Major John Boettiger, AUS.
  • Captain G. E. [F.] Rogers, AUS.
  • Captain H. H. Ware, AUS.
  • Lieut J. M. Hannon, USNR.
  • Lieut (jg) W. M. Rigdon, USN.
  • Lieut (jg) R. P. Meikeljohn, USNR.
  • Ship’s Clerk E. F. Block, USN.
  • Warrant Officer (jg) John Devenney, USA.
  • Mr. Charles Bohlen (State Dept.)
  • Std 1/c Arthur Prettyman, USN.
  • Sgt. Robert Hopkins, AUS.
  • M/Sgt. Frank Stoner, AUS.
  • M/Sgt. Horace Caldwell, AUS.
  • Chief Cook A. Orig, USN.
  • Chief Steward I. Esperancilla, USN.
  • Chief Steward M. Floresca, USN.
  • Chief Steward F. Calinao, USN.
  • Chief Steward P. Estrada, USN.
  • Chief Cook C. Ordona, USN.
  • Mr. Russell W. Barnes (O. W. I.)
  • Corp. W. E. Cru[o]mling, USMC.
  • Chief Cook A. Javier, USN.
  • Chief Cook B. Cabera, USN.
  • Chief Cook M. Corpus [z], USN.
  • Sgt. D. P. Flanagan, USMC.
  • T/3 P. J. Levington, AUS.
  • S/Sgt. R. Morton, AUS.
  • [M/]Sgt. E. K. Stott, AUS.
  • Sgt. E. E. Bright, AUS.
  • T/4 H. Gambaccini, AUS.
  • Y1c E. J. Maurer, USNR.
  • Y1c E. G. Peterson, USNR.
  • Y2c L. W. Karr, USNR.
  • Y2c D. C. Flickinger, USNR.
  • T/3 J. J. Lucas, AUS.
  • Mr. Michael F. Reilly (USSS).
  • Mr. Guy H. Spaman (USSS).
  • Mr. James J. Rowley (USSS).
  • Mr. Charles W. Fredericks (USSS).
  • Mr. Vernon Spicer (USSS).
  • Mr. Robert Holmes (USSS).
  • Mr. Neil A. Shannon (USSS).
  • Mr. W. K. Deckard (USSS).
  • Mr. Robert Hastings (USSS).
  • Mr. Walter Haman (USSS).
  • Mr. James M. Beary (USSS).
  • Mr. Gerald Behn (USSS).
  • Mr. Frank B. Wood (USSS).
  • Mr. Roy Kellerman (USSS).
  • As will be noted, some few members of our party (The President’s party) remained at Cairo, viz:
  • Warrant Officer (jg) A. M. Cornelius, USA.
  • Mr. H. S. Anderson (USSS).
  • Mr. James Griffith (USSS).
  • Chief Steward S. Abiba, USN.
  • Chief Cook L. Enrico, USN.

