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Index

Note: All references are to document numbers

  • Abrams, Gen. Creighton W., 62, 100, 103, 243, 270, 310, 331
    • Cambodia:
      • Asian support for Lon Nol government, U.S. program for, 313
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 22, 23, 41, 215
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 202
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 244, 278, 292
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 233, 325, 326
      • Thai military involvement, 313, 325
      • U.S. military liaison for, 313
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 248
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 217
      • Bunker/Abrams endorsement of, 224
      • Cambodian cooperation with, 221
      • COSVN target, 296, 313
      • Course of operations, assessments of, 263, 282, 313
      • Divisions within Nixon administration re, 254
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 265, 266
      • Northeast Cambodia operations, 314
      • Options for operations, assessments of, 273, 279
      • Public information policy re, 313
      • Seam Reap operation, 321
      • Troop totals for, 313
    • Cease-fire issue, 118, 120
    • Laos:
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 187, 203
      • U.S. gunships for, 207
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Chieu Hoi program, 313
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 120, 187
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 120, 313
      • Joint planning, 187
      • Laird's assessment of, 38, 221
      • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit program, 157, 165
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 24, 26, 30, 37
      • Strategy and tactics governing U.S. operations, 100
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces:
      • Abrams's assessment of, 313
      • Improvement and Modernization Program, 100
      • Leadership and motivation problems, 10, 187
      • Regional Forces and Popular Forces, 81
    • Rogers's assessment of, 77
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 81
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 70, 80
      • Force structure of RVNAF for, 195
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 217, 228
      • Long-term planning, 187
      • Morale of U.S. troops and, 120
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 100
      • 1970 withdrawal package, 147
      • 1971 withdrawal package, 313
      • Problems related to, 236
      • Security concerns of U.S. forces, 187
      • Speed-up of withdrawals issue, 312
      • Timetable for, 120
  • Ad Hoc Group on Vietnam, 59, 91, 96, 154, 172
    • Formulation of, 21
  • Ad Hoc PSYOP Committee, 315
  • Afghanistan, 102
  • Agnew, Spiro T., 10, 44, 49, 51, 77, 120, 123, 132, 194, 248
  • Alsop, Joseph, 236
  • Anderson, George W., Jr., 344
  • Anti-war movement in United States, 117, 119, 120, 126, 135, 137, 149, 189, 190
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign and, 277, 287
  • Ball, Thomas, 277
  • Bartch, Carl E., 66
  • Beam, Jacob, 220
  • Beecher, William, 257
  • Behr, Col. Robert M., 127, 131, 172, 203, 207, 209, 211, 212, 213, 234
  • Berger, Samuel D., 38, 47, 103, 145, 278, 286, 301
  • Binh, Madame. See Nguyen Thi Binh, Madame .
  • Black, Eugene, 18
  • Blount, 77
  • Bo. See Mai Van Bo .
  • Bonsal, William M., 18
  • Borman, Frank, 177
  • Bowles, Chester, 18
  • Britten, Lt. Col. Gerald H., 207, 209, 213, 230, 233, 234
  • Brown, Gen. George, 37
  • Brown, John, 175
  • Bruce, David K. E., 338, 345, 346, 348
  • Bruns, William H., 102
  • Bui Diem, 9, 54, 69, 76, 88, 151
  • Bunche, Ralph, 168
  • Bundy, William P., 6, 10, 24, 26, 28, 30, 46, 49
  • Bunker, Ellsworth, 3, 54, 95, 103, 345
    • Cambodia:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 22, 215
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 348
      • Communist takeover, U.S. contingency planning re, 251
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 251
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 233, 257
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 248
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 217
      • Bunker/Abrams endorsement of, 224
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 265, 266
      • RVN policy re, 310
    • Cease-fire issue:
      • Bunker's views on, 142
      • Positions of U.S. officials re, 118
      • U.S. internal debate on, 120
    • Midway meeting, 76
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Bunker's assessment of, 142
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 120
      • Communist strategy and objectives, 29
      • Communist takeover in Cambodia, possible consequences of, 251
      • Joint planning, 187
      • Laird's assessment of, 38
      • Pacification program, 120, 142, 295
      • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit program, 157
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 24, 26, 30
      • Thompson's assessment of, 137
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 318
    • Nixon's first meeting with, 49
    • Nixon's “silent majority” speech, 144
    • Paris peace talks, 295
      • Bunker's assessment of, 7, 198
      • Duration of, 49
      • Instructions for U.S. negotiators, 109
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 49, 68, 78, 198
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
      • Political settlement issue, 69, 151
      • Private talks, 83
      • RVN preparedness problem, 69
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 198
      • U.S.–RVN relations in, 7
    • Political settlement in Vietnam:
      • Elections issue, 88
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 49
    • Republic of Vietnam:
      • Chau treason case, 198
      • Corruption problem, 175, 295
      • Economic situation, 142, 295
      • Government reorganization, 120
      • Lien Minh political organization, 19, 47
      • National Social Democratic Front, 182
      • Political situation, 7, 142, 295
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, 49
    • Rogers's assessment of, 77
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 49, 102, 295
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 70, 71, 76, 80
      • Bunker's assessment of, 142, 198
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 228
      • Long-term planning, 187
      • 1970 withdrawal package, 147
      • Replacement of U.S. forces with RVN troops, 141
      • Security concerns of U.S. forces, 187
      • Timetable for, 120
  • Burke, Gerard P., 344
  • Burke, John R., 26
  • Burma, 10, 102
  • Butterfield, Alexander, 63, 177, 192
  • Calhoun, Archibald, 26
  • Cambodia (see also Cambodian cross-border campaign; Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China), 10
  • Cambodian Army (FARK), 232, 326, 328
  • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 252
  • Cargo, William, 127
  • Carver, George A., 157, 170, 336
  • Cau Van Vien, Gen., 37, 301
  • Cease-fire issue:
    • Bunker's views on, 142
    • Communist position, 163
    • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China and, 335, 336
    • Laos, 203, 204
    • Paris discussions re, 2, 10, 346
    • Positions of U.S. officials, 118
    • Thompson's assessment of, 153
    • U.S. internal debate on, 96, 120, 145, 148, 150, 152, 154, 221, 348
    • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 123, 151
    • Vietnam Special Studies Group analysis of cease-fire options, 330, 335, 336
  • Ceausescu, Nicolae, 104
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (see also Helms, Richard M. ), 24
    • Cambodia:
      • CIA officer's report on, 238
      • CIA operations in, 42, 47
      • Communications equipment for, 217
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 238
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 226, 238
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 225, 232, 238
      • Sihanoukville as entry point for Communist supplies, 344
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 332
    • Democratic Republic of Vietnam:
      • Leadership changes after Ho's death, 128
      • Morale situation, 85
    • Laos:
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 172, 184
      • Chinese roadbuilding, U.S. actions targeting, 172
      • CIA activities in, 194, 197
      • Interdiction operations in, 343
      • Thai military involvement, 207, 212, 213, 331
      • U.S. control of military planning, 146
      • U.S. military assistance, 112
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 44
      • Communist manpower, 44
      • Covert operations to undermine Communist morale, 156
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 98, 186
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 6
      • Interdiction operations, 44
      • Pacification program, 1, 44
      • Phoenix program, 74
      • Prisoners of war, 177
      • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit program, 74, 157
    • Paris peace talks:
      • CIA assessment of DRV outlook, 61
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 6
      • Ten-point peace plan of NLF, 67
    • Republic of Vietnam political situation, 44
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces:
      • Capabilities against Communist forces, 44
      • Manpower shortage, 89
    • Thailand border police program, 74
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 87, 176
    • World-wide covert activities, 235
  • Ceylon, 102
  • Chancellor, John, 338
  • Chapin, Dwight, 248
  • Chapin, Frank M., 156, 225
  • Chapman, Gen. Leonard F., 136
  • Cheng Heng, 205, 206
  • China, People's Republic of, 272, 299, 316, 348
    • DRV, relations with, 44, 103
    • Laos, U.S. actions targeting Chinese roadbuilding in, 172, 174, 210
    • U.S. attacks on DRV, potentialresponse to, 129
    • U.S. reconnaissance flights over, 10, 12
  • China, Republic of, 10
  • Chinh. See Truong Chinh .
  • Chou En-lai, 299
  • Church, Frank, 326
  • Churchill, Winston, 169
  • Clifford, Clark, 3, 103, 119, 190
  • Colby, William, 10, 38
  • Cole, Ken, 16
  • Communist insurgency. See Communist subheadings under Cambodia; Cambodian cross-border campaign; Laos; Military situation in Vietnam.
  • Congress, U.S., 155
    • Cambodia, military assistance for, 286, 288
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 255, 256, 278, 288, 290
    • Laos, 203, 213
      • U.S. public information policy re, 193, 194, 197
    • Paris peace talks, hearings on, 149
    • Republic of Vietnam corruption problem, 175
  • Cooper, Charles, 318
  • Corcoran, Thomas J., 132
  • Corry, Andrew V., 102
  • Court, John C., 178
  • Cushman, Lt. Gen. Robert E., Jr., 38, 93, 98, 211, 212, 213, 234, 235, 254, 282, 284, 292, 325, 336
  • Davis, Jeanne, 44
  • Davis, Col. Bennie L., 172
  • Dawee, Air Marshal, 297
  • De-Americanization program. See Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces.
