Saudi Arabia


78. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: The Embassy reported on conversations with Foreign Minister Umar al-Saqqaf regarding Saudi Arabia’s position vis-à-vis the Arab-Israeli dispute.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, 1970–73, POL 27–14 Arab-Israeli. Confidential. Repeated to Amman, Beirut, Kuwait City, Tripoli, and Tel Aviv.


79. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: Ambassador Thacher and Prince Sultan discussed Saudi economic and military aid to the Yemen Arab Republic.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 630, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume III, September 1, 1971–April 1973. Secret; Exdis. Repeated to Amman, Kuwait City, and Tehran. The reference telegrams were not found.


80. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: Prince Sultan informed the Embassy that King Faisal approved the Saudi purchase of the Improved Hawk anti-aircraft missile system.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]. Secret; Limdis. Telegram 975 to Jidda was not found. A note by OC/T indicates it was not received in the Department.


81. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: Thacher discussed with King Faisal the evidence linking Fatah and the Black September Organization and urged the King to reconsider funding Fatah.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 630, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume III, September 1, 1971–April 1973. Secret; Exdis. Repeated to Amman, Beirut, Tripoli, Tunis, Khartoum, Kuwait City, London, Moscow, Rabat, and Sana’a. Telegrams 44811 to Niamey, March 6; 42486 to Tel Aviv, March 11; and 971 from Jidda, March 9 are in the National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]. On the Khartoum incident, see Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. E–6, Documents on Africa, 1973–1976, Document 217. For the talks in Washington among Hussein, Ismail, and Meir, see Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXV, Arab-Israeli Crisis and War, 1973, Documents 26, 28 30, and 33 35.


82. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Departments of State and Defense

Summary: Thacher and Prince Abdullah discussed Saudi approval of a program to expand its National Guard.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]. Confidential; Priority. Repeated to CS Army, USCINCEUR, DAEN, DIVENGR MED, and CHUSMTM. Telegram 9 from Jidda was not found. Previous delays alluded to in this telegram reference King Faisal’s reluctance to contract the SANG modernization program to Raytheon, as reported in telegram 467 from Jidda, February 5. (Washington National Records Center, OSD Files: FRC 330–82–0274, NEG Saudi Arabia National Guard Modernization)


83. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: The Embassy assessed the potential for fruitful collaboration with Saudi Arabia in opposing terrorism, particularly concerning Black September and Fatah.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]. Secret; Exdis. Repeated to Amman, Beirut, Khartoum, Kuwait City, London, Tel Aviv, Tripoli, and Sana’a. Telegram 51643 to multiple recipients, March 31, is ibid. See also Document 81.


84. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Saudi Arabia

Summary: The Department instructed the Embassies in Jidda and Tehran to encourage closer cooperation between Saudi Arabia and Iran regarding regional security.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, 1970–73, POL Iran-Saudi Arabia. Secret. Drafted by Brooks Wrampelmeier (NEA/ARP); cleared in NEA/IRN, NEA/ARP, and NEA; approved by Atherton. Repeated to Tehran, Kuwait City, London, and Sana’a. Brackets are in the original. Telegrams 1450 from Jidda, April 9, and 2372 from Tehran, April 12, are in the National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]. The difficulties of Iranian-Saudi cooperation were discussed in INR study RNAS–6, April 12, “Iran and Saudi Arabia—The Odd Couple.” (Ibid.) Both Ambassadors attempted to facilitate discussions during the spring of 1973 while emphasizing the difficulty of encouraging trust between King Faisal and the Shah, reported in telegram 2450 from Tehran, April 16, and telegram 1618 from Jidda, April 20. (Ibid., [no film number] and D760430–0677)


85. Airgram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: The Embassy provided its first quarterly assessment of governmental and economic developments in Saudi Arabia for 1973.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, 1970–73, POL 2 Saudi Arabia. Secret. Drafted by T. McAdams Deford (POL); cleared by Eugene Bird (POL/ECON); approved by DCM Horan. Repeated to Abu Dhabi, Algiers, Amman, Baghdad, Beirut, Cairo, Dhahran, Khartoum, Kuwait City, London, Manama, Rabat, Sana’a, Tehran, Tel Aviv, Tripoli, Tunis, CHUSMTM, CINCEUR, COMIDEASTFOR, and DIA. On the Khartoum incident, see Document 81.