Sunday, November 28th. (At Teheran)
During the forenoon Ambassadors Winant and Harriman, Generals Ismay, Connolly and Hurley called at the American Legation.10
9:30 a.m. Marshal Stalin sent word through Ambassador Harriman that he was concerned about the distance that separated the American Legation from the Russian Embassy compound, because it was well known that the city of Teheran was filled with Axis sympathizers and that an unhappy incident might occur to any of the Heads of State driving through the city to visit each other.11 Ambassador Harriman pointed out that if we persisted in our refusal to accept quarters in the Russian compound we would be responsible for any injury that Marshal Stalin might suffer in driving through the town to consult with President Roosevelt. Mr. Harriman emphasized that the city of Teheran had been under complete German control only a few months before and that the risk of assassination of Mr. Churchill and Marshal Stalin while coming to visit President Roosevelt was very real. He said that the Russians offered a part of their Embassy that would be under a separate roof and we would have complete independence but that it would bring the three Heads of State so close together that there would be no need for any of them to drive about town. The President accepted the Russian invitation and announced that he would make the move to the Russian Embassy, taking with him his own servants, at 3:00 p.m.
11:20 a m. The President worked on official mail that had just arrived from Washington. No Congressional matter contained in this mail.
11:30 a.m. The President met with the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Admiral Leahy, General Marshall, Admiral King, General [Page 464]Arnold, Captain Royal and Lieut-Colonel McCarthy). This meeting adjourned at 1:00 p.m.12
3:00 p.m. The President, Admiral Leahy, Mr. Hopkins and Major Boettiger left the American Legation by auto for the Russian Embassy to live there as guests of the Russian Government.13 While the President and his party occupied the main building of the Embassy, Marshal Stalin and his party lived in one of the smaller houses within the Russian Embassy compound. The British Legation was just one block distant.
After seeing the President comfortably quartered at the Russian Embassy, Admirals Brown and McIntire and General Watson returned to the American Legation so as to continue the impression of occupancy of those quarters by the President and his party.
3:15 p.m. Immediately following the President’s arrival at the Russian Embassy, Marshal Stalin, accompanied by Mr. Pavlov (his interpreter), called on the President and they had a long private talk.14 This was the first meeting of these two distinguished gentlemen. After Marshal Stalin departed, Commissar Molotov called on the President.15
4:00 p.m. The President, Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal Stalin, with their respective military staffs and other delegates, met at the Russian Embassy.16 This was the first joint meeting of these gentlemen.17
. . . . . . .
Note: Generals Marshall and Arnold were not present due to a misunderstanding as to the time of the meeting. The meeting had been called on very short notice and at the time General Marshall and General Arnold were on an auto tour of the city of Teheran.
7:20 p.m. The meeting of the President, the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin, together with their military staffs and other delegates, adjourned.18
7:30 p.m. The President summoned Lieutenant (jg) Rigdon and worked on official mail that had arrived during the day. He signed Congressional bills S321, S364, S1336, S1354 and a proclamation entitled “Capture of Prizes”.
8:30 p.m. The President was host at dinner in his quarters at the Russian Embassy to the Prime Minister, Marshal Stalin, Sir [Mr.] Anthony Eden, Ambassador Harriman, Mr. Charles E. Bohlen, Ambassador Clark Kerr, Major Birse, Commissar Molotov and Mr. Pavlov. After dinner, this group discussed conference matters until 11:00 p.m.19
Note: Much credit is due the President’s Filipino mess boys for the success of the dinner this evening. They prepared the entire meal under a real handicap. They had moved into a virtually empty room at the Russian Embassy at 4:00 p.m. Ranges and much kitchen equipment had first to be installed before they could even begin the preparation of the meal. But with their resourcefulness they saw it done and came through with the meal in their usual fine style.
General Watson spent the day today paying up his many “unfortunate” football bets. The Navy defeated the Army at football yesterday (13 to 0) and permitted practically everyone in the party to fatten his purse at the General’s expense.
Monday, November 29th. (At Teheran)
10:30 a.m. The United States, British and U. S. S. R. military conferees met in the board room of the Russian Embassy.20 All joint board meetings, as well as all plenary meetings with the President, the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin, were held in this room while we were in Teheran.
11:30 a.m. Colonel Elliot[t] Roosevelt arrived in Teheran. He was due to arrive here yesterday morning and his failure to do so caused the President some concern. Colonel Roosevelt’s delay in arriving at Teheran was occasioned by motor trouble at Luxor, Egypt, where he visited prior to his departure from Egypt for Teheran. Colonel Roosevelt lived with the President at the Russian Embassy while he was in Teheran.
11:30 a.m. The President worked on his mail, clearing up all official mail that had arrived yesterday. There were no additional Congressional matters to be acted on.
2:00 p.m. Ambassador Harriman called at the Russian Embassy.21
2:15 p.m. The President met with the American Chiefs of Staff. Those present were: The President, Admiral Leahy, General Marshall, Admiral King, General Arnold, Lt-General Somervell, Captain Royal and Lt-Colonel McCarthy.22
2:30 p.m. Major Otis F. Bryan and Mr. M. F. Reilly called on the President.
2:45 p.m. Marshal Stalin, accompanied by Commissar Molotov and Mr. Pavlov, called on the President for an informal talk.23
3:30 p.m.

