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List of Sources

Unpublished Sources

Department of State

Central Files. A major source of documentation for this volume was the indexed central files of the Department of State. Many of the documents were selected from the following files:

  • 100.4: Interagency boards and committees
  • 102.7: Department of Commerce
  • 110.11: Secretary of State
  • 110.12BA: Under Secretary of State Ball
  • 374.800: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • 394.41: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
  • 396.1-PA: International conferences at Paris
  • 396.12: Conferences on international political relations
  • 397.5611: Conferences on atomic weapons
  • 398.00: Conferences on economic, industrial and social affairs
  • 398.051: U.N. Special Fund
  • 398.10: International financial conferences
  • 398.13: International Monetary Fund
  • 398.14: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • 400.0041: Trade relations
  • 400.11: Export trade of the U.S.
  • 400.116: Other administrative measures affecting import trade
  • 400.119: U.S. export controls
  • 411.004: U.S. import tariffs
  • 411.0041: U.S. trade relations
  • 411.006: Other U.S. administrative matters affecting import trade
  • 411.414: U.S. import tariff on the United Kingdom
  • 411.9441: U.S. trade relations with Japan
  • 460.119: U.S. export controls on trade with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
  • 460.509: COCOM restrictions on trade with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
  • 611.0012: U.S. arms control agreements
  • 611.0041: U.S. trade agreements, treaties, and conventions
  • 611.00431: U.S. economic treaties and agreements, double taxation
  • 611.3722: U.S. blockade of Cuba
  • 611.61: Political relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
  • 611.6112: Arms limitation between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
  • 611.62A: Political relations between the United States and West Germany
  • 611.9441: U.S. trade agreements, treaties, and conventions with Japan
  • 700.5-MSP: Mutual defense
  • 700.5611: Atomic weapons in the world
  • 711.5: U.S. national defense
  • 711.5611: Atomic weapons in the U.S.
  • 740.5-MSP: Mutual defense of Europe
  • 762.00: Political affairs and conditions in Germany
  • 800.0000: General economic matters
  • 800.03: Food conditions; Food for Peace
  • 800.235: Sugar
  • 800.2553: Petroleum
  • 811.00: U.S. general economic matters
  • 811.0000: General world economic matters
  • 811.0040: U.S. economic relations with Europe
  • 811.10: U.S. financial and monetary matters
  • 811.11: U.S. taxation
  • 811.112: U.S. taxation income
  • AID 1: General aid policy, plans, and coordination
  • AID (IBRD) 1: Aid, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • AID (IDA): Aid, International Development Association
  • AID (US) 1: General U.S. aid policy, plans, and coordination
  • DEF 1 US: Defense affairs, U.S. policy, plans, readiness
  • DEF 12: Defense affairs, armaments
  • DEF 12–5: Defense affairs, procurement, sales
  • DEF 18: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament
  • DEF 18–3 SWITZ (GE): Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, organizations, and conferences relating to Geneva, Switzerland
  • DEF 18–3 USSR (MO): Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, organizations and conferences relating to Moscow
  • DEF 18–4: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, agreements and treaties
  • DEF 18–6: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, control measures
  • DEF 18–9: Defense affairs, arms control and disarmament, de-[Facsimile Page 14]militarized, and nuclear-free zones
  • DEF 19–3: Military assistance
  • DEF 6–8 US/NATO: Defense affairs between United States and NATO, mobilization of armed forces
  • FN 1 US: General U.S. finance policy
  • FN 12: Balance of payments
  • FN 12 US: U.S. balance of payments
  • FN 16 US: U.S. revenue, taxation
  • FT (EX) US: U.S. foreign trade, export
  • FT 4 US/TEA: U.S. foreign trade agreements, Trade Expansion Act
  • FT 7: Tariff negotiations
  • FT 7 GATT: Tariff negotiations, GATT
  • INCO–COTTON: Cotton industry and commodities
  • INCO–POULTRY US: U.S. poultry industry and commodities
  • INCO–WOOL 4: Wool trade agreements
  • INCO–WOOL IT: Wool industry and commodities of Italy
  • INCO–WOOL US: Wool industry and commodities of United States
  • ORG 7 S: Organization and administration, visits
  • POL UK–US: Political affairs and relations between the U.K. and the U.S.
  • POL UK–USSR: Political affairs and relations between the U.K. and the U.S.S.R.
  • POL US–USSR: Political affairs and relations between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
  • POL 7 US/Harriman: Visits and meetings of W. Averell Harriman
  • POL 7 US/Kennedy: Visits and meetings of John F. Kennedy
  • POL 7 US/UK: Political affairs and relations, visits, and meetings between United States and United Kingdom
  • POL 15–1 USSR: Political affairs and relations between the heads of state of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.