86. Letter From Secretary of State Rogers to Secretary of the Treasury Shultz

Summary: Rogers proposed to Shultz a visit of high-level State and Treasury officials to Saudi Arabia, in particular Deputy Secretary of the Treasury William Simon and Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs William Casey, aimed at creating a broad economic relationship between Saudi Arabia and the United States.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, 1970–73, FN 9 Saudi Arabia. Confidential. The specific group proposed in this letter did not travel to Saudi Arabia. Kissinger, Rogers, and Shultz discussed the topic with Minister for Petroleum Ahmad Zaki Yamani in April. See Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXXVI, Energy Crisis, 1969–1974, Document 176. Further discussions took place between U.S. officials and the Saudi Minister of State and President of the CPO Hisham Nazir in September, according to telegram 157890 to Jidda, August 9. (National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]) Eliot sent further planning details to Kissinger under a June 19 covering memorandum. (Ibid., Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 630, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume IV, May–December 1973)


87. Memorandum From Harold H. Saunders and William B. Quandt of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Summary: The NSC asked for Kissinger’s decision on whether to provide, in principle, the F–4 Phantom jet fighter/bomber to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 647, Country Files, Middle East, Middle East (General) Volume 9, 1972–74. Secret; Sent for action. On May 17, Kissinger approved, in principle only, the sale of the F–4 to Saudi Arabia with no decision on Kuwait. At the top of the memorandum Kissinger wrote “Brent: Send forward Thursday [May 17].” He also then wrote “OK.” Prince Sultan requested approval for the sale on April 24 in meetings with CINCEUR General Andrew Goodpaster, as reported in telegram 304 from Dhahran, April 25. (Ibid., Box 630, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume III, September 1, 1971—April 1973) Ambassador Thacher informed Acting Minister of Defense Prince Turki of the decision on May 18. (Ibid.)


88. Memorandum From Harold H. Saunders of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft)

Summary: Saunders provided Scowcroft with several messages regarding U.S.-Saudi relations, including a cable for Faisal informing him of the U.S. approval of F–4 sales.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 761, Presidential Correspondence, 1969–74, Saudi Arabia: King Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (1972–74). Secret; Sensitive; [handling restriction not declassified]. No action indicated; however, at the top of the memo, Saunders wrote: “Note for file: HAK approved sending message in cable at Tab A minus last paragraph on F–4’s. This was done.” For Tab B, see Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXXVI, Energy Crisis, 1969–1974, Document 181. Attached but not published at [text not declassified] draft telegram to Jidda and Kuwait approving the sale of the F–4 in principle. Ambassador Thacher informed the Saudis of the approval on May 18. (National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 630, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume III, September 1, 1971–April 1973)


89. Transcript of Telephone Conversation Between Acting Secretary of State Rush and the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Summary: Rush and Kissinger discussed the Israeli reaction to the F–4 sale to Saudi Arabia and the possible sale of F–4s to Kuwait.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, Kissinger Telephone Conversations, Box 20, Chronological File, April—May 1973. Israeli opposition to the sale was reported in telegram 101662 to Tel Aviv, May 25, in which Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban said that Israel was “all out” against sales to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. (Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 180, Geopolitical File, Middle East Chronological File, July 2, 1973–September 4, 1973)


90. Memorandum of Conversation

Summary: Governor Anwar Ali of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency met with officials from the Department to discuss U.S.-Saudi investment policies and future projects.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, 1970–73, FN 9 Saudi Arabia. Confidential. Drafted by Wrampelmeier; cleared by Atherton; approved in E on July 6. Ali also met separately with Dickman on June 27. (Ibid., POL 7 Saudi Arabia)


91. Memorandum From Harold H. Saunders of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Summary: Saunders recommended against proposals from the Departments of State and the Treasury for a high-level economic and political mission to Saudi Arabia, as well as a White House proposal that King Faisal be invited to Washington. Saunders instead proposed inviting Prince Fahd to meet with Kissinger.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 630, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume IV, May-December 31, 1973. Secret; Sensitive; Sent for action. Odeen concurred. Brackets are in the original. Kissinger approved both recommendations. In an attached note, Scowcroft commented: “Unless you are committed to Shultz to send Simon, this is not a bad idea. To my mind, it is the only way we can guarantee maintaining control.” Attached at Tabs A and B, but not published, are Flanigan’s July 17 memorandum to Kissinger and Rush’s July 2 memorandum to Nixon. Attached but not published at Tab C are [name not declassified] July 25 and 26 memoranda to Kissinger, relaying messages from Fahd concerning his “frustration” that the U.S. Government never defined “its national requirements for petroleum in the years ahead,” and noting that he was “currently giving his personal attention to strengthening U.S.-Saudi relations.” In a July 2 memorandum to Kissinger, Scowcroft deprecated a proposed Simon mission: “There is great danger having economic types running around this area unguided when the really important aspects (even of oil) are political.” (Ibid., Volume III, September 1 1971–April 1973) Shultz continued to press for an economic mission in an August 13 memorandum to Kissinger. (National Archives, RG 429, Records of the Council on International Economic Policy, 1971–77, Central File, 1972–77, Box 26, 52669–52709, August 7–15, 1973, 52697) Fahd did not visit the United States in 1973.