Members of the United States, British and U. S. S. R. delegations assembled in the large board room (conference room) at the Russian Embassy for the ceremony at which the Prime Minister presented, in the name of King George VI of Great Britain, the “Sword of Stalingrad” to Marshal Stalin for the people of the City of Stalingrad.24 An honor guard, composed of both Russian and British soldiers and a Russian Army band, participated in the ceremonies. The Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin entered the room simultaneously; then the President. As the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin entered, the band played the Soviet National Anthem and then the British National Anthem. The Prime Minister then read a description of the sword (see Appendix “C”)25 and with these remarks:—

“I have been commanded by His Majesty King George VI to present to you for transmission to the City of Stalingrad, this sword of honor, the design of which His Majesty has chosen and approved. The sword of honor was made by English craftsmen whose ancestors have been employed in swordmaking for generations. The blade of the sword bears the inscription: ‘To the steel-hearted citizens of Stalingrad, a gift from King [Page 467]George VI as a token of the homage of the British people.’”

The Prime Minister made the presentation to Marshal Stalin, who accepted the sword and responded as follows:—

“On behalf of the citizens of Stalingrad, I wish to express my deep appreciation of the gift of King George VI. The citizens of Stalingrad will value this gift most highly and I ask you, Mr. Prime Minister, to convey their thanks to His Majesty the King.”

Marshal Stalin then offered the sword to President Roosevelt for his inspection. The President remarked that it was a very fine gift, and added a few words of praise for the people of the City of Stalingrad.

3:45 p.m. The sword presentation ceremony over, the President, the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin, together with members of their respective delegations, moved to the front portico of the Russian Embassy where moving pictures and still pictures were made of them by United States, British and Russian military photographers and accredited war correspondents.
4:00 p.m. Plenary meeting of the United States, British and U. S. S. R. Chiefs of Staff and other delegates with the President, the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin. Those present included all those present at the 4:00 p.m. meeting yesterday and in addition: Ambassador Harriman, General Marshall, General Arnold, Lt-General Somervell and Captain H. H. Ware, A. U. S., for the United States; Ambassador Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Lt-General Martel and Brigadier Hollis for Great Britain. The meeting adjourned at 7:15 p.m.26
8:45 p.m. Marshal Stalin was host at dinner at the Russian Embassy to the President, the Prime Minister, Foreign Secretary Eden, Commissar Molotov, Ambassador Harriman, Mr. Hopkins, Ambassador Clark Kerr, Mr. Bohlen, Mr. Berezhkov, and Major Birse. Conference discussions were held by this party from after dinner until midnight.27
Note: The numerous Russian guards observed about the Russian Embassy yesterday—the day of our moving [Page 468]there—were not so much in evidence now except when Marshal Stalin came to the Embassy proper. The Russian Embassy guard was comprised entirely of Army officers and civilian secret service men.
Tuesday, November 30th. (At Teheran)
10:45 a.m. Ambassador Winant called on the President.28
11:30 a.m. The President visited the branch post exchange which had been installed in the Russian Embassy for his convenience through the efforts of Major General Connolly and Captain George B. Silton, A. U. S., and inspected the articles on display. These articles were principally of Persian manufacture.
12:00 (noon) The President received Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlevi, the Shah in Shah of Iran, together with his Prime Minister (Mr. Saheily), his Minister for Foreign Affairs (Mr. Saed), and his Minister of the Imperial Court (Mr. Hossein Ala).29
While at the Russian Embassy, the Shah and his party also called on Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal Stalin, in that order.
The Shah presented the President with a very beautiful Persian carpet of Isfahan make. The carpet (18′ x 30′) was designed by the celebrated Iranian artist Imami.
1:30 p.m. The President was host at a luncheon at the Russian Embassy to the Prime Minister, Marshal Stalin, Mr. Pavlov, Major Birse and Mr. Bohlen.30
4:00 p.m. Plenary meeting of American, British and Russian Chiefs of Staff and other delegates with the President, the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin. Those present were the same as at the 4:00 p.m. meeting Monday, November 29th. This meeting adjourned at 6:15 p.m.31
8:30 p.m.