Lot Files. Documents from the central files are supplemented by lot files of the Department, which are decentral[Typeset Page ]ized files created by bureaus, offices, divisions, and the Executive Secretariat. A list of the lot files cited or consulted in this volume follows:

  • Ball Files: Lot 74 D 272
    • Files of Under Secretary of State George W. Ball, 1961–1963.
  • Conference Files: Lot 65 D 366
    • Documentation on official visits to the United States by heads of government and foreign ministers and on international conferences attended by the President, Secretary of State, and Under Secretary of State for 1961.
  • Conference Files: Lot 65 D 533
    • Documentation on official visits to the United States by heads of state and foreign ministers and on international conferences attended by the President, Secretary of State, and Under Secretary of State for 1962.
  • Conference Files: Lot 66 D 110
    • Documentation on international conferences attended by the President, Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials, May 1961–December 1964.
  • E Files: Lot 64 D 452
    • Files of Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, 1962–1963, covering economic policy.
  • INR/EAP Files: Lot 90 D 110
    • NIEs and SNIEs on East Asia and the Pacific, 1952–1985, maintained by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research
  • INR Historical Files
    • Records of 5412 Special Group, 1954–1964, as maintained by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research
  • INR–NIE Files
    • Files retained by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research containing copies of National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates
  • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 66 D 204
    • Presidential exchanges of correspondence with heads of government for 1953–1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 72 D 204
    • Exchanges of correspondence between President Kennedy and British Prime Minister Macmillan for 1960–1962.
  • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 76 D 435
    • Exchanges of correspondence between President Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev for 1961–1963.
  • Presidential Correspondence: Lot 77 D 163
    • Correspondence between Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and the Chairman of the Soviet Union, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and President of France, 1961–1964.
  • Presidential Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149
    • Complete chronological record of cleared memoranda of conversation with foreign visitors for 1956–1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • Rusk Files: Lot 72 D 192
    • Files of Secretary of State Dean Rusk, 1961–1969, including his memoranda of telephone conversations.
  • Secretary’s Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 65 D 330
    • Memoranda of conversation of the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary of State, 1961–1964.
  • S/P Files: Lot 67 D 548
    • Files of the Policy Planning Staff for 1961–1964
  • S/P Files: Lot 69 D 121
    • Files of the Policy Planning Staff for 1961–1964.
  • S/P Files: Lot 70 D 199
    • Files of the Policy Planning Council for 1963–1964.
  • S/P–NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1
    • Serial and subject master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence for the years 1948–1961, as maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
  • Special Group (CI) Files: Lot 68 D 451
    • Minutes and memoranda of the Special Group, Counterinsurgency, January 1962–December 1963.
  • Special Group (CI) Files: Lot 70 D 258
    • Master file of counterinsurgency plans, including memoranda, airgrams, cables, and correspondence on various countries.
  • S/S Briefing Books: Lot 66 D 219
    • Various policy briefing books and situation chronologies used by the Secretary and Under Secretaries of State, 1962–1966.
  • S/S Files: Lot 66 D 147
    • Records of the Secretary of State’s Staff Meetings, 1961–1964.
  • S/S Files: Lot 70 D 328
    • Records of State-JCS meetings, 1959–1963.
  • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 70 D 265
    • Master set of papers pertaining to National Security Council meetings, including policy papers, positions papers, and administrative documents, 1961–1966, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • S/S–NSC Files: Lot 72 D 316
    • Master file of National Security Action Memoranda (NSAMs), 1961–1968, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • S/S–NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95
    • Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council documentation, including NSC Records of Action, 1947–1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
  • S/S–RD Files: Lot 71 D 171
    • Restricted data file maintained by the Executive Secretariat for 1957–1967.
  • Vietnam Working Group Files: Lot 66 D 193
    • Files of the Vietnam Working Group, 1960–1962.
[Facsimile Page 18]

National Archives and Records Administration

Record Group 218, Records of the Joint Staff and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

  • JCS Records

Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland

Record Group 40, Records of the Department of Commerce

  • Office of the Secretary of Commerce Files: FRC 69 A 6828
    • Executive Secretariat files for 1963–1964.
  • Under Secretary of Commerce Files: FRC 66 A 1971
    • Files of the Office of Edward Gudeman, Under Secretary of Commerce, 1961–1963.

Record Group 59, Records of the Department of State

  • E Files: FRC 71 A 6682, Item 53
    • Lot 65 D 68: Files containing origins, deliberations, and termination of the Interdepartmental Committee of Under Secretaries for Foreign Economic Policy (ICFEP), 1961–1963.
  • E/CBA/REP Files: FRC 72 A 6248
    • Lot 70 D 467: Master set of the Department of State classified internal publication Current Economic Developments for 1945–1969, maintained in the Bureau of Economic Affairs.