  • DeLuce, Dan, 200
  • Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (see also Paris peace talks; Communist and DRV subheadings under Cambodia; Cambodian cross-border campaign; Laos; Military situation in Vietnam):
    • China, relations with, 44, 103
    • Leadership changes after Ho's death, 116, 120, 128
    • Leadership factions, 44
    • Morale situation, 49, 85, 120
    • Soviet Union, relations with, 44
  • Diem. See Bui Diem .
  • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China, 305, 324, 329, 335, 336, 346
    • Scenarios for, 345
  • Dobrynin, Anatoliy F.
    • Cambodia, 220
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 323
    • Kissinger's meetings with, 53, 60, 84, 125, 162, 323
    • Military situation in Vietnam, 24, 32, 60, 84, 162
    • Nixon's meeting with, 139
    • Paris peace talks, 32, 35, 162
    • Political settlement in Vietnam, 53, 84, 323
    • Rogers's meetings with, 24, 32, 35, 220
    • U.S.-Soviet relations, Vietnam's impact on, 84, 125, 139
  • Don. See Tran Van Don .
  • Dong. See Pham Van Dong .
  • Doolin, Dennis J., 203, 288, 290, 292, 297, 301, 343
  • Duan. See Le Duan .
  • Duong Van Minh, Gen., 119, 151
  • Eagleburger, Lawrence, 16
  • Eaton, Cyrus, 190
  • Eckhardt, Maj. Gen., 38
  • Ehrlichman, John, 177, 277
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D., 54
  • Eliot, Theodore L., Jr., 132, 146, 160, 203, 214, 286, 301, 324, 345
  • Ellender, Allen, 313
  • Firyubin, Nikolai P., 220
  • Flanagan, Adm., 340
  • 40 Committee, 182, 225
  • France, Anatole, 222
  • Friday, William C., 277
  • Froehlke, William, 38
  • Fulbright, J. William, 149, 193, 194, 196, 255, 311
  • Galbraith, Frank, 271
  • Gaulle, Charles de, 28, 88
  • Giap, Gen. See Vo Nguyen Giap, Gen .
  • Glick, Gen., 325
  • Godley, G. McMurtrie, 82, 102, 112, 124, 130, 132, 172, 174, 183, 184, 203, 204, 207, 211, 214, 234, 274, 278
  • Goldberg, Arthur, 168
  • Goodpaster, Lt. Gen. Andrew J., 10, 38, 49
  • Gorman, Col. Paul, 78
  • Grant, Lindsey, 56, 86, 202
  • Gray, Gordon, 344
  • Green, Marshall (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 3, 27, 69, 82, 103, 132, 144, 145, 148, 164, 165, 225, 237, 285, 348
  • Guthrie, Keith, 172, 203, 207, 209, 212, 213, 230, 233, 234, 336, 343
  • Habib, Philip C., 3, 27, 31, 190, 221, 338, 345, 348
    • Cease-fire issue:
      • Positions of U.S. officials re, 118
      • U.S. internal debate on, 120
    • Paris peace talks:
      • De-escalation issue, 49
      • Duration of, 49
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 10
      • Habib's assessment of, 49, 120
      • Instructions for U.S. negotiators, 50, 109
      • Lodge's resignation from, 151
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 49
      • Plenary sessions, 49
      • Political settlement issue, 108
      • Prisoners of war issue, 199
      • Private talks, 49, 105
      • Public comments on, 49
      • U.S. negotiating strategy, 104
      • U.S.–RVN relations in, 10
  • Hai, Col., 157
  • Haig, Brig. Gen. Alexander M., Jr., 10, 12, 22, 31, 34, 49, 58, 62, 72, 73, 90, 120, 130, 155, 159, 163, 181, 185, 195, 202, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216, 217, 219, 221, 224, 225, 228, 233, 234, 235, 272, 274, 276, 278, 279, 294, 313, 318, 328, 331, 341, 344
    • Fact-finding mission to Cambodia and Vietnam, 306, 307, 308, 309
  • Haldeman, H. R., 30, 35, 68, 80, 197, 211, 261, 277, 278, 291
  • Halperin, Morton, 94, 96
  • Hannah, Norman, 102
  • Harlow, Bryce N., 10, 90, 155, 194, 213, 297
  • Harriman, W. Averell, 3, 5, 13, 27, 34, 169
  • Harrington, Fred H., 277
  • Ha Van Lau, 26, 31
  • Heard, G. Alexander, 277
  • Heath, Edward, 331
  • Helms, Richard M., 1, 4, 5, 6, 44, 51, 121, 123, 124, 132, 133, 138, 146, 157, 174, 225, 235, 252, 262, 271, 280, 302, 326, 339, 340
    • Cambodia, 10
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 19
      • CIA operations in, 42
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 289
      • International initiatives re, 289
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 274, 275, 278, 288, 290, 304
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 208, 232, 255, 257, 272, 281, 288
      • Psychological warfare, 298
      • U.S. military liaison for, 281
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 319
      • U.S. support for Lon Nol government, 208, 229, 237, 298
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign:
      • Air operations, 302
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 302
      • Communist actions in Vietnam in response to, 289
      • Congressional interest in, 255
      • Course of operations, assessments of, 255, 288
      • Divisions within Nixon administration re, 254
      • DRV warned about, 242
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 259
      • Market Time operations, 281
      • Nixon's authorization for, 248, 249, 260, 270
      • Northeast Cambodia operations, 297
      • Public information policy re, 331
    • Cease-fire issue, 118
    • Democratic Republic of Vietnam:
      • Leadership changes after Ho's death, 120
      • Morale situation, 49, 120
    • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China, 305
    • Laos, 10
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 184, 204
      • Cease-fire issue, 204
      • CIA activities in, 194
      • Communist campaign against Laotian Government, 99
      • Long Tieng campaign, 204, 207, 211
      • Thai military involvement, 204, 207, 211, 274, 275, 282
      • U.S. gunships for, 204
      • U.S. public information policy re, 194
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Communist strategy and objectives, 10
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 73, 186
      • Psychological warfare, 315
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 318
    • Paris peace talks, 46
      • CIA assessment of DRV outlook, 61
      • Future prospects, Helms's assessment of, 348
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 68
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
    • Republic of Vietnam's Lien Minh political organization, 19
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, 49
    • Southeast Asia, U.S. image in, 10
    • Thailand, 10
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 58, 59
  • Hershey, Gen. Lewis B., 135
  • Hitch, Charles C., 277
  • Ho Chi Minh, 132
    • Death of, 116
    • Nixon's communications with, 97, 111
  • Holbrooke, Richard, 78
  • Holdridge, John H., 96, 116, 118, 127, 128, 130, 131, 137, 138, 144, 145, 147, 148, 151, 153, 160, 161, 163, 172, 179, 203, 204, 205, 207, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216, 219, 225, 230, 231, 233, 234, 238, 240, 268, 297, 300, 303, 311, 314, 315, 316, 317, 321, 324, 325, 326, 327, 334, 340, 343
  • Home, Alec, 331
  • Howe, Lt. Cmdr. Jonathan, 235, 243, 341
  • Hughes, Gen. James D., 239
  • Hughes, Thomas L., 1, 43
  • Hummel, Arthur W., 102
  • Humphrey, Hubert H., 27, 135, 190
  • Huong. See Tran Van Huong .
  • Hyland, William G., 127
  • India, 203
  • Indonesia, 10, 230
  • Intelligence community, Nixon's criticism of, 344
  • International guarantees for Vietnam, 59, 91, 96
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 92
  • Japan, 10, 237, 313
  • Johnson, Lyndon B., 137
  • Johnson, Vice Adm. Nels C. (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 127, 131, 172
  • Johnson, U. Alexis (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 3, 10, 19, 82, 98, 182, 214, 225, 231, 285, 289, 294, 301, 338, 339, 340, 348
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) (see also Wheeler, Gen. Earle G. ), 170, 273
    • Cambodia:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 62, 215
      • Communications equipment for, 340
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 227
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 253
      • Quarantine option, 45
      • U.S. relations with, 18
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 248
    • Laos:
      • Thai military involvement, 203, 207, 212
      • U.S. military assistance, 131
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • B–52 strikes, effectiveness of, 44
      • Communist manpower, 44
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 134, 136
      • Interdiction operations, 44
      • Pacification program, 44
      • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit program, 157
      • Strategy and tactics governing U.S. operations, 100
      • Termination (T-Day) planning, 38
    • Paris peace talks, 46
    • Republic of Vietnam:
      • Internal security situation, 94
      • Political situation, 44
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, 44
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces:
      • Air and naval forces, 114
      • Combat capability and, 44
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 217, 228
      • JCS plan, 87, 114
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 87
      • Problems related to, 236
      • Residual force levels, 114
      • Timetable for, 114
  • Kaplan, Harold, 78, 104
  • Karamessines, Thomas H. (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 196, 225, 294
  • Kearney, Paul, 273
  • Kennedy, Edward M., 10, 77
  • Kennedy, John F., 68
  • Kennedy, Col. Richard T., 209, 211, 212, 213, 230, 231, 233, 234, 252, 255, 257, 262, 269, 272, 274, 275, 278, 281, 282, 284, 286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 297, 298, 300, 301, 326, 335, 336, 340, 343, 348
  • Kent State demonstrations, 277
  • Keogh, James, 77
  • Khiem. See Tran Thien Khiem .
