The Foreign Relations of the United States series presents the official documentary historical record of major foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity of the United States Government. The series documents the facts and events that contributed to the formulation of policies and includes evidence of supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.
The Historian of the Department of State is charged with the responsibility for the preparation of the Foreign Relations series. The staff of the Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, plans, researches, compiles, and edits the volumes in the series. This documentary editing proceeds in full accord with the generally accepted standards of historical scholarship. Official regulations codifying specific standards for the selection and editing of documents for the series were first promulgated by Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg on March 26, 1925. These regulations, with minor modifications, guided the series through 1991.
The statutory charter for the preparation of the series is prescribed by Title IV to the Department of State’s Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 USC 4351, et seq.). The statute requires that the Foreign Relations series be a thorough, accurate, and reliable record of major United States foreign policy decisions and significant United States diplomatic activity. The volumes of the series should include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the United States Government, including facts that contributed to the formulation of policies and records that provided supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.
The statute confirms the editing principles established by Secretary Kellogg: the Foreign Relations series is guided by the principles of historical objectivity and accuracy; records should not be altered or deletions made without indicating in the published text that a deletion has been made; the published record should omit no facts that were of major [Typeset Page IV] importance in reaching a decision; and nothing should be omitted for the purposes of concealing a defect in policy. The statute also requires that the Foreign Relations series be published not more than 30 years after [Facsimile Page 4] the events recorded. The editors of this supplement are convinced that it meets all regulatory, statutory, and scholarly standards of selection and editing.
Structure and Scope of the Foreign Relations Series
This supplement is part of a subseries of the Foreign Relations series for the years 1961–1963. The subseries presents in 25 print volumes and 5 microfiche supplements a documentary record of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the administration of President John F. Kennedy. The record of U.S. policy on arms control and disarmament, national security issues, and foreign economic matters during 1961–1963 has been compiled in three separate print volumes and this microfiche supplement.
Sources for the Foreign Relations Series
The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major foreign policy decisions and actions of the U.S. Government. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. The editor believes that in terms of access this volume was prepared in accordance with the standards and mandates of the statute, although access to some records was restricted, as noted below.
The editors had complete access to all the retired records and papers in the Department of State except for certain intelligence-related files maintained in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, which had not been retired and became available to the Department historians only after this microfiche supplement was compiled. Arrangements have been made for Department historians to have access to these records for future volumes.[Typeset Page V]
The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have access to the papers of President Kennedy and other White House foreign policy records at the John F. Kennedy Library. The records maintained and preserved there include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from other federal agencies. Department of State historians also have full access to records of the Department of Defense, particularly the records [Facsimile Page 5] of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretary of Defense and his major assistants.
The Central Intelligence Agency provides access for Department historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records still in the custody of that Agency. Department historians’ access is arranged by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. The development of this access arrangement coincided with the research of volumes for the 1961–1963 triennium. As Department of State and CIA historians have continued to work out the procedural and scholarly aspects of this access, the variety and quantity of documentation made available and selected for publication in the volumes have expanded. Those volumes whose research was conducted later were the beneficiaries of the expanding access.
The List of Sources (pp. 1–15) lists the files consulted both in government repositories and in private collections for the print volumes and the microfiche supplement.
Principles of Document Selection for the Foreign Relations Series
In preparing each volume of the Foreign Relations series, the editors are guided by some general principles for the selection of documents. Each editor, in consultation with the General Editor and other senior editors, determines the particular issues and topics to be documented either in detail, in brief, or in summary. Some general decisions are also made regarding issues that cannot be documented in the volume but will be addressed in a microfiche supplement or in bibliographical notes.
The following general selection criteria are used in preparing volumes in the Foreign Relations series. Individual compiler-editors vary these criteria in accordance with the particular issues and the available documentation. The compiler-editors also tend to apply these selection criteria in [Typeset Page VI] accordance with their own interpretation of the generally accepted standards of scholarship. In selecting documentation for publications, the editors gave priority to unpublished classified records, rather than previously published records (which are accounted for in appropriate bibliographical notes).
Selection Criteria (in general order of priority):
1. Major foreign affairs commitments made on behalf of the United States to other governments, including those that define [Facsimile Page 6] or identify the principal foreign affairs interests of the United States;
2. Major foreign affairs issues, commitments, negotiations, and activities, whether or not major decisions were made, and including dissenting or alternative opinions to the process ultimately adopted;
3. The decisions, discussions, actions, and considerations of the President, as the official constitutionally responsible for the direction of foreign policy;
4. The discussions and actions of the National Security Council, the Cabinet, and special Presidential policy groups, including the policy options brought before these bodies or their individual members;
5. The policy options adopted by or considered by the Secretary of State and the most important actions taken to implement Presidential decisions or policies;
6. Diplomatic negotiations and conferences, official correspondence, and other exchanges between U.S. representatives and those of other governments that demonstrate the main lines of policy implementation on major issues;
7. Important elements of information that attended Presidential decisions and policy recommendations of the Secretary of State;
8. Major foreign affairs decisions, negotiations, and commitments undertaken on behalf of the United States by government officials and representatives in other agencies in the foreign affairs community or other branches of government made without the involvement (or even knowledge) of the White House or the Department of State;
9. The role of the Congress in the preparation and execution of particular foreign policies or foreign affairs actions;
10. Economic aspects of foreign policy;[Typeset Page VII]
11. The main policy lines of U.S. military and economic assistance as well as other types of assistance;
12. The political-military recommendations, decisions, and activities of the military establishment and major regional military commands as they bear upon the formulation or execution of major U.S. foreign policies;
13. The main policy lines of intelligence activities if they constituted major aspects of U.S. foreign policy toward a nation or region or if they provided key information in the formulation of major U.S. policies;[Facsimile Page 7]