The President attended a dinner at the nearby British Legation given in honor of the Prime Minister on the occasion of his 69th birthday anniversary. Those present: The Prime Minister, the President, Marshal Stalin, Sir [Mr.] Anthony Eden, Mr. Harry L. Hopkins, Sergeant Robert Hopkins, Colonel Elliot[t] Roosevelt, Admiral Leahy, Commander Thompson, Mr. Bohlen, [Page 469]Admiral of the Fleet Cunningham, Mrs. Oliver, Admiral King, Sir Alexander Cadogan, Major Birse, Field Marshal Dill, Ambassador Harriman, Lord Moran, General Arnold, Lt-General Ismay, Major Boettiger, Mr. Holman, Mr. John F. [M.] Martin, Lt-General Somervell, General Brooke, Mr. Berezhkov, Marshal Voroshilov, Sir Reader Bullard, Commissar Molotov, Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Ambassador Winant, Air Chief Marshal Portal, General Marshall and Captain Randolph Churchill.32 Of particular interest are the following remarks made by Marshal Stalin during the Prime Minister’s birthday dinner:—

“I want to tell you, from the Russian point of view, what the President and the United States have done to win the war. The most important things in this war are machines. The United States has proven that it can turn out from 8,000 to 10,000 airplanes per month. Russia can only turn out, at most, 3,000 airplanes a month. England turns out 3,000 to 3,500, which are principally heavy bombers. The United States, therefore, is a country of machines. Without the use of those machines, through Lend-Lease, we would lose this war.”

President Roosevelt presented the Prime Minister with a Kashan bowl for a birthday gift.