  • Kiem. See Tran Buu Kiem .
  • Kissinger, Henry A. (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 3, 6, 28, 30, 31, 102, 187, 235, 239, 240, 273, 280, 285, 301, 345
    • Ad Hoc Group on Vietnam, formulation of, 21
    • Anti-war movement in United States, 117, 119, 126, 135, 149
      • Cambodian cross-border campaign and, 277, 287
    • Cambodia:
      • Asian support for Lon Nol government, U.S. program for, 313
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 19, 22, 23, 25, 39, 40, 41, 62, 110, 135, 215
      • Border declaration re, 48, 66
      • CIA officer's report on, 238
      • CIA operations in, 42
      • CINCPAC plan for, 344
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 205, 227, 238, 253, 289, 341
      • Communist takeover, U.S. contingency planning re, 241, 251, 253
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 202, 226, 238
      • Coup by Lon Nol against Sihanouk, 202, 205, 222, 238
      • DRV objectives and courses of action in, 216, 268
      • Economic situation, 202
      • Intelligence collection in, 329, 344
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 253
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 208, 225, 232, 238, 253, 329
      • NSC staffers' proposals re, 250
      • Paris discussions re, 201, 222, 223
      • Political/military situation, 306
      • Psychological warfare, 298
      • Quarantine option, 45
      • Rives's policy recommendations, 342
      • Sihanouk's criticism of Lon Nol government, 246
      • Thai military involvement, 329
      • U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia, appointment of, 344
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 294, 313, 318, 319
      • U.S. relations with, 17, 18, 40, 48, 179, 180, 196, 206
      • U.S. support for Lon Nol government, 205, 208, 229, 237, 239, 241, 250, 298
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign:
      • Air operations, 302
      • Anti-war movement in United States and, 277, 287
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 217, 227, 243, 302, 312
      • Bunker/Abrams endorsement of, 224
      • Communist weapons, capture of, 332
      • Congressional interest in, 256
      • COSVN target, 256
      • Course of operations, assessments of, 253, 258, 287, 313
      • Divisions within Nixon administration re, 254
      • DRV political and diplomatic problems related to, 299
      • DRV reaction, 316
      • DRV warned about, 242
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 259, 261, 265, 266, 267
      • Kissinger's endorsement of, 245
      • Laird's recommendations, 263
      • MACV plan for, 219
      • Nixon's authorization for, 248
      • Nixon's consultation with Laird re, 291
      • NSC staffers' criticism of, 250
      • Options for operations, assessments of, 219, 253, 264, 279
      • Public information policy re, 287
      • Road-opening operations, 327
      • Shelling across border, 164
      • Soviet assessment of, 323
      • Soviet Union warned about, 247
      • U.S. military license issue, 283
      • Westmoreland's endorsement of, 241, 244
    • Cease-fire issue:
      • Bunker's views on, 142
      • Communist position, 163
      • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China and, 335
      • Paris discussions re, 2, 346
      • Positions of U.S. officials re, 118
      • Thompson's assessment of, 153
      • U.S. internal debate on, 96, 145, 148, 150, 152, 154, 348
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 123, 151
      • Vietnam Special Studies Group analysis of cease-fire options, 330, 335
    • Democratic Republic of Vietnam:
      • Leadership changes after Ho's death, 116, 120, 128
      • Morale situation, 85
    • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China, 305, 324, 329, 335, 346
    • Dobrynin's meetings with, 53, 60, 84, 125, 162, 323
    • Haig's fact-finding mission to Cambodia and Vietnam, 306, 307, 308, 309
    • International guarantees for Vietnam, 59, 91, 96
    • Ky's meeting with, 54
    • Laos, 132, 133
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 56, 173, 183, 184, 193
      • Chinese roadbuilding, U.S. actions targeting, 210
      • CIA activities in, 197
      • Communist campaign against Laotian Government, 86, 112, 131
      • Communist objectives in, 181
      • Communist takeover, U.S. contingency planning re, 112, 124
      • Long Tieng campaign, 214
      • Lord's assessment of U.S. policy, 130
      • Paris discussions re, 56, 190, 201, 222, 223
      • Political settlement issue, 197
      • Thai military involvement, 214, 231, 331
      • U.S. and Communist strategic concerns in, 56
      • U.S. control of military planning, 146
      • U.S. military assistance, 112, 121
      • U.S. military escalation, 82
      • U.S. public information policy re, 193, 194, 197
    • Midway meeting, 76, 79, 81, 88
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Bunker's assessment of, 142
      • Casualties, 10
      • Communist defectors, 10
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 96, 178
      • Communist lull in fighting, 93
      • Communist manpower, 178
      • Communist rocket attacks on cities, 40
      • Communist strategy and objectives, 29, 65, 117, 167, 188, 333
      • Communist takeover in Cambodia, possible consequences of, 241, 251, 253
      • Communist withdrawals from RVN, 161
      • Countryside control, 171
      • Covert operations to undermine Communist morale, 156
      • De-escalation issue, 10, 34
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 73, 98, 120, 129, 134, 136, 140, 186
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 4, 8, 10, 11
      • Humphrey's support for Nixon's policy, 135
      • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119
      • Laird's assessment of, 38, 221
      • My Lai atrocity, 155
      • Pacification program, 4, 10, 142, 295
      • Phoenix program, 74
      • Pressure tactics, development of, 12, 15
      • Prisoners of war, 10, 168, 177, 199
      • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit program, 74
      • Psychological warfare, 315
      • Reconnaissance flights over China, 12
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 30, 33
      • Sortie levels, 235, 312
      • Thompson's assessment of, 137, 153, 158
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 318
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 60, 84, 162
      • U.S. threats of escalation, 60
    • Nixon Doctrine, 101
    • NixonHo communications, 97, 111
    • Nixon's “silent majority” speech, 144
    • Paris peace talks, 72, 295
      • Agreed objectives/work program proposal, 189, 190
      • Alternative approaches, U.S. study of, 160
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries in Cambodia and, 40, 41
      • Bombing of DRV as spur to negotiations, 55
      • Bruce's appointment as chief U.S. negotiator, 338, 346
      • Bunker's assessment of, 198
      • Cambodia issue, 201, 222, 223
      • Cease-fire issue, 2, 346
      • CIA assessment of DRV outlook, 61
      • Communist objectives, 119
      • Conditions necessary for U.S. success, 52
      • Congressional hearings on, 149
      • Deadline for negotiations issue, 222
      • De-escalation issue, 46, 49
      • DRV's moderation of demands, 64
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11
      • Habib's assessment of, 120
      • Historical record of, 63
      • Instructions for U.S. negotiators, 36, 50, 90, 109
      • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119, 347
      • Interruption in negotiations, 222, 223, 320
      • Kissinger's assessment of, 223
      • Laos issue, 56, 190, 201, 222, 223
      • Linkage of political and military matters, 33, 35, 201
      • Lodge's assessment of, 108
      • Media coverage, 16
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 8, 46, 49, 59, 68, 91, 96, 106, 190, 192, 198, 200, 201, 222, 223
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
      • Nixon's pre-inauguration communications with DRV re, 14
      • Nixon's September 16 speech and, 122
      • Nixon's visit with U.S. delegation, 27
      • November 1 deadline for progress, 106, 108
      • Political settlement issue, 106, 151, 189, 190, 191, 222, 223
      • Prisoners of war issue, 199
      • Private talks, 33, 35, 36, 83, 150, 159, 166, 169;
      • Kissinger's meetings, 105, 106, 108, 185, 189, 190, 191, 200, 201, 218, 222, 223
      • Problems within U.S. negotiating team, 52, 78
      • Procedural concerns, 201
      • Secrecy concerns, 189
      • Soviet involvement, 107, 346
      • Soviet involvement/Moscow talks package plan, 52, 53, 60
      • Special contact proposal, 106
      • Ten-point peace plan of NLF, 67, 106
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 198
      • U.S. lack of chief negotiator problem, 190, 222
      • U.S. negotiating strategy, 46, 104, 192, 200, 346
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81
      • U.S.–RVN relations in, 192
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 35, 162
    • Political settlement in Vietnam, 8
      • Elections issue, 88, 93, 96, 119
      • Local political power, focus on, 96
      • Peace cabinet option, 96
      • Soviet views on, 323
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 53, 84
      • U.S. study re, 59, 91, 96
      • Vietnamization program and, 93
    • Republic of Vietnam:
      • Corruption problem, 175, 295
      • Economic situation, 92, 142, 295
      • Government reorganization, 120
      • Internal security situation, 94, 96, 119
      • Lien Minh political organization, 19, 47
      • National Social Democratic Front, 182
      • Partition option, 8
      • Political situation, 4, 79, 117, 119, 142, 295
      • U.S.–RVN relations, 9
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, 4, 89, 119
    • Sihanouk's letter to Mansfield, 246
    • Soviet-U.S. relations, Vietnam's impact on, 84, 125, 139
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 295
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 70, 71, 76, 80
      • Assumptions underlying, 143
      • Bunker's assessment of, 142, 198
      • CIA assessment of, 176
      • Clifford's advocacy of withdrawal, 119
      • Communist de facto withdrawals and, 161
      • De-escalation issue and, 34
      • Economic consequences, 94
      • Force structure of RVNAF for, 195
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 228
      • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119, 347
      • JCS plan, 87
      • Kissinger's assessment of, 117
      • Long-term planning, 148
      • Modalities of withdrawal, 59, 91
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 93
      • 1970 withdrawal package, 147, 148
      • Optimistic reporting re, 170
      • Political settlement in Vietnam and, 93
      • Problems related to, 236
      • Public information policy re, 10, 103, 123
      • Reactions to, 188
      • Replacement of U.S. forces with RVN troops, 8, 141
      • Speed-up of withdrawals issue, 312
      • Thompson's assessment of, 153
      • Timetable for, 58, 119, 120
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 151
    • Vietnam Special Studies Group, establishment of, 115
    • Wheeler's Vietnam visit, 100
  • Korea, Republic of, 10
  • Kosygin, Aleksei N., 197, 204
  • Kraft, Gen., 331
  • Kraft, Joseph, 34, 189
  • Ky. See Nguyen Cao Ky .
