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Eastern Europe Region


1. Presidential Review Memorandum/NSC–9

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 27, PRM–9 [1]. Secret. Hyland forwarded the memorandum to Brzezinski for signature on January 29, stating it had been thoroughly coordinated with the Department of State and the Department of Defense. (Ibid.) On January 5, two weeks prior to the inauguration, the President-elect’s team held a “mini” NSC meeting to discuss the foreign policy agenda for the administration. Included in the Summary of Conclusions of the meeting was a recommendation that a comprehensive review of Europe be held prior to the NATO Ministerial meeting scheduled to take place in London May 10–11. Carter approved the Summary of Conclusions of the meeting. (Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Brzezinski Office File, Subject Chron File, Box 78, Brzezinski, Chron to/from President: 1/77)


3. Paper Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency for the Special Activities Working Group

Source: National Security Council, Carter Administration Intelligence Files, Box I–022, SCC Meetings 1977–78, SCC (i) 24 February 1977. Secret; Sensitive. The date is handwritten. Hoskinson forwarded the paper, which was prepared at the request of the Special Activities Working Group, to Brzezinski under a February 21 covering memorandum at Tab E of Brzezinski’s briefing book for the February 24 SCC meeting.


4. Executive Summary of a Paper Prepared by the Policy Review Committee

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 27, PRM–9 [1]. Secret. Sent to Brzezinski under a March 1 covering memorandum from Borg. On March 2, Michael Hornblow, Acting Staff Secretary of the National Security Council forwarded the paper to the members of the Policy Review Committee. (Ibid.) On March 4, Treverton sent Brzezinski a memorandum analyzing the study paper. Treverton wrote that the full report was “long and loose” but that some parts, “for instance the section of Eastern Europe—is quite good.” Referring specifically to the Eastern Europe section and the four alternatives proposed by the paper, Treverton argued that “the difficulty with much of the discussion, even the four broad alternative approaches, is that it is very political in character. There is, for instance, little mention of the looming problem of Eastern European debt with Western financial institutions. That would bear on our ability to implement any approach.” (Ibid.)


5. Intelligence Memorandum Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Support Services (DI), Job 78T02549A, PPG Production Case Files, Box 3, Folder 15, RP–77–10060: Dissident Activity in East Europe: An Overview. Secret; [handling restriction not declassified]. The report was prepared in the Office of Regional and Political Analysis.


6. Summary of Discussion of a Policy Review Committee Meeting

Source: Carter Library, Brzezinski Donated Material, Subject File, Box 24, [Meetings–PRC 12: 4/14/77]. Secret; Sensitive. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room.


8. Paper Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency

Source: National Security Council, Carter Administration Intelligence Files, Box I–029, USSR-Cuban Intervention in Africa, 9 Jan 1978–7 Jul 1978. Secret; Sensitive. A typed notation under the subject line indicates the paper was approved by the Department of State on May 17. See Note on U.S. Covert Action for further information on “Perspectives” papers.


9. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski) to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Country File, Box 22, Europe: 1/77–12/78. Top Secret; Codeword. Drafted by Inderfurth on June 23. Printed from an uninitialed copy.


10. Memorandum From Gregory Treverton of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 27, PRM–9 [2]. Confidential. Sent for information. Brzezinski wrote at the top of the memorandum: “RI, GFT—good memo—push for a paper and meeting. ZB” and indicated that the memorandum should be returned to Treverton and Inderfurth.


11. Paper Prepared in the Department of State

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 27, PRM–9 [2]. Confidential. Sent under cover of a July 20 memorandum from Tarnoff to Brzezinski forwarding all four requested follow-up studies related to PRM/NSC–9.


12. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski) to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Brzezinski Office File, Subject Chron File, Box 91, Export Controls: 1977. Confidential. Sent for action. While no drafting information appears on the memorandum, it was forwarded to Brzezinski for signature by Benjamin Huberman on August 4 and retyped on August 15.


13. Presidential Review Memorandum/NSC–31

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 3, Unclassified/Declassified PRM and PD/NSC Documents. Confidential.


14. Summary of Conclusions of a Presidential Review Committee Meeting

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 16, PD–21. Secret; Sensitive. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room.


15. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski) to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 16, PD–21. Secret; Sensitive. Sent for action. Carter initialed the memorandum indicating he had seen it. The memorandum was drafted by Treverton on August 24 and redrafted on September 2 to incorporate Aaron’s suggestions.


16. Presidential Directive/NSC–21

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 16, PD–21. Secret; Sensitive.


17. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special, Box 1, Chron File: 10–11/77. Secret; Outside System. Sent for action.