11:45 p.m. The President returned to the Russian Embassy and retired for the evening.
Wednesday, December 1st. (At Teheran)
11:30 a.m. The President signed official mail. There were no Congressional matters included in this mail.
11:40 a.m. The President visited the branch post exchange in the Russian Embassy and made several purchases of souvenirs and articles to be used as gifts.
11:50 a.m. A Dr. Millspaugh, an American and the fiscal manager for the Iranian Government, called on the President.33 Colonel Elliot[t] Roosevelt left Teheran, in his own [Page 470]plane, for Cairo en route to his post of duty in Northwest Africa.
12:00 (noon) The President met with the Prime Minister, Marshal Stalin, Foreign Minister Eden, Ambassador Harriman, Mr. Harry L. Hopkins, Commissar Molotov, Ambassador Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, Major Birse, Mr. Berezhkov and Mr. Bohlen. The meeting was at the Russian Embassy.34
1:00 p.m. The President and all those conferring with him since noon had lunch at the Russian Embassy. The party resumed conference discussions immediately after lunch and remained in session until 4:00 p.m.,35 when they adjourned to meet again at 6:00 p.m.
6:00 p.m. The President, the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin and those conferring with them earlier during the afternoon met again for further discussions.36 These discussions continued right up until dinner time.
8:30 p.m. The President was host at dinner at the Russian Embassy to all those present at the 6:00 p.m. conference. Conference discussions were resumed after dinner and continued until 10:30 p.m.,37 during which the President, the Prime Minister and Marshal Stalin agreed on a communiqué to be issued to the press after the President’s subsequent departure from Cairo. A copy of this communiqué is appended, marked Appendix “D”.38
10:30 p.m. At 10:30 p.m., the President bade the Marshal and other members of the Soviet Delegation goodbye and was whisked away from the Russian Embassy by auto and driven to the nearby U. S. Army Camp Amirabad where he and his party spent the night. We arrived at the camp (Colonels’ quarters D 13–15) at 10:45 p.m. and the President retired shortly thereafter. Camp Amirabad is at the foot of the Elburz Mountains and it was rather cold there. Some of our party required three or more blankets to keep warm that night.
The flight to Teheran from Cairo, and return, had been pronounced practical by Major Bryan provided weather conditions were favorable. During unfavorable conditions [Page 471]clouds over the mountain passes would require flying at elevations higher than Admiral McIntire was willing to have the President and some other members of the party go. Weather reports from the westward had, therefore, been watched carefully throughout our stay at Teheran and fortunately conditions had remained ideal. However this (Wednesday) morning information was received of a cold front passing Cairo, which the local aerologists predicted might blank-off the mountain passes on Friday. It was, therefore, decided to make every effort to complete business on Wednesday in order that the President might leave Teheran Thursday morning. Both the Russian and British groups had to readjust their schedule to carry this out and their willingness to do so was another demonstration of the spirit that animated all conferees to work harmoniously together.
During the forenoon the President autographed a photograph of himself for presentation to the Shah of Iran. The photograph, mounted in a silver frame, was handed to Minister Dreyfus who was requested to make the presentation.39
Gifts of American cigarettes and chocolate candy bars were presented to all members of the household staff of the Russian Embassy.
The American and British Chiefs of Staff left Teheran today for return to Cairo, where they were scheduled to resume their conferences. Their party stopped overnight at Jerusalem on the way south.
A “Three Power Agreement” (between the United States, Great Britain and Russia) to guarantee Iran’s territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence was signed at Teheran today by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal Stalin.40
Thursday, December 2nd. (At Teheran; en route Teheran to Cairo; at Cairo.)
8:37 p.m.
[a.m.]
The President, riding in a jeep, left his quarters at Camp Amirabad to inspect the camp and its personnel. In the jeep with the President was Major General [Page 472]Connolly. The party proceeded to the area in front of the Commanding General’s headquarters, where honors were rendered to the President by an honor company and the post band. From here the President was driven about the camp. The President stopped at the post hospital for a few minutes and, remaining in his jeep, made a few impromptu remarks to a group of Army patients and hospital personnel (approximately 75) who were assembled in front of the hospital. His remarks are appended, marked Appendix “E”.41 The party then returned to the area in front of the Commanding General’s headquarters, where some 3,000 personnel of Camp Amirabad were drawn up for the President’s inspection. The President’s jeep was driven onto a low platform and, again from his jeep, the President made an impromptu speech to those assembled. A copy of his remarks is appended, marked “F”.42
9:10 a.m. On completion of his address, the President departed Camp Amirabad for Gale Morghe airport. Outside Camp Amirabad the President transferred from the jeep to a staff car for the ride to the airport. Our route from Camp Amirabad to Gale Morghe skirted Teheran to the southward. It was over dirt roads mostly and was very dusty.
9:30 a.m. Arrived Gale Morghe airport. The President and his party embarked in the planes.
9:46 a.m. The President’s plane departed Teheran for Cairo. In the President’s plane with him were: Mr. Hopkins, Admiral Leahy, Admiral Brown, Admiral McIntire, General Watson, Major Boettiger, Captain Flythe (Medical Corps, U. S. A.), Lt-Commander Fox, Lieutenant (jg) Rigdon, Secret Service Agents Spaman, Fredericks and Spicer, and Steward Prettyman.
12:00 (noon) Our plane passed over Baghdad and circled the city before proceeding on.
3:30 p.m. Our plane crossed over the Suez Canal.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