  • Ladd, Col. Jonathan, 306, 313, 326, 328, 341, 344
  • Laird, Melvin R., 4, 44, 51, 54, 62, 93, 99, 119, 123, 124, 132, 133, 138, 146, 174, 243, 273, 285, 302, 339
    • Cambodia:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 22, 23, 25, 41, 215
      • Communications equipment for, 217
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 227
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 38
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 244
      • Quarantine option, 45, 136
      • Thai military involvement, 313
      • U.S. military liaison for, 313
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 313, 319
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign:
      • Air operations, 302
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 217, 297, 302
      • Cambodian cooperation with, 221
      • Course of operations, assessments of, 263, 313
      • Divisions within Nixon administration re, 254
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 259, 261, 267
      • Laird's recommendations, 263
      • MACV plan for, 219
      • Nixon's authorization for, 248, 249, 260, 270
      • Nixon's consultation with Laird re, 291
      • Options for operations, assessments of, 219
      • Public information policy re, 313
      • Troop totals for, 313
      • U.S. military license issue, 283
      • Washington Special Actions Group as implementing authority, 261, 263
      • Westmoreland's endorsement of, 244
    • Cease-fire issue:
      • Positions of U.S. officials re, 118
      • U.S. internal debate on, 120, 154, 221, 348
    • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China, 305
    • Laos:
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 136, 172, 173, 183, 184, 187, 193, 194, 235
      • Chinese roadbuilding, U.S. actions targeting, 210
      • CIA activities in, 194
      • U.S. military assistance, 121
      • U.S. public information policy re, 193, 194
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Casualties, 221
      • Communist defectors, 10
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 120, 187, 221
      • Communist lull in fighting, 136
      • Communist offensive of 1969, 38
      • Communist rocket attacks on cities, 38
      • Communist strategy and objectives, 38
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 55, 134, 140, 217, 235
      • Economic impact on United States, 221
      • Joint planning, 187
      • Laird's assessment of, 38, 187, 221
      • Ordnance expenditures, 38
      • Pacification program, 38, 114, 221
      • Phoenix program, 38
      • Pressure tactics, development of, 12, 15
      • Prisoners of war, 168, 187, 221
      • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit program, 157
      • Psychological warfare, 315
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 37, 38
      • Sortie levels, 235, 312
      • Strategy and tactics governing U.S. operations, 100
      • Termination (T-Day) planning, 38
      • Troop contributing countries, 221
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 318
      • Wheeler's assessment of, 37
    • Nixon's “silent majority” speech, 144
    • Paris peace talks:
      • De-escalation issue, 49
      • Habib's assessment of, 120
      • Laird's recommendations re, 221
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 46, 68
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
      • Problems within U.S. negotiating team, 78
      • Soviet involvement, 107
    • Republic of Vietnam political/economic situation, 221
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces:
      • Improvement and Modernization Program, 10, 38, 49, 87, 114
      • Leadership and motivation problems, 187, 221
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 38, 59
      • Air and naval forces, 114
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 76, 80, 187
      • Economic consequences, 114, 187
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 217, 228
      • Funding for, 221
      • JCS plan, 87, 114
      • Laird's assessment of, 187, 221
      • Long-term planning, 38, 87, 148, 187
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 87, 93
      • 1971 withdrawal package, 313
      • Nomenclature for, 49
      • Pacification program and, 114
      • Problems related to, 236
      • Public information policy re, 187
      • Reactions to, 87
      • Residual force levels, 114
      • Security concerns of U.S. forces, 187
      • Speed-up of withdrawals issue, 312
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 38, 187
      • Timetable for, 58, 114, 120
      • U.S.–RVN coordination, 114
    • Vietnam Special Studies Group, establishment of, 115
    • Vietnam visits, 38, 187, 221
    • Wheeler's Vietnam visit, 100
  • Laise, Carol, 102
  • Lake, W. Anthony, 88, 104, 106, 130, 189, 190, 201, 222, 250
  • Lam. See Pham Dang Lam .
  • Laos (see also Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China), 10, 19
  • Lau. See Ha Van Lau .
  • Le Duan, 116, 120, 128, 299, 316
  • Le Duc Tho, 90
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Agreed objectives/work program proposal, 190
      • Cambodia issue, 201, 222
      • Format for negotiations, 69, 75
      • Interruption in negotiations, 222, 320
      • Laos issue, 190, 201, 222
      • Linkage of political and military matters, 201
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 201
      • Political settlement issue, 190, 222
      • Private talks, 13;
      • Procedural concerns, 201
      • Secrecy concerns, 189
      • U.S. lack of chief negotiator problem, 190
  • Lee Kuan Yew, 10, 102, 137
  • Levi, Edward, 277
  • Lincoln, Franklin B., Jr., 344
  • Lincoln, Gen. George A., 10, 44, 49, 51, 248, 348
  • Lindquist, Robert S., 102
  • Lin Piao, 299
  • Lodge, Henry Cabot, II, 3, 28, 60, 64
    • Cease-fire issue:
      • Paris discussions re, 2
      • U.S. internal debate on, 120
    • Military situation in Vietnam, 26, 30
    • Nixon's “silent majority” speech, 144
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Breaking off option, 90
      • Bunker's assessment of, 7
      • Cease-fire issue, 2
      • DRV strategy to create U.S.–RVN friction, 75
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 5
      • Format for negotiations, 69, 75
      • Instructions for U.S. negotiators, 2, 50, 90, 109
      • Lodge's assessment of, 108
      • Lodge's resignation from, 151
      • Media coverage, 16
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 68, 72, 78, 108
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
      • Nixon's visit with U.S. delegation, 20, 27
      • November 1 deadline for progress, 108
      • Political settlement issue, 20, 69, 108, 151
      • Prisoners of war issue, 72
      • Private talks, 20, 36, 108;
      • Problems within U.S. negotiating team, 78
      • RVNNLF talks, proposed, 28
      • RVN preparedness problem, 69
      • U.S. casualties in Vietnam and, 20
      • U.S. negotiating strategy, 104
      • U.S. protests re attacks in Vietnam, 30, 31
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 28
      • U.S.–RVN relations in, 7
      • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 68
  • Lon Nol, Gen., 306, 328
    • Cambodia:
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 238
      • Coup by Lon Nol against Sihanouk, 202, 205, 238
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 253, 257
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 225, 238, 240, 293
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 240
    • Haig's meeting with, 307
  • Lon Non, 225
  • Lord, Winston, 96, 216, 235, 240, 250, 324, 344
    • Laos paper, 130
  • Lowenstein, James, 255, 257, 278, 286
  • Lynn, Laurence E., 115, 134, 153, 171, 178, 195, 221, 228, 233, 235, 318, 335, 336, 348
  • Ly Vong Sar, Col., 240
  • Mahon, George, 136, 313
  • Mai Van Bo, 14, 97, 106, 159, 185, 189, 190, 201, 222, 242, 276
  • Malaysia, 102
  • Malik, Adam, 255, 262, 271, 272, 275
  • Mansfield, Mike, 66, 110, 148, 179, 196, 205, 246, 255
  • Mao Tse-tung, 299
  • Marcos, Ferdinand, 10, 18
  • Marcy, Carl, 286
  • Matak. See Sirik Matak, Sisowath .