14. Diplomatic appointments that reflect major policies or affect policy changes.
Scope and Focus of Documents Researched and Selected for the Microfiche Supplement to Foreign Relations, 1961–1963, Volumes VII, VIII, and IX
The research for the print volumes and for this microfiche supplement was completed in 1991 and 1992. The principles of selection followed by the editors for the print volumes are described in the prefaces of those volumes. The volumes may be used without this supplement, but the supplement should be used in conjunction with the printed volumes.
The documents selected for this microfiche publication by the editors of volumes VII, VIII, and IX provide additional details on the major issues covered, as well as some lengthy documents and attachments which could not be printed because of lack of space, such as the full texts of the National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates.
The documents in this microfiche supplement are arranged in three main parts: arms control, national security policy, and foreign economic policy. The last is subdivided into four sections. Within each of these sections, the documents are presented chronologically according to Washington time or in the order of individual meetings. Incoming telegrams from U.S. Missions are placed according to time of receipt in the Department of State or other receiving agency, rather than the time of transmission; memoranda of conversation are placed according to the time and date of the con[Typeset Page VIII]versation, rather than the date the memorandum was drafted.
The documents are numbered at the top of the first page of the document. The List of Documents is ordered according to these numbers. The documents are not annotated nor is there any other editorial apparatus. Material not declassified has been blacked out; for each document not declassified, a page has been inserted that shows a title, date, classification, number of pages, and source citation.
The List of Documents, which includes for each document the title, date, participants (for memoranda of conversation), from/to information, classification, number of pages, and source citation, as well as a brief summary, is part of this printed guide [Facsimile Page 8] and appears on the first two microfiche cards. The printed guide also includes Lists of Sources, Abbreviations, and Persons.
Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation
The Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation, established under the Foreign Relations statute, reviews records, advises, and makes recommendations concerning the Foreign Relations series. The Advisory Committee monitors the overall compilation and editorial process of the series and advises on all aspects of the preparation and declassification of the series. Although the Advisory Committee does not attempt to review the contents of individual volumes in the series, it does monitor the overall process and makes recommendations on particular problems that come to its attention.
The Advisory Committee has not reviewed this microfiche supplement.
The declassification review of this microfiche supplement resulted in the decision to withhold 5 percent of the documentation originally selected: 5 percent of arms control documentation, 3.5 percent of national security documentation, and .1 percent of foreign economic documentation. The remaining documents, together with the documents in the published volumes, provide an accurate account of the major foreign policy issues confronting, and the policies under[Typeset Page IX]taken by, the U.S. Government concerning these issues during this period.
The Division of Historical Documents Review of the Office of Freedom of Information, Privacy, and Classification Review, Bureau of Administration, Department of State, conducted the declassification review of the documents published in this volume. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards set forth in Executive Order 12356 on National Security Information, which was superseded by Executive Order 12958 on April 20, 1995, and applicable laws.
Under Executive Order 12356, information that concerns one or more of the following categories, and the disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security, requires classification:
1) military plans, weapons, or operations;[Facsimile Page 9]
2) the vulnerabilities or capabilities of systems, installations, projects, or plans relating to the national security;
3) foreign government information;
4) intelligence activities (including special activities), or intelligence sources or methods;
5) foreign relations or foreign activities of the United States;
6) scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to national security;
7) U.S. Government programs for safeguarding nuclear materials or facilities;
8) cryptology; or
9) a confidential source.
The principle guiding declassification review is to release all information, subject only to the current requirements of national security and law. Declassification decisions entailed concurrence of the appropriate geographic and functional bureaus in the Department of State, other concerned agencies of the U.S. Government, and the appropriate foreign governments regarding specific documents of those governments.
The editors wish to acknowledge the assistance of the federal agencies, particularly the National Archives and Rec[Typeset Page X]ords Administration, for their cooperation in granting access to their records. They also thank officials at the John F. Kennedy Library, in particular Suzanne Forbes, who assisted in the collection of documents for this volume. Mary McAuliffe of the Central Intelligence Agency History Staff assisted in arranging access to that agency’s materials. Officials at the Department of Defense, especially Sandra Meagher, and officials at the National Defense University also deserve special thanks.[Facsimile Page 10]
Evans Gerakas, David W. Mabon, David S. Patterson, William F. Sanford, Jr., and Carolyn B. Yee compiled the documents in this supplement, under the supervision of former General Editor Glenn W. LaFantasie. Deb Godfrey prepared the List of Documents.
Bureau of Public Affairs