[Page 473]

Miscellaneous Notes on Teheran

Teheran is the terminus of our Persian Gulf supply line for lend-lease material sent to Russia. Actually it is nearby Kazvin where the supplies are turned over to the Soviets. These supplies are shipped by rail and motor convoy from Abadan and Khorro[a]mshahr through Teheran to Kazvin. Planes are assembled at Abadan (on the Persian Gulf) and flown here for delivery to the Soviets. Some few planes are flown from Abadan by Soviet pilots. All movements of planes north from Teheran and supplies north from Kazvin are handled by the Soviets. To date they have been very careful not to permit our men beyond those points.

Our forces here bring in all of their foodstuffs. Nothing is bought locally. This is done because of the extreme scarcity of foodstuffs in Iran and consequently, in order not to deprive the Iranians of what little there is. This practice also helps greatly in keeping retail prices down. There is real inflation prevalent here—automobile tires are reported to be selling for $2,000 each; a “fifth” of whiskey for $40; a cake of toilet soap for 60¢ (United States currency). Even though there was an absence of fresh vegetables, the diet fed us by the Army while in Teheran was most appetizing.

There are two U. S. Army camps located near Teheran—Camp Amirabad and Camp Atterbury. There are approximately 30,000 officers and enlisted men of our Army stationed in the Persian Gulf Service Command, whose headquarters are at Teheran.

Brigadier General Sweet directs the U. S. Army motor truck transport in Iran and Iraq. He keeps the American supplies rolling through to Russia over the trans-Iranian route.

Major General Connolly and Brigadier General Hurley were both on the job constantly during our visit to personally see that the President and members of his party were well cared for.

The following U. S. Army officers, on duty in Teheran area, served as interpreters for our party while we were in Teheran: Major (O. Pantuhoff, Major N. E. Mitchell, Captain Charles Berman, and Second Lieutenant Boris Alexander.

The weather during our entire stay in Teheran was delightful. The days were mild and the nights cold. There was no central heating in Teheran. Most of the buildings are heated by portable oil stoves. The Russian Embassy is the only steam heated building in the city, we were told.

Mount Demavand (Elburz Mountains) near Teheran is 18,456 feet high.

Nice wide streets here. The roadways are paved but most of the sidewalks are not, causing the city to appear very dusty and dirty.

[Page 474]

The city’s transportation system was apparently most inadequate. It consisted mainly of a very few small buses, which were invariably packed, and horse-drawn “droushkies” [droshkies].

While in Teheran the President presented autographed photographs (mounted in silver frames) to Marshal Stalin and to the Shah of Iran.

It was most evident that every individual member of our Army stationed in Teheran was delighted at our visit and for the opportunity to discuss home and home folks.

. . . . . .

  1. In response to a question from the Historical Office of the Department of State, Harriman wrote as follows in a letter of May 25, 1954 (023/5–2554):

    Hopkins and I discussed the question of American aid in repairing economic damage done to the Soviet Union during the war during the flight from Cairo to Tehran on November 27, 1943. I mentioned the matter to President Roosevelt as one of the matters which might be raised by the Russians during the Conference. My recollection, however, is that the subject was never raised or discussed between the President or any of the American delegation with the Russians during the Conference.

    “The President authorized me to discuss the matter with Molotov after the Conference was over.”

    The subject in fact was taken up with Molotov shortly after Harriman’s return to Moscow following the Conference at Tehran (861.51/3019, 3022).