  • McCain, Adm. John S., Jr., 38, 62, 80, 100, 118, 120, 184, 187, 204, 207, 211, 217, 239, 243, 270, 273, 313, 344
  • McConnell, Gen. John P., 49
  • McManis, David, 224
  • McNamara, Robert, 196
  • Meir, Golda, 137
  • Meyer, Cord, 343
  • Midway meeting, 76, 77, 79, 81, 88
  • Military situation in Vietnam (see also Cambodia; Cambodian cross-border campaign; Cease-fire issue; Laos; Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces; Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces):
    • B–52 strikes, effectiveness of, 44
    • Bunker's assessment of, 142
    • Casualties, 10, 20, 221
    • Chieu Hoi program, 239, 313
    • Civilian population, damage to, 44
    • Communist capabilities for large-scale offensive, 44
    • Communist defectors, 10
    • Communist infiltration from DRV, 44, 96, 120, 178, 187, 221
    • Communist lull in fighting, 93, 136
    • Communist manpower, 44, 178
    • Communist offensive of 1969, 38
    • Communist rocket attacks on cities, 38, 39, 40
    • Communist strategy and objectives, 10, 29, 38, 65, 117, 167, 188, 333
    • Communist takeover in Cambodia, possible consequences of, 241, 251, 253
    • Communist withdrawals from RVN, 161
    • Countryside control, 171
    • Covert operations to undermine Communist morale, 156
    • De-escalation issue, 10, 34
    • Deployments of U.S. forces, 44
    • DMZ activities, 10, 12, 37
    • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 55, 73, 98, 120, 129, 134, 136, 140, 186, 217, 235, 239, 313, 344
    • Economic impact on United States, 221
    • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 44
    • Ho's views on, 111
    • Humphrey's support for Nixon's policy, 135Interdiction operations, 10, 44Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119
    • International opinion on U.S. policy, 137
    • Joint planning, 187
    • Ky's assessment of, 28
    • Laird's assessment of, 38, 187, 221
    • My Lai atrocity, 113, 155
    • Ordnance expenditures, 38
    • Pacification program, 1, 4, 10, 37, 38, 44, 114, 120, 142, 221, 295
    • Phoenix program, 37, 38, 44, 74, 157
    • Pressure tactics, development of, 12, 15
    • Prisoners of war, 10, 168, 177, 187, 199, 221
    • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit program, 74, 157, 165
    • Psychological warfare, 315
    • Reconnaissance flights over China, 10, 12
    • Restrictions on U.S. operations, 10
    • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 24, 26, 30, 33, 37, 38
    • Sortie levels, 235, 312
    • Souvanna's assessment of, 132
    • Strategy and tactics governing U.S. operations, 100
    • Termination (T-Day) planning, 38
    • Thompson's assessment of, 137, 153, 158
    • Troop contributing countries, 221
    • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 318
    • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81
    • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 24, 32, 60, 84, 162
    • U.S. threats of escalation, 60
    • VC infrastructure (VCI) program. See Phoenix program above.
    • Wheeler's assessment of, 37, 100
  • Minh. See Duong Van Minh, Gen.
  • Mitchell, John, 93, 98, 119, 120, 123, 136, 148, 154, 182, 194, 225, 249, 259, 260, 267, 270, 302, 348
  • Montiero, Ernest Steven, 17
  • Moor, E. Dean, 24, 63, 72, 74, 89, 92, 94
  • Moore, Jonathan (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 237, 340, 345
  • Moorer, Adm. Thomas H., 136, 183, 184, 244, 252, 254, 255, 257, 272, 273, 274, 275, 278, 286, 290, 291, 292, 296, 297, 309, 313, 325, 326, 331, 336, 339, 340, 343, 344
  • Moos, Malcolm, 277
  • Moose, Richard, 18, 48, 255, 257, 278,286
  • Morris, Roger, 250
  • Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 155
  • Murphy, Franklin D., 344
  • Murphy, Robert D., 10, 245
  • My Lai atrocity, 113, 155
  • National Security Council (NSC), 302
  • National Security Decision Memoranda:
  • National Security Study Memoranda:
  • Negroponte, John, 31
  • Nelson, William, 19, 165, 211, 212, 213, 225, 230, 233, 234, 238, 297, 304, 340, 343
  • Nepal, 102
  • Neumann, Robert G., 102
  • Ne Win, 10, 102
  • Newsweek, 135
  • New York Times, 66
  • Nguyen Cao Ky, 7, 10, 19, 27, 37, 38, 103, 119, 187, 251, 295
    • Kissinger's meeting with, 54
    • Nixon's meeting with, 28
    • Rogers's meeting with, 77
  • Nguyen Cao Thang, 182
  • Nguyen Duy Trinh, 200
  • Nguyen Hui Loi, Col., 78
  • Nguyen Huu Tho, 31
  • Nguyen Minh Vy, 31, 103, 187
  • Nguyen Phu Duc, 81, 103
  • Nguyen Thi Binh, Madame, 189, 201
  • Nguyen Van Huong, 19
  • Nguyen Xuang Phong, 69
  • Nguyen Van Thieu, 37, 301
    • Cambodia:
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 348
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 331
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 257, 262
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, 217, 310
    • Cease-fire issue, 120, 142
    • Midway meeting, 76, 77, 81
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Communist objectives, 38
      • Communist rocket attacks on cities, 38
      • Laird's assessment of, 38
      • Pacification program, 120
      • Prisoners of war, 221
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 38
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81
    • Nixon's assessment of, 137
    • Nixon's meetings with, 79, 81, 103
    • Nixon's “silent majority” speech, 144
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries in Cambodia and, 41
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 49, 68
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
      • Political settlement issue, 151
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 198
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81, 103
      • U.S.–RVN relations in, 7, 10
    • Personal qualities, 79
    • Political settlement in Vietnam:
      • Elections issue, 77, 81, 88, 93, 96
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 49
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81
    • Republic of Vietnam:
      • Chau treason case, 198
      • Corruption problem, 175
      • Government reorganization, 120
      • Lien Minh political organization, 19, 47
      • National Social Democratic Front, 182
      • Political situation, 7, 10, 79, 221, 295
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces:
      • Leadership and motivation problems, 187
      • Regional Forces and Popular Forces, 81
    • Rogers's meeting with, 77
    • Sihanouk, assessment of, 103
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces:
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 70, 71, 76, 187
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 100
      • 1970 withdrawal package, 147
      • Replacement of U.S. forces with RVN troops, 10, 100, 141
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 38, 187
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81, 100, 103
  • Nixon, Richard M., 30, 37, 54, 187, 301, 328
    • Ad Hoc Group on Vietnam, formulation of, 21
    • Ambassadors to Asian countries, meeting with, 102
    • Anti-war movement in United States, 117, 119, 120, 126, 135, 137, 149
      • Cambodian cross-border campaign and, 277, 287
    • Bunker's first meeting with, 49
    • Cambodia:
      • Asian support for Lon Nol government, U.S. program for, 313, 326
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 22, 23, 25, 39, 40, 41, 62, 135, 215
      • Border declaration re, 48, 66
      • CIA operations in, 42, 47
      • CINCPAC plan for, 344
      • Communications equipment for, 217
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 227, 253, 331, 341, 348
      • Communist takeover, U.S. contingency planning re, 253, 313
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 202, 226
      • Coup by Lon Nol against Sihanouk, 205
      • DRV objectives and courses of action in, 216
      • Intelligence collection in, 326, 329, 344
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 244, 253, 257, 286, 331
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 235, 240, 253, 326, 329, 339
      • Political/military situation, 306
      • Psychological warfare, 298
      • Quarantine option, 45, 136
      • Rives's policy recommendations, 342
      • Sihanouk's criticism of Lon Nol government, 246
      • Sihanoukville as entry point for Communist supplies, 344
      • Strategic importance to United States, 326
      • Thai military involvement, 313, 326, 329, 331
      • U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia, appointment of, 326, 344
      • U.S. military liaison for, 313
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 313, 319
      • U.S. relations with, 10, 17, 18, 48, 179, 206
      • U.S. support for Lon Nol government, 205, 229, 237, 239, 241, 245, 298
      • U.S. tactical air support in, 344
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign:
      • Air operations, 302, 326
      • Anti-war movement in United States and, 277, 287
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 217, 227, 302, 312, 326
      • ARVN troops to remain in Cambodia after U.S. withdrawal, 331
      • Communist weapons, capture of, 332
      • Congressional interest in, 256, 278
      • COSVN target, 256
      • Course of operations, assessments of, 253, 258, 287, 313
      • Divisions within Nixon administration re, 254
      • DRV political and diplomatic problems related to, 299
      • DRV reaction, 316
      • DRV warned about, 242
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 259, 261, 265, 266, 267
      • International reaction, 313
      • Kissinger's endorsement of, 245
      • McCain's assessment of, 239
      • Nixon's authorization for, 248, 249, 260, 270
      • Nixon's consultation with Laird re, 291
      • Nixon's speech on, 271, 272
      • Options for operations, assessments of, 253, 264, 273, 279
      • Psychological warfare, 331
      • Public information policy re, 269, 285, 287, 313, 331
      • Road-opening operations, 327, 331
      • Shelling across border, 164
      • Soviet assessment of, 323
      • Soviet Union warned about, 247
      • Troop totals for, 313
      • Washington Special Actions Group as implementing authority, 249, 260, 270
    • Cease-fire issue, 348
      • Communist position, 163
      • Paris discussions re, 2, 10, 346
      • Positions of U.S. officials, 118
      • U.S. internal debate on, 120, 148, 150, 152, 154, 348
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 123
    • CIA world-wide covert activities, 235
    • Democratic Republic of Vietnam:
      • Leadership changes after Ho's death, 116
      • Morale situation, 49, 85, 120
    • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China, 305, 329, 346