Record Group 286, Records of the Agency for International Development

  • AID Administrator Files: FRC 65 A 481
    • Executive Secretariat files for 1961–1962.
  • AID Administrator Files: FRC 67 A 1530
    • Executive Secretariat files for 1962–1964.
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Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

  • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 64 A 2382
    • Decimal files of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1961.
  • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 65 A 3501
    • Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1962.
  • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 65 B 3501
    • Decimal files of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1962.
  • OASD/ISA Files: FRC 69 A 926
    • Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs for 1963–1964.
  • OSD Files: FRC 65 A 2464
    • Subject decimal files of the Office of the Secretary of Defense for 1961.
  • OSD Files: FRC 65 A 3463
    • Subject decimal files of the Office of the Secretary of Defense for 1961.
  • OSD Files: FRC 65 A 3464
    • Subject decimal files of the Office of the Secretary of Defense for 1961.
  • OSD Files: FRC 66 A 3542
    • Subject decimal files of the Office of the Secretary of Defense for 1962.
  • OSD Files: FRC 66 A 3543
    • Subject decimal files of the Office of the Secretary of Defense for 1962.
  • OSD Files: FRC 71 A 3470
    • Files of Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara for 1961–1968.
  • OSD/AE Files: FRC 68 A 6453
    • Subject files of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy for 1950–1966.
  • OSD/AE Files: FRC 69 A 2243
    • Subject files of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy for 1961–1969.
[Facsimile Page 20]

Record Group 383, Records of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

  • ACDA/CSRC Files: FRC 77 A 59
    • Miscellaneous policy and position papers for 1953–1968.
  • ACDA/D Files: FRC 77 A 23
    • Files of Director William C. Foster for 1959–1966.
  • ACDA/D Files: FRC 77 A 80
    • Files of Director William C. Foster for 1958–1969.
  • ACDA/DD Files: FRC 77 A 17
    • Files of Deputy Director Adrian S. Fisher for 1961–1969.
  • ACDA/EX/C&R Files: FRC 77 A 8
    • Subject files for 1962–1963.
  • ACDA/EX/RIC/R Files: FRC 77 A 10
    • Subject files for 1963.

Central Intelligence Agency

  • DCI (McCone) Files: Job 80-B01285A
    • Files of Director John A. McCone, 1962–1965.
  • Job 79-R01012A, ODDI Registry
    • Files containing copies of National Intelligence Estimates and Special National Intelligence Estimates.
  • DCI, ER Subject Files
  • DCI Memoranda
  • DCI Memos for Record
  • EA/DCI Chron
  • McCone Files
  • Meetings with President
  • Special Group (5412)(1963)

National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C.

  • Taylor Papers
    • Papers of General Maxwell D. Taylor, Chief of Staff of the Army, 1955–1959; the President’s Military Representative, 1961–1962; and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1962–1964.
  • Lemnitzer Papers
    • Papers of Lyman Lemnitzer, Chief of Staff of the Army, 1959–1960, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1960–1962.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas

  • Office of the Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Records
    • White House Special Files, Records of the Special Assistant for National Security Affairs (Robert Cutler, Dillon Anderson, and Gordon Gray), 1952–1961.

John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts

  • Bromley Smith Papers
  • Christian A. Herter Papers
  • George W. Ball Papers
    • Transcripts of telephone conversations, 1961–1963.
  • C. Douglas Dillon Papers
  • Myer Feldman Papers
  • Howard C. Petersen Papers
  • National Security Files
    • Bethe Report
    • Brubeck Series
    • Carl Kaysen Series
    • Chester V. Clifton Series
    • Countries Series
    • Departments and Agencies Series
    • Meetings and Memoranda Series
    • Subjects Series
  • President’s Appointment Books
  • President’s Office Files
  • Roger Hilsman Papers
    • Official papers of Director of Intelligence and Research and then Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, 1961–1964.
  • Sorensen Papers

Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas

  • National Security File
    • Agency File
    • Memos to the President
    • National Intelligence Estimates
    • National Security Council Meetings File
    • Subject File
  • Vice Presidential Security File

Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.

  • Harriman Papers
    • Special files of W. Averell Harriman, Public Service, Kennedy and Johnson administrations.
[Facsimile Page 23]

Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C.

  • Burke Papers
    • Papers of Arleigh A. Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, 1955–1961.