  2. See the editorial note, ante, p. 310. The Shah of Iran, when he heard of Roosevelt’s impending arrival, offered the use of one of the royal palaces as a residence and as a conference hall, but the invitation was declined; see post, p. 631. See also Elliott Roosevelt, pp. 172–173.
  3. See ante, p. 310, and post, p. 475.
  4. No copies of these messages have been found; presumably they were oral.
  5. See post, p. 475.
  6. No record has been found of the discussion that took place at this meeting.
  7. No record has been found of the discussion that took place during this dinner meeting.
  8. No record has been found of the discussion that took place at this meeting.
  9. No record has been found of what was said, either within the American Delegation or in any talk or talks with Ismay, during these visits.
  10. Stalin’s invitation had been transmitted to Harriman by Molotov late the preceding evening; see post, p. 476. According to Harriman’s letter of May 25, 1954, to the Historical Office of the Department of State (023/5–2554), Harriman discussed the question of Roosevelt’s moving with Hopkins, Hurley, Watson, and Brown on the morning of November 28, 1943. Tine letter continues: “All but one favored the move. When we told the President he was pleased. Churchill, when consulted, was much relieved. He and his colleagues explained that they would have been glad to have the President stay in the Britisih Embassy, but if he went there he would only have a bedroom and sitting room and could not have the privacy with visitors which he would wish.”
  11. For the minutes of this meeting, see post, p. 476. The minutes do not include McCarthy among those present.
  12. For the manner in which the move was effected and camouflaged, see Reilly, p. 178.
  13. For the minutes of this conversation, see post, p. 482.
  14. See post, p. 486.
  15. For the minutes of this meeting, see post, p. 487.
  16. At this point the Log contains the list of those present at the meeting; the list appears post, p. 487.
  17. According to a press despatch of December 6, 1943, from Cairo, printed in the New York Times, December 7, 1943, p. 3, col. 3, Molotov gave a tea attended by the three Heads of Government after the first plenary meeting.
  18. For the minutes of this discussion, see post, p. 509. According to the minutes, Hopkins was also present.
  19. For the minutes of this meeting, see post, p. 514.
  20. No record has been found of the purpose of this call.
  21. No minutes of a meeting of this kind at this time have been found in the files of the Joint Chiefs of Staff or elsewhere.
  22. For the record of this conversation, including a note on the variations in the sources as to who was present, see post, p. 529.
  23. Accounts of the ceremony may also be found in Arnold, p. 467; Churchill, p. 363; Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Tehran Conference, p. 172; King, p. 519; Leahy, p. 207; and Elliott Roosevelt, p. 180.
  24. Appendix C, an 8-paragraph technical description, is not reproduced herein.
  25. For the minutes of this meeting, see post, p. 533.
  26. For the minutes of this discussion, including a note on the variations in the sources as to who was present, see post, p. 552.
  27. No record has been found of what was said during this visit.
  28. See post, p. 564.
  29. For the minutes of the discussion which took place at the luncheon (which mention Berezhkov as present rather than Pavlov), see post, p. 565.
  30. For the minutes of this meeting, see post, p. 576.
  31. For the minutes of the discussion which took place at the dinner, see post, p. 582.
  32. Regarding the conversation of Millspaugh with the President, at which Hopkins was apparently also present, and regarding Roosevelt’s ideas on postwar American economic assistance to Iran, presumably expressed in this conversation, see T. H. Vail Motter, The Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1952), in the series United States Army in World War II, p. 445, footnote 14, and Arthur C. Millspaugh, Americans in Persia, pp. 8, 206. See also post, p. 629.
  33. The discussions, which continued through the luncheon, are covered in the minutes of the luncheon meeting, post, p. 585.
  34. For the record of a RooseveltStalin conversation of 3:20 p.m. on this date, see post, p. 594.
  35. For the minutes of this meeting, see post, p. 596.
  36. For the subjects discussed at the dinner meeting, see post, p. 605.
  37. For the text of the communiqué, see post, p. 639.
  38. For the Shah’s acknowledgment, see post, p. 806.
  39. For the text, see post, p. 646.
  40. Not printed herein.
  41. Not printed herein. For a published source containing these informal remarks, see post, p. 835.
  42. For the continuation of the Log at Cairo, December 2–7, 1943, see post, p. 655