    • Dobrynin's meeting with, 139
    • Haig's fact-finding mission to Cambodia and Vietnam, 306, 307, 308, 309
    • Ho's communications with, 97, 111
    • Intelligence community, criticism of, 344
    • Ky's meeting with, 28
    • Laos:
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 133, 136, 173, 183, 184, 194, 235
      • Chinese roadbuilding, U.S. actions targeting, 174, 210
      • CIA activities in, 194, 197
      • Communist campaign against Laotian Government, 86, 99, 112, 132, 313
      • Communist objectives in, 181
      • Communist takeover, U.S. contingency planning re, 112, 124
      • Elephants of, 194
      • Geneva Agreements initiative re, 132, 204
      • Long Tieng campaign, 211, 212, 213, 214
      • Political settlement issue, 197
      • Soviet role in, 132
      • Thai military involvement, 207, 211, 212, 213, 214, 231, 331
      • U.S. and Communist strategic concerns in, 56
      • U.S. control of military planning, 146
      • U.S. military assistance, 112, 121, 131, 132, 133, 138
      • U.S. military escalation, 82
      • U.S. public information policy re, 130, 133, 193, 194, 197
    • Midway meeting, 76, 77, 79, 81
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Bunker's assessment of, 142
      • Chieu Hoi program, 239, 313
      • Communist defectors, 10
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 120, 178
      • Communist lull in fighting, 93, 136
      • Communist manpower, 178
      • Communist rocket attacks on cities, 39
      • Communist strategy and objectives, 29, 65, 117, 167, 188, 333
      • Communist takeover in Cambodia, possible consequences of, 253
      • Countryside control, 171
      • Covert operations to undermine Communist morale, 156
      • De-escalation issue, 34
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 55, 98, 120, 129, 134, 136, 140, 186, 217, 235, 239, 313, 344
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 8, 10, 11
      • Humphrey's support for Nixon's policy, 135
      • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119
      • International opinion on U.S. policy, 137
      • Laird's assessment of, 38, 221
      • My Lai atrocity, 113, 155
      • Pacification program, 10, 295
      • Pressure tactics, development of, 15
      • Prisoners of war, 10, 168, 177, 199
      • Psychological warfare, 315
      • Reconnaissance flights over China, 10
      • Restrictions on U.S. operations, 10
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 30, 33
      • Sortie levels, 235, 312
      • Souvanna's assessment of, 132
      • Thompson's assessment of, 137, 158
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 162
      • U.S. threats of escalation, 60
    • Nixon Doctrine, 101
    • Paris peace talks, 295
      • Alternative approaches, U.S. study of, 160
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries in Cambodia and, 41
      • Bombing of DRV as spur to negotiations, 55
      • Breaking off option, 95
      • Bruce's appointment as chief U.S. negotiator, 338, 346
      • Cease-fire issue, 2, 10, 346
      • CIA assessment of DRV outlook, 61
      • Conditions necessary for U.S. success, 52
      • Congressional hearings on, 149
      • De-escalation issue, 46, 49, 51
      • DRV objectives, 10, 119
      • DRV's moderation of demands, 64
      • Duration of, 49
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 5, 8, 10, 11
      • Future prospects, Helms's assessment of, 348
      • Habib's assessment of, 49, 120
      • Historical record of, 63
      • Instructions for U.S. negotiators, 2, 36, 50, 90, 109
      • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119, 347
      • Kissinger's assessment of, 223
      • Linkage of political and military matters, 33
      • Lodge's resignation from, 151
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 46, 49, 51, 68
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
      • Nixon's pre-inauguration communications with DRV re, 14
      • Nixon's September 16 speech and, 122
      • Nixon's visit with U.S. delegation, 20, 27
      • Political settlement issue, 20, 151
      • Prisoners of war issue, 199
      • Private talks, 20, 33, 35, 36, 41, 49, 83, 150, 159, 166, 169;
      • Problems within U.S. negotiating team, 52, 57, 78
      • RVNNLF talks, proposed, 28
      • Soviet involvement, 107, 346, 348
      • Soviet involvement/Moscow talks package plan, 52, 60
      • Special contact proposal, 106
      • Ten-point peace plan of NLF, 67
      • U.S. negotiating strategy, 46, 192, 200, 346
      • U.S. public information policy re, 16, 49, 348
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 28, 81, 103
      • U.S.–RVN relations in, 10, 192
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 162
    • Perot's meeting with, 177
    • Political settlement in Vietnam, 10
      • Elections issue, 81
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 49
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 53
      • Vietnamization program and, 93
    • Republic of Vietnam:
      • Corruption problem, 175, 295
      • Economic situation, 295
      • Government reorganization, 120
      • Internal security situation, 10, 94, 96
      • Lien Minh political organization, 47
      • Political situation, 77, 79, 117, 295
      • U.S.–RVN relations, 9
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces:
      • Abrams's assessment of, 313
      • Improvement and Modernization Program, 10, 49, 87
      • Regional Forces and Popular Forces, 81
    • Sihanouk's letter to Mansfield, 246
    • “Silent majority” speech, 135, 144
    • Southeast Asia, U.S. image in, 10
    • Souvanna's meetings with, 132, 133
    • Soviet-U.S. relations, Vietnam's impact on, 125, 139
    • Thieu, assessment of, 137
    • Thieu's meetings with, 79, 81, 103
    • Thompson's meeting with, 137
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 102, 295
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 70, 71, 76, 80, 122
      • Assumptions underlying, 143
      • CIA assessment of, 176
      • De-escalation issue and, 34
      • Force structure of RVNAF for, 195
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 217, 228
      • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119, 347
      • JCS plan, 87, 114
      • Kissinger's assessment of, 117
      • Long-term planning, 87, 148
      • Morale of U.S. troops and, 120
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 87, 93
      • 1970 withdrawal package, 147, 148
      • 1971 withdrawal package, 313
      • Nixon's UN speech on withdrawals, 190
      • Nomenclature for, 49
      • Optimistic reporting re, 170
      • Political settlement in Vietnam and, 93
      • Problems related to, 236
      • Public information policy re, 10, 103, 120, 123
      • Reactions to, 87
      • Replacement of U.S. forces with RVN troops, 10, 141
      • Speed-up of withdrawals issue, 312
      • Timetable for, 10, 58, 119, 120
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81, 103
    • Vietnam Special Studies Group, establishment of, 115
    • Wheeler's Vietnam visit, 100
  • Nixon Doctrine, 101
  • Norred, Chris, 96
  • Nutter, G. Warren (see also Washington Special Actions Group), 96, 225, 340
  • Oberemko, Valentin, 3, 24, 27
  • Osgood, Robert E., 130
  • Pacification program. See under Military situation in Vietnam.
  • Packard, David (see also Washington Special Actions Group) 19, 22, 30, 33, 37, 98, 113, 155, 165, 180, 225, 273, 289, 313, 339
  • Pakse Mon, Gen., 306
  • Palmer, Desmond, 137, 153
  • Paris peace talks, 295
    • Agreed objectives/work program proposal, 189, 190
    • Alternative approaches, U.S. study of, 160
    • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries in Cambodia and, 40, 41
    • Bombing of DRV as spur to negotiations, 55
    • Breaking off option, 90, 95
    • Bruce's appointment as chief U.S. negotiator, 338, 346
    • Bunker's assessment of, 7, 198
    • Cambodia issue, 201, 222, 223
    • Cease-fire issue, 2, 10, 346
    • CIA assessment of DRV outlook, 61
    • Conditions necessary for U.S. success, 52
    • Congressional hearings on, 149
    • Deadline for negotiations issue, 222
    • De-escalation issue, 46, 49, 50, 51
    • DRV objectives, 10, 44, 119
    • DRV's moderation of demands, 64
    • DRV strategy to create U.S.–RVN friction, 75
    • Duration of, 49
    • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 44
    • Format for negotiations, 69, 75
    • Future prospects, Helms's assessment of, 348
    • Habib's assessment of, 49, 120
    • Harriman's advice for Nixon team, 3, 13
    • Historical record of, 63
    • Instructions for U.S. negotiators, 2, 36, 50, 90, 109
    • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119, 347
    • Interruption in negotiations, 222, 223, 276, 320, 337
    • Kissinger's assessment of, 223
    • Laird's recommendations re, 221
    • Laos issue, 56, 190, 201, 222, 223
    • Linkage of political and military matters, 32, 33, 35, 189, 201
    • Lodge's assessment of, 108
    • Lodge's resignation from, 151
    • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 8, 10, 46, 49, 50, 51, 59, 68, 72, 78, 91, 96, 106, 108, 190, 192, 198, 200, 222, 223
      • U.S. proposal, 201
    • Nixon peace plan, 68
    • Nixon's pre-inauguration communications with DRV re, 14
    • Nixon's September 16 speech and, 122
    • Nixon's visit with U.S. delegation, 20, 27
    • November 1 deadline for progress, 106, 108
    • Plenary sessions, 49, 72
    • Political settlement issue, 20, 69, 72, 106, 108, 151, 189, 190, 191, 201, 222, 223
    • Prisoners of war issue, 72, 199
    • Private talks, 13, 20, 32, 33, 35, 36, 40, 41, 49, 150
    • Problems within U.S. negotiating team, 52, 57, 78
    • Procedural concerns, 201
    • RVNNLF talks, proposed, 28
    • RVN preparedness problem, 69
    • Secrecy concerns, 189
    • Soviet involvement, 3, 107, 346, 348
    • Soviet involvement/Moscow talks package plan, 52, 53, 60
    • Special contact proposal, 106
    • Ten-point peace plan of NLF, 67, 106
    • Thieu's attitude toward, 198
    • U.S. casualties in Vietnam and, 20
    • U.S. lack of chief negotiator problem, 190, 222
    • U.S. negotiating strategy, 46, 104, 192, 200, 346
    • U.S. protests re attacks in Vietnam, 26, 30, 31
    • U.S. public information policy re, 16, 49, 348
    • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 28, 81, 103
    • U.S.–RVN relations in, 7, 10, 75, 192
    • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 32, 35, 162
  • Paul, Roland, 257
  • Pauls, Rolf Friedmann, 17
  • Peace talks. See Paris peace talks.