92. Intelligence Memorandum Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency

Summary: The Office of Economic Research prepared a memorandum on the Saudi Arabian economy for the proposed economic mission to Saudi Arabia.

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, ODI/OER Files, Job 80T01315A, Box 34, Folder 4. Confidential. Drafted on September 10. Forwarded by the Director of the CIA’s Near East and Africa Branch, Developing Nations Division, Office of Economic Research, to Robert Pelikans, Senior Economic Adviser, Department of the Treasury, under a September 10 covering memorandum.


93. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: The Embassy reported on meetings between James Noyes, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, and Prince Sultan regarding increased costs for SNEP.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]. Secret; Immediate. Also sent to the Department of Defense. Repeated Immediate to CNO, USCINCEUR, and CHUSMTM. Telegram 3614 from Jidda, August 22, is ibid. Defense Attaché Lt. Col. William Fifer previously informed the Department of Defense of Saudi concerns about increased costs in telegram 288 from Jidda, August 26. (Washington National Records Center, OASD Files: FRC 330–78–0002, Saudi Arabia 092 (15 November 1973)) Sultan announced the budgeting of $850 million for SNEP on March 15, 1974, according to telegram 1318 from Jidda, March 18. (National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, [no film number]) For material on SNEP, see Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXIV, Middle East Region and Arabian Peninsula, 1969–1972; Jordan, September 1970, Documents 131 and 138.


94. Memorandum of Conversation

Summary: CPO President Nazir met with Acting Secretary of the Treasury Simon to discuss economic development and oil production.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, 1970–73, PET 17 U.S.-Saudi Arabia. Confidential. Drafted by Dickman. The meeting took place in Simon’s office. According to Nazir’s schedule, the meeting took place at 10:35 a.m. (Ibid. POL 7 Saudi Arabia) During this trip to the United States, Nazir also met with Harold Saunders and other members of the NSC, for which see the September 28 memorandum of conversation. (Ibid.)


95. Memorandum of Conversation

Summary: Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Porter and CPO President Hisham Nazir discussed the developing economic relationship between the United States and Saudi Arabia and U.S. policy toward the Arab-Israeli dispute.

Source: Washington National Records Center, OASD Files: FRC 330–78–0002, Saudi Arabia (15 November 1973). Confidential. Drafted by Dickman; cleared by Atherton; approved in P on October 9. The meeting took place at the Department of State. According to Nazir’s schedule, the meeting took place at 10 a.m. (National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, 1970–73, POL 7 Saudi Arabia)


96. Memorandum of Conversation

Summary: Kissinger and newly-appointed Ambassador to Saudi Arabia James Akins met with Prince Fahd.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Kissinger Office Files, Box 139, Country Files, Saudi Arabia (3). Top Secret; Sensitive; Exclusively Eyes Only. Brackets are in the original. The meeting was held at the Royal Guest House in Riyadh. In a November 21 letter to Fahd, Kissinger also referred to the Arab embargo: “I continue to feel that it will be very difficult for us to be as helpful as we would like in the negotiations ahead if we remain under the threat of a continuing oil boycott.” (Ibid., Country Files, Kissinger Trip to Middle East, November 5–10, 1973) Kissinger also met with King Faisal on November 8 to discuss the war. See footnote 2, Document 238, in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXXVI, Energy Crisis, 1969–1974. Kissinger returned to Riyadh in December, meeting with both Faisal and Fahd on December 14. For that conversation, see ibid., Document 267.


97. Letter From President Nixon to King Faisal of Saudi Arabia

Summary: Nixon reviewed the state of Israeli-Arab disengagement negotiations and provided the U.S. position on the Arab oil embargo for King Faisal.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 761, Presidential Correspondence, 1972–74, Saudi Arabia, Faisal 1972. This letter is also printed in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXXVI, Energy Crisis, 1969–1974, Document 274.


98. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Saudi Arabia

Summary: The Department transmitted a letter from President Nixon to King Faisal related to Middle East peace negotiations.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 207, Geopolitical File, Saudi Arabia, January 4–February 6 1974. Secret; Niact Immediate; Cherokee; Nodis. Drafted by Atherton on January 23, and approved by Kissinger. Telegrams 379 from Jidda, January 2, and 380 from Jidda, January 23, are in the National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, P840130–2604 and P840028–2091, respectively. For other correspondence with Saudi Arabian officials regarding the end of the October War, see Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXXVI, Energy Crisis, 1969–1974, Document 278.


99. Memorandum From the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Summary: Scowcroft relayed a query from Secretary of the Treasury Shultz to Kissinger regarding a request from Hisham Nazir that labor economist and Director of the Cost of Living Council John T. Dunlop meet with him in Saudi Arabia.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Kissinger Office Files, Box 139, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia (1). Confidential. Kissinger wrote next to the “Let him go” option: “Only after embargo is lifted can we consider trip. Nazer should be so informed.”


100. Intelligence Memorandum Prepared in the Central Intelligence Agency

[Source: Central Intelligence Agency, DI/OCI Files, Job 79B01737A, Box 21, Folder 3, Saudi Arabia and Oil Politics. Secret; [handling restriction not declassified]. 13 pages not declassified.]


101. Draft Telegram From the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) and Charles Cooper of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger

Summary: Cooper submitted for Scowcroft’s approval a set of possible items to propose to the Saudis as part of a plan for an expanded bilateral relationship.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 207, Geopolitical File, Saudi Arabia, February 11–28, 1974. Secret; Sensitive. Cooper forwarded the message to Scowcroft under a February 28 covering memorandum, which indicated that he drafted it, in consultation with Quandt and Bennett, at Kissinger’s request in preparation for the Secretary’s March 2 meeting with King Faisal. The telegram, sent verbatim as TOHAK 56, March 1, is ibid., March 2–April 27, 1975. This telegram is also printed in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXXVI, Energy Crisis, 1969–1974, Document 330. On the expanded relationship with Saudi Arabia, see Document 18.


102. Memorandum of Conversation

Summary: Prince Fahd and Kissinger discussed security, the status of Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, and other subjects.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1028, Presidential/HAK MemCons, March 1–May 8, 1974. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Saunders on March 8. The meeting took place at Prince Fahd’s Palace. Kissinger stopped in Riyadh as part of his February 26–March 2 shuttle, stopping also in Cairo, Damascus, and Amman. For the records of these meetings, see Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXVI, Arab-Israeli Dispute, 1974–1976, Document 25 29.


103. Memorandum of Converstion

Summary: Among other topics, King Faisal and Kissinger discussed the formation of an expanded economic and military relationship between the United States and Saudi Arabia.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1028, Presidential/HAK MemCons, March 1–May 8, 1974. Secret; Sensitive; Nodis. The meeting took place at King Faisal’s Palace. Brackets, except those indicating omitted text, are in the original. Portions of this memorandum related to the Arab oil embargo are printed in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, vol. XXXVI, Energy Crisis, 1969–1974, Document 332. Sisco and Saunders provided Kissinger with a briefing packet on plans for an expanded relationship with Saudi Arabia on March 2. (Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 207, Geopolitical File, Saudi Arabia, March 2–April 27, 1974)


104. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Saudi Arabia

Summary: Kissinger provided instructions to Ambassador Akins for the rapid formation of U.S.-Saudi joint commissions.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 631, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume V, January 1–April 1974. Secret; Immediate; Exdis. Drafted by Saunders; cleared by Atherton, Sisco, Schlesinger, and Springsteen; approved by Kissinger. For the record of Kissinger’s talks with King Faisal and Prince Fahd, see Documents 102 and 103.


105. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: The Embassy discussed the Saudi response to the joint commission proposal outlined in telegram 45027 to Jidda, March 6. ( Document 104)

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 631, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume V, January 1, 1974–April 1974. Secret; Niact Immediate; Exdis. Published from a copy that was received in the White House Situation Room. Reference telegrams A and C were not found. Telegram 2788 from Manila, March 10, is in the National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, P740141–1164.


106. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: The Embassy reported on additional conversations with Prince Fahd regarding the implementation of the joint commissions and raised the possibility of a Saudi visit, perhaps by Fahd, to Washington.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 631, Country Files, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Volume V, January 1–April 1974. Secret; Immediate; Exdis. Telegram 1471 from Jidda, March 25, is in the National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, D740063–0462. Telegram 45027 to Jidda and telegram 1192 from Jidda are Documents 104 and 105, respectively.


107. Telegram From the Embassy in Saudi Arabia to the Department of State

Summary: The Embassy predicted the trajectory of Saudi decision making as King Faisal declined.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P850076–2202. Secret; Nodis.