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

  • Chester B. Bowles Papers
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Published Sources

Government Publications and Documentary Collections

  • Jackson, Henry M., ed. The National Security Council: Jackson Subcommittee Papers on Policy-Making at the Presidential Level (New York: Praeger, 1965)
  • Poole, Walter S. The History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy, Volume VIII: 1961–1964, Parts I–III (Classified study, Historical Division, Joint Secretariat, Joint Chiefs of Staff)
  • U.K. Foreign Office. Documents relating to Disarmament and to the Establishment of the 18-Nation Committee, Miscellaneous No. 12 (1962), Cmnd. 1964 (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, April 1962)
  • ———. Further Documents Relating to the Conference of the 18-Nation Committee on Disarmament (Session March 14, 1962 to June 15, 1962), Miscellaneous No. 22 (1962), Cmnd. 1792 (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, July 1962)
  • ———. Further Documents Relating to the Conference of the 18-Nation Committee on Disarmament (Session July 16, 1962 to September 8, 1962), Miscellaneous No. 32 (1962), Cmnd. 1857 (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, November 1962)
  • U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Documents on Disarmament, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
  • U.S. Congress, Senate. Executive Sessions of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Together with Joint Sessions with the Senate Armed Services Committee (Historical Series), Volume XIV, Eighty-seventh Congress, Second Session, 1962 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986)
  • ———. Investigation of the Preparedness Program: Interim Report by Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Under the Authority of S. [Facsimile Page 24]Resolution 75, Eighty-eighth Congress, First Session, on the Military Implications of the Proposed Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964)
  • ———. Military Aspects and Implications of Nuclear Test Ban Proposals and Related Matters: Hearings Before the Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Eighty-eighth Congress, First Session (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964)
  • U.S. Congress, Senate. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eighty-eighth Congress, First Session (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963)
  • ———. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Report of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eighty-eighth Congress, First Session (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963)
  • ———. Organizing for National Security: Inquiry of the Subcommittee on National Policy Machinery of the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, 3 vols. (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961)
  • U.S. Defense Nuclear Agency. Operation Dominic 1962, DNA-6040F (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983)
  • U.S. Department of Energy. Announced United States Nuclear Tests: June 1945 Through December 1990 (DOE/NV-209 (Rev. 11)
  • U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
  • ———. Department of State Bulletin, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
  • U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program. Vol. I, Organizing for Exploration (The NASA history series, NASA SP-4218) (n.p.: 1995)
  • U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
  • ———. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963–64 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964)
  • Yearbook of the United Nations, 1962 (New York: Columbia Uni[Facsimile Page 25]versity Press, 1964)

Memoirs and Secondary Literature

Note: The Department of State takes no responsibility for the accuracy of these publications nor does it endorse their interpretations.

  • Ball, George W. The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs (New York: Norton, 1982)
  • Enthoven, Alain, and K. Wayne Smith. How Much Is Enough? Shaping the Defense Program, 1961–1969 (New York: Harper and Row, 1971)
  • Galbraith, John Kenneth. Ambassador’s Journal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969)
  • Garthoff, Raymond L. “Banning the Bomb in Outer Space,” International Security, V (Winter 1980/81), pages 25–40
  • Garthoff, Raymond L. Intelligence Assessment and Policymaking: A Decision Point in the Kennedy Administration (Washington: Brookings, 1984)
  • Horsefield, J. Keith and Margaret G. de Vries. The International Monetary Fund, 1945–1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. 3 volumes. (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1969)
  • Kaplan, Fred. The Wizards of Armageddon (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983)
  • Macmillan, Harold. At the End of the Day (London: Macmillan, 1973)
  • Millikan, Max F. and Walt W. Rostow. A Proposal: Key to an Effective Foreign Policy (New York: Harper and Row, 1957)
  • Nitze, Paul H. From Hiroshima to Glasnost: At the Center of Decision: A Memoir (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1989)
  • Raucher, Alan R. Paul G. Hoffman: Architect of Foreign Aid (Kentucky: The University Press, 1985)
  • Rostow, Walt W. The Diffusion of Power: An Essay in Recent History (New York: Macmillan, 1972)
  • ———. Eisenhower, Kennedy and Foreign Aid (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985)
  • ———. View From the Seventh Floor (New York: Harper & Row, 1964)
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965)
  • Seaborg, Glenn T. Journal of Glenn T. Seaborg (Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, 1989–[Facsimile Page 26]1992), Pub-625, Volumes 1–7, Appendix, and Press Clippings
  • ———. Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Test Ban (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981)
  • Smith, Bromley K. Organizational History of the National Security Council During the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations (n.p.: n.p., n.d. [1988])
  • Sorensen, Theodore C. Kennedy (New York: Harper & Row, 1965)
  • Taylor, Maxwell D. Swords and Plowshares: A Memoir (New York: W. W. Norton, 1972)