  • Pedersen, Richard F., 96
  • Perot, Ross, 177
  • Pham Dang Lam, 27, 28
  • Pham Van Dong, 31, 69, 75, 78, 116, 120, 202, 333
  • Philippines, 10
  • Phoenix program. See under Military situation in Vietnam.
  • Phong. See Nguyen Xuang Phong
  • Pickering, Thomas, 297, 325, 326, 340, 343
  • Pietsch, Col. William, 313
  • Pincus, Walter, 257
  • Pok Sam An, Gen., 286
  • Political settlement in Vietnam (see also Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China; Political settlement issue under Paris peace talks), 8, 10
    • Communist proposal for, 200
    • Elections issue, 77, 81, 88, 93, 96, 119
    • Local political power, focus on, 91, 96
    • Peace cabinet option, 91, 96
    • Soviet views on, 323
    • Thieu's attitude toward, 49
    • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81, 88
    • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 53, 84
    • U.S. study re, 59, 91, 96
    • Vietnamization program and, 93
  • Porson, Sophia, 132, 133
  • Porter, Bill, 3
  • Pratt, Mark S., 131
  • President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB), 344
  • Prisoner of War Committee, 199
  • Prisoners of war. See under Military situation in Vietnam; under Paris peace talks.
  • Provincial Reconnaissance Unit (PRU) program, 74, 157, 165
  • Purcell, Victor, 137
  • Pursley, Brig. Gen. Robert E., 22, 243
  • Reagan, Ronald, 287
  • Reed, Ben, 135
  • Republic of Vietnam (RVN) (see also Military situation in Vietnam; Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces; Political settlement in Vietnam):
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign, policy re, 310
    • Chau treason case, 198
    • Corruption problem, 10, 175, 295
    • Economic situation, 10, 92, 142, 221, 295
    • Government reorganization, 120
    • Haig's fact-finding mission, 309
    • Internal security situation, 10, 94, 96, 119, 221
    • Lien Minh political organization, 19, 47
    • National Social Democratic Front, 182
    • Partition option, 8
    • Political situation, 4, 7, 10, 44, 77, 79, 117, 119, 142, 221, 295
    • U.S. covert media operations, 165
    • U.S.–RVN relations, 9
  • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF) (see also Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces; ARVN subheadings under Cambodian cross-border campaign), 119
    • Abrams's assessment of, 313
    • Capabilities against Communist forces, 44
    • Corps performances, 176
    • Evaluation of conditions for purpose of U.S. policy development, 4, 44
    • Improvement and Modernization Program, 10, 28, 38, 44, 49, 87, 100, 114
    • Leadership and motivation problems, 10, 44, 187, 221
    • Manpower shortage, 89
    • Regional Forces and Popular Forces, 81
    • Wheeler's assessment of, 100
  • Richardson, Elliot L., 10, 24, 26, 44, 54, 68, 82, 87, 103, 124, 132, 152, 168, 169, 180, 184, 225
  • Rives, Lloyd M., 225, 230, 240, 247, 274, 278, 281, 282, 286, 287, 293, 294, 322, 328, 342, 344
  • Robinson, R. C., 129
  • Rogers, William P., 4, 9, 28, 44, 51, 54, 82, 93, 99, 103, 121, 123, 124, 132, 133, 138, 146, 148, 168, 174, 285, 302, 307, 313, 326, 339
    • Abrams, assessment of, 77
    • Anti-war movement in United States, 120, 277
    • Bunker, assessment of, 77
    • Cambodia:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 22, 41
      • Border declaration re, 18, 66
      • Communist takeover, U.S. contingency planning re, 241
      • Coup by Lon Nol against Sihanouk, 205, 220
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 303
      • U.S. policymaking following cross-border campaign, 319
      • U.S. relations with, 18, 48, 179
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 220
      • U.S. support for Lon Nol government, 237, 241
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign:
      • Air operations, 302
      • Anti-war movement in United States and, 277
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 217, 301, 302
      • Divisions within Nixon administration re, 254
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 259, 261, 267
      • Nixon's authorization for, 248, 249, 260, 270
      • U.S. military license issue, 283
    • Cease-fire issue:
      • Paris discussions re, 10
      • Positions of U.S. officials, 118
      • U.S. internal debate on, 120, 152, 154, 348
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 151
    • Diplomatic initiatives on Indo-China, 305, 345
    • Dobrynin's meetings with, 24, 32, 35, 220
    • Ky's meeting with, 77
    • Laos:
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 173, 183
      • Chinese roadbuilding, U.S. actions targeting, 210
      • CIA activities in, 194
      • Long Tieng campaign, 214
      • Thai military involvement, 214
      • U.S. public information policy re, 193, 194
    • Midway meeting, 77, 79
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 120
      • Communist takeover in Cambodia, possible consequences of, 241
      • De-escalation issue, 10
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 120
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 10
      • Psychological warfare, 315
      • Reconnaissance flights over China, 10
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 24, 26, 30
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 24, 32
    • Nixon's “silent majority” speech, 144
    • Paris peace talks, 46
      • Alternative approaches, U.S. study of, 160
      • Breaking off option, 95
      • Bunker's assessment of, 7
      • Cease-fire issue, 10
      • De-escalation issue, 49
      • Duration of, 49
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 5, 10
      • Habib's assessment of, 120
      • Harriman's advice for Nixon team, 3, 13
      • Linkage of political and military matters, 32
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 49, 68
      • Nixon peace plan, 68
      • Nixon's pre-inauguration communications with DRV re, 14
      • Nixon's visit with U.S. delegation, 27
      • Political settlement issue, 151
      • Prisoners of war issue, 199
      • Private talks, 13, 30, 32, 36, 49
      • Problems within U.S. negotiating team, 57
      • Public comments on, 49, 348
      • Soviet involvement, 3
      • U.S. protests re attacks in Vietnam, 30
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 32, 35
    • Political settlement in Vietnam:
      • Elections issue, 77, 88, 93
      • Thieu's attitude toward, 49
    • Republic of Vietnam:
      • Corruption problem, 10
      • Government reorganization, 120
    • Thieu's meeting with, 77
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces, 49, 59
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 71, 76
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 228
      • JCS plan, 87, 114
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 93
      • Timetable for, 58
    • Vietnam visit, 77
  • Rosson, Gen., 100, 211
  • Rusk, Dean, 3, 120
  • Russell, Richard B., 136, 194, 256, 340
  • Ryan, Gen. John D., 136, 348
  • Sainteny, Jean, 14, 97, 105, 106
  • Salans, Carl, 78
  • Sambath, Huot, 196
  • Sanson, Robert L., 171, 233
  • Sato, Eisaku, 10
  • Saunders, Harold H., 102
  • Shultz, George, 302
  • Senior Review Group, 335, 336
  • Serong, Brig. F. P., 226
  • Sevareid, Eric, 338
  • Sharp, Willard, 318
  • Shepard, Rear Adm. Tazewell, Jr., 94
  • Sihanouk, Prince Norodom, 10, 308
    • Cambodia:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 110
      • Border declaration re, 66
      • Border shelling, 164
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 289
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 202, 238
      • Coup by Lon Nol against Sihanouk, 202, 205, 238
      • Economic situation, 202
      • Sihanouk, popular attitude toward, 326
      • Sihanouk's criticism of Lon Nol government, 246
      • Sihanouk's five aims for, 222
      • U.S. relations with, 17, 18, 48, 179, 196
    • Mansfield, letter to, 246
    • Thieu's assessment of, 103
  • Singapore, 10, 102
  • Sirik Matak, Sisowath, 202, 205, 230, 238, 240, 306, 308
  • Smith, Howard K., 338
  • Smith, Margaret Chase, 155
  • Smith, R. Jack, 96
  • Smyser, W. Richard, 181, 189, 190, 201, 222, 276, 320, 324, 325, 330, 336
  • Sneider, Richard L., 30, 34, 49, 56, 61, 63, 64, 72, 83, 86, 87, 89
  • Song Ngoc Trang, 255
  • Sonn Voeunsai, 326
  • Souphanouvong, 203, 211
  • Southeast Asia:
    • U.S. image in, 10
    • Vietnam conflict's impact on, 44
  • Souvanna Phouma, Prince, 10, 56, 86, 99, 102, 112, 127, 131, 172, 174, 207
  • Soviet Union, 299, 316, 348
    • Cambodia:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 22
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 220
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign:
      • International reaction, 272
      • Soviet assessment of, 323
      • Soviet Union warned about, 247
    • DRV, relations with, 44
    • Laos:
      • Communist campaign against Laotian Government, 99
      • Geneva Agreements initiatives re, 204
      • Soviet role in, 132
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 129
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 24, 32, 60, 84, 162
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Soviet involvement, 3, 107, 346, 348
      • Soviet involvement/Moscow talks package plan, 52, 53, 60
      • U.S.-Soviet discussions re, 32, 35, 162
    • Political settlement in Vietnam, 53, 84, 323
    • U.S.-Soviet relations, Vietnam's impact on, 84, 125, 139
  • Special National Intelligence Estimates:
    • SNIE 14–69, 1
    • SNIE 14.3–70, 188
    • SNIE 58–70, 172
  • Srey Saman, Gen., 240
  • Stalin, Joseph, 169
  • Stanton, William, 277
  • Stennis, John, 136, 155, 255, 256, 340
  • Stilwell, Gen. Richard G., 38
  • Suharto, 10, 232, 278, 326, 331
  • Sullivan, William H., 3, 21, 43, 78, 82, 88, 91, 95, 96, 130, 154, 160, 211, 315, 324, 335, 336, 345
  • Swank, Emory C., 344
  • Symington, Stuart, 193, 194
  • Szulc, Tad, 331
  • Templar, Sir Gerald, 137
  • Thailand (see also Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for under Cambodia; Thai military involvement under Cambodia and under Laos), 10
    • Border police program, 74
    • U.S. military presence, 336
  • Thanat Khoman, 18, 207, 209, 213, 214, 234, 257
  • Thanh. See Tran Chanh Thanh .