18. Paper Prepared by the National Security Council Staff for Eastern European Affairs

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 131, [NS Files-3] Carter NS 7707862–7801072 [1]. No classification marking. Sent under a December 21 covering memorandum from the Soviet/Eastern Europe NSC Staff to Brzezinski, which dealt with U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union. Brzezinski wrote “King” at the top of the paper, indicating that it should be returned to Robert King. Portions of this paper (see subsequent footnotes) were included in “NSC Report for 1977: A Critical Self-Appraisal,” January 12, 1978, which Brzezinski sent to Carter on January 13, 1978. (Carter Library, Plains File, Subject File, Box 28, NSC Weekly Reports, 7–12/77)


19. Memorandum for the Record

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, Job 05S00620R, Administrative Files, Schedules of Daily Activities, DCI and DDCI (Turner Files), Box 3, Folder 92, DCI Stansfield Turner: File Cabinet 9, Drawer 2—Covert Action (1 of 2), 27 Jan 76 to 12 May 80. Secret.


20. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special, Box 2, Chron File: 3/78. Secret; Sensitive.


21. Paper Prepared by William Odom of the National Security Council Staff for the East-West Planning Group

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Office, Unfiled Files, Box 130, East-West Planning Group: 1–8/78. Secret. In his March 20 covering memorandum to Brzezinski, Samuel Huntington, and Reginald Bartholomew, Odom wrote: “The attached paper is an effort to provide an analytical framework for a discussion of East Europe in the context of U.S.-Soviet relations on March 21. It is a product hastily done this past week with the idea of treating another major area in the context of U.S.-Soviet relations the way we discussed China at the last meeting. Is there an ‘East European card’? If so, how can it be played?”


22. Minutes of a Meeting of the East-West Planning Group

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Office, Unfiled Files, Box 130, East-West Planning Group: 1–8/78. Secret. Sent under an April 5 covering memorandum from Samuel Huntington to Brzezinski, Bartholomew, Odom, Shulman, Luers, Robert Bowie, and Arnold Horelick.


23. Memorandum for the Special Coordination Committee

Source: National Security Council, Carter Administration Intelligence Files, Box I–020, Minutes SCC Intelligence 1978. Secret; Sensitive. There is no evidence that the program was specifically discussed in the SCC. The Summary of Conclusions of the May 16 meeting, approved by Aaron on May 22, make no mention of the Publication and Distribution program. (Ibid.)


25. Memorandum From Robert King of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 16, PD–21. Secret; Eyes Only. Sent for information. Larrabee initialed the memorandum for King.


26. Paper Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Support Services (DI), Job 80T00634A, Production Case Files (1978), Box 9, Folder 11, Dissidence in Eastern Europe (A Research Paper), Secret/NF, Copies 23,51. Secret; [handling restriction not declassified]. The paper was prepared in the Eastern European Division, Office of Regional and Political Analysis. Paragraph classification and handling restriction marks are handwritten. The paper included country studies for Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Romania. A note on the paper indicates: “Hungary and Bulgaria are omitted, since neither has exhibited significant dissent. Hungary remains virtually untouched by dissidence” while dissidence in Bulgaria “came to light only in March 1978 with the appearance of a ‘Declaration 1978’ which claimed to speak for dissent group, ABD. Whether such a group exists or what ABD means is not known.”


27. Memorandum From Stephen Larrabee of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Brzezinski Office File, Subject Chron File, Box 59, Administration’s Policy: NSC: 1978. Secret. Sent for information.


28. Memorandum From Director of Central Intelligence Turner to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special, Box 3, Chron File: 12/78. Secret. Henze forwarded the memorandum to Brzezinski on December 18. In his covering memorandum, Henze wrote: “The results are impressive. They are typical of what can be done when long-established, professionally run programs are given the opportunity to expand and the best judgment of the people who are running them is taken as the basis of judgment for what can be done.” Regarding the future plans for the program in the coming years, Henze concluded: “By about 1981 it may be back at the level it was at 10–15 years ago. Its effectiveness is likely to be greater than it was then since the material available to be used is better and the receptivity in the target countries greater.”


29. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special, Box 3, Chron File: 1/79. Secret. Sent for action.


30. Paper Prepared in the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Office of the Secretariat Staff, Official Working Papers, S/P Director Anthony Lake, 1977–Jan 1981, Lot 82D298, Box 11, Classified Correspondence, 1979, M–Z. Confidential. Sent under a February 7 covering letter from Anthony Lake to Ronaldo Sandenberg, Special Adviser to the Foreign Minister for Political and Economic Affairs in the Bilateral Area in the Ministry of External Affairs of Brazil.