  • Thanom Kittikachorn, 131, 214
  • Thieu. See Nguyen Van Thieu .
  • Tho. See Le Duc Tho .
  • Thompson, Sir Robert, 137, 143, 153, 158, 303
  • Thrush, Lt. Col., 10
  • Thuy. See Xuan Thuy .
  • Toon, Malcolm, 32
  • Tran Buu Kiem, 67, 72
  • Tran Chanh Thanh, 77, 119
  • Tran Ngoc Chau, 182, 198
  • Tran Ngoc Hien, 198
  • Tran Thien Khiem, 103, 120, 142, 157, 175, 187
  • Tran Van Don, 119, 120, 151
  • Tran Van Huong, 10, 37, 38, 77
  • Tran Viet Dung, 276, 320
  • Trueheart, William, 43
  • Truman, Harry S., 169
  • Truong Chinh, 116, 120, 128, 333
  • Unger, Lt. Gen. F. T., 96
  • Unger, Leonard, 102, 203, 207, 211, 214, 234, 257, 274, 325
  • United Kingdom, 331
  • United Nations, 190
  • Vance, Cyrus R., 3, 5, 13, 27, 52
  • Vang Pao, Gen., 56, 99, 130, 131, 194, 203, 207, 274, 313
  • Vien, Gen. See Cau Van Vien, Gen .
  • Vietnam. See Cease-fire issue; Democratic Republic of Vietnam; Military situation in Vietnam; Paris peace talks; Political settlement in Vietnam; Republic of Vietnam; Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces.
  • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces (see also Improvement and Modernization Program under Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces; Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue under Paris peace talks), 38, 102, 295
    • Air and naval forces, 114
    • Announcements of withdrawals, 70, 71, 76, 80, 122, 187
    • Assumptions underlying, 143
    • Bunker's assessment of, 142, 198
    • CIA assessment of, 176
    • Clifford's advocacy of withdrawal, 119
    • Combat capability and, 44
    • Communist de facto withdrawals and, 161
    • De-escalation issue and, 34
    • Economic consequences, 94, 114, 187
    • Force structure of RVNAF for, 195
    • Fourth withdrawal increment, 217, 228
    • Funding for, 221
    • Interlocking options for U.S. re negotiations, Vietnamization, and military actions, 119, 347
    • JCS plan, 87, 114
    • Kissinger's assessment of, 117
    • Laird's assessment of, 187, 221
    • Laos situation and, 207
    • Long-term planning, 38, 87, 148, 187
    • Modalities of withdrawal, 59, 91
    • Morale of U.S. troops and, 120
    • 1969 withdrawal package, 87, 93, 100
    • 1970 withdrawal package, 147, 148
    • 1971 withdrawal package, 313
    • Nixon Doctrine and, 101
    • Nixon's UN speech on withdrawals, 190
    • Nomenclature for, 49
    • Optimistic reporting re, 170
    • Pacification program and, 114
    • Phases of, 49
    • Political settlement in Vietnam and, 93
    • Problems related to, 236
    • Public information policy re (see also Announcements of withdrawals above), 10, 103, 120, 123, 187
    • Reactions to, 87, 114, 188
    • Replacement of U.S. forces with RVN troops, 8, 10, 100, 141
    • Residual force levels, 114
    • Security concerns of U.S. forces, 187
    • Speed-up of withdrawals issue, 312
    • Thieu's attitude toward, 38, 187
    • Thompson's assessment of, 153
    • Timetable for, 10, 58, 114, 119, 120
    • U.S.–RVN coordination, 114
    • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 81, 100, 103, 151
    • Wheeler's assessment of, 100
  • Vietnam Special Studies Group, 171, 330, 335, 336
    • Establishment of, 115
  • Vogt, Lt. Gen. John A., Jr., 255, 272, 274, 275, 278, 281, 282, 284, 288, 290, 292, 326, 331, 340, 343
  • Voice of America, 229
  • Vo Nguyen Giap, Gen., 116, 120, 132, 333
    • Communist military strategy, 167
  • Vy. See Nguyen Minh Vy .
  • Wallis, W. Allen, 277
  • Walsh, Lawrence E., 3, 18, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 48, 78, 82, 151
  • Walters, Brig. Gen. Vernon, 105, 106, 159, 166, 169, 185, 189, 190, 201, 222, 276, 320, 337
  • Ware, Richard, 172
  • Washington Post, 66
  • Washington Special Actions Group (WSAG), 327
  • Watts, William, 166, 194, 240, 250
  • Wells, William, 325, 326, 343
  • Westmoreland, Gen. William C., 27, 241, 244
  • Weyand, Lt. Gen. Frederick C., 78, 104
  • Wheeler, Gen. Earle G., 44, 51, 58, 59, 93, 123, 124, 147, 170, 187, 202, 213, 239, 243, 274, 302, 305, 319
    • Cambodia:
      • Bombing of Communist sanctuaries, 22, 25, 41, 62
      • Communications equipment for, 271, 272
      • Communist conflict with Lon Nol government, 289
      • Communist use of Cambodian territory for operations in Vietnam, 37
      • Khmer regiments from Vietnam and Thailand for, 244, 282
      • Military assistance for Lon Nol government, 257, 262, 269, 271, 278, 281
      • U.S. military liaison for, 281
    • Cambodian cross-border campaign:
      • Air operations, 302
      • ARVN operations, guidance for, 302
      • Course of operations, assessments of, 257, 278, 281, 282
      • Divisions within Nixon administration re, 254
      • Fish Hook operation (base area 352/353), 259
      • International reaction, 313
      • Nixon's authorization for, 248, 270
      • Options for operations, assessments of, 279
      • Public information policy re, 257, 282
    • Cease-fire issue, U.S. internal debate on, 120
    • Laos:
      • Bombing of Communist forces, 194, 203, 204, 207
      • Cease-fire issue, 204
      • CIA activities in, 194
      • Communist campaign against Laotian Government, 313
      • Communist use of Laotian territory for operations in Vietnam, 37
      • Long Tieng campaign, 207, 211, 212
      • Thai military involvement, 207, 211, 212
      • U.S. ground forces in, 204
      • U.S. gunships for, 204, 207
    • Military situation in Vietnam:
      • Casualties, 10
      • Communist defectors, 10
      • Communist infiltration from DRV, 120
      • De-escalation issue, 10
      • DMZ activities, 10, 12, 37
      • DRV as target of U.S. operations, 120, 136
      • Evaluation of situation for purpose of U.S. policy development, 10
      • Interdiction operations, 10
      • Laird's assessment of, 38
      • Pacification program, 10, 37
      • Phoenix program, 37
      • Pressure tactics, development of, 12
      • Psychological warfare, 315
      • Reconnaissance flights over China, 10, 12
      • Restrictions on U.S. operations, 10
      • Retaliation for Communist attacks, 30, 37
      • Strategy and tactics governing U.S. operations, 100
      • Wheeler's assessment of, 37, 100
    • Paris peace talks, 5, 107
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces, 10, 100
    • Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces:
      • Announcements of withdrawals, 80
      • Fourth withdrawal increment, 228
      • 1969 withdrawal package, 93, 100
      • 1971 withdrawal package, 313
      • Replacement of U.S. forces with RVN troops, 10, 100
      • U.S.–RVN discussions re, 100
      • Wheeler's assessment of, 100
    • Vietnam visit, 100
  • Williams, Albert, 318
  • Wilson, Harold, 136, 197
  • Withdrawal of U.S. forces. See Vietnamization program/withdrawal of U.S. forces.
  • Xuan Thuy, 30, 150
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Cambodia issue, 222
      • Deadline for negotiations issue, 222
      • Interruption in negotiations, 222, 320
      • Laos issue, 190, 201, 222
      • Linkage of political and military matters, 189, 201
      • Mutual withdrawal of non-RVN forces issue, 72, 106, 201, 222
      • Political settlement issue, 106, 190, 201, 222
      • Private talks:
      • Procedural concerns, 201
      • Secrecy concerns, 189
      • Ten-point peace plan of NLF, 106
      • U.S. lack of chief negotiator problem, 190, 222
  • Young, Stephen M., 194, 196
  • Zablocki, Clement, 196
  • Ziegler, Ronald, 102, 197, 269, 273, 277, 348
  • Zorin, Valerian, 3, 24, 27, 34, 60