Sudan


217. Intelligence Memorandum, Washington, June 1973

The memorandum described the Black September Organization's (BSO) seizure of the Saudi Arabian Embassy in Khartoum on March 1, 1973, and the ensuing events leading toward the killing of two American officials, Noel and Moore, and the release of the remaining hostages.

Source: Department of State, Khartoum Embassy Files: Lot 80 F 170, Box 3, POL 23-8 Terrorism. Secret; No Foreign Dissem; Controlled Dissem. Only the summary is published here.


218. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, March 6, 1973, 10:30 a.m.

Sudanese Minister of National Reform, Abdel Rahman Abdulla, conveyed President Nimeiri's condolences for the deaths of two American officials. Abdulla requested security assistance to defend against BSO retaliation. President Nixon said that Sudan was only accidentally involved in the assassinations and promised cooperation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-1973, POL 13-10. Secret; Exdis


219. Briefing Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Newsom) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, October 17, 1973

Newsom provided an update on U.S. assistance to Sudan in the aftermath of the Noel and Moore assassinations.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 23-9 SUDAN. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by SMITH and Blake.


220. Telegram 1276 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, June 4, 1974, 1325Z

Ambassador Brewer recommended that President Nixon send a personal message to President Nimeiri thanking him for his steadfastness and stressing U.S. concern that justice be done.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 745, Country Files, Africa, Sudan, Vol. 1. Secret; Priority; Exdis.


221. Telegram 130677 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Sudan, June 18, 1974, 2353Z

The Department responded to Khartoum 1276 ( Document 220) by instructing Ambassador Brewer to make an oral demarche to President Nimeiri.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 745, Country Files, Africa, Sudan, Vol. 1. Secret; Exdis. Repeated to Brussels. Drafted by SMITH, cleared in AF/E, L/AF, S/CCT, AF, and approved by Acting Secretary Sisco.


222. Telegram 139021/SECTO 1 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Saudi Arabia, June 25, 1974, 1945Z

Secretary of State Kissinger instructed Ambassador Brewer to express dismay and extreme disappointment to President Nimeiri regarding his commuting of the sentences of the BSO terrorists convicted for the murders of U.S. and other diplomats and their release to the PLO.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1974. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by SMITH, cleared in NEA/ARP, and approved by Coote.


223. Telegram 1538 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, June 26, 1974, 1000Z

Ambassador Brewer reported that he had conveyed to President Nimeiri the message in SECTO 1 from Secretary Kissinger, and described Nimeiri's response.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 745, Country Files, Africa, Sudan, Vol. 1. Secret; Immediate; Exdis. Repeated Immediate to the White House and Brussels; repeated Priority to Cairo and Beirut.


224. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Easum) to the Under Secretary of State (Sisco), Washington, July 1, 1974

Easum sent Sisco a background paper on the commutation of the sentences of the BSO terrorists and four options for a U.S. reaction, ranging from a temporary freeze to a complete break in diplomatic relations.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1974, P850149-0644. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by SMITH, cleared in L/AF, NEA/EGY, S/CCT, AF, and AF/E.


225. Telegram 169610 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Sudan, Washington, August 2, 1974, 2210Z

The Department informed the Embassy of its decision to downgrade relations with Sudan and detailed the effect of that decision in specific programs.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1974. Confidential. Drafted by Theodore Ford (AF/E), and approved by Robert S. Barrett (AF/E). The source text is a repeat of the telegram to the U.S. Mission at Geneva. Also repeated to all Near Eastern and South Asian Diplomatic Posts, to Brussels, and Addis Ababa.


226. Telegram 2100 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, September 11, 1974, 1100Z

Chargé Berlind assessed the effectiveness of U.S. policy toward Sudan since the release of the BSO terrorists and recommended that the return of Ambassador Brewer depend upon the results of a meeting between the Chargé and a senior Sudanese official.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 6, Sudan, State Department Telegrams. Confidential; Priority; Exdis.


227. Telegram 16362/SECTO 125 From Secretary of State Kissinger to the Department of State, Moscow, October 26, 1974, 1138Z

The Embassy in Rabat informed the Saudi Foreign Minister that Ambassador Brewer had returned to Khartoum at Secretary Kissinger's request.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 234, Geopolitical Files, Sudan. Secret; Immediate; Nodis; Cherokee. Also sent Immediate to Khartoum, Niact Immediate to Rabat, and repeated Immediate to Jidda.


228. Telegram 965 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, April 18, 1975, 1105Z

Ambassador Brewer reported that the present atmosphere in Sudan called for a prompt consideration of policy recommendations in the Embassy's annual report. He urged favorable action so that bilateral relations could be placed "back in gear.”

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 234, Geopolitical Files, Sudan. Confidential; Exdis. Airgram A-29 from Khartoum, April 7, is located in the National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975, P750067-1497.


229. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 7, 1975

Under Secretary Sisco, AF/E Director Wendell Coote, and Sudanese Ambassador Francis M. Deng discussed bilateral relations and the situation in Eritrea. Coote recommended a step-by-step approach to normalizing relations and Deng agreed.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Joseph Sisco, Entry 5405, Box 19, Memcons, 1975. Confidential. Drafted by Coote, approved in P on May 13.


230. Telegram 1256 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, May 22, 1975, 1136Z

Ambassador Brewer urged Assistant Secretary Davis to move forward on normalization of relations with Sudan and recommended several specific steps.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential; Exdis. The March 10 letter referred to in paragraph 1 was not found, but a second letter restating Brewer's views was sent on March 11, 1976. (Department of State, Khartoum Embassy Files: Lot 80 F 170, POL 1, U.S. Policy to GOS 1976)


231. Telegram 123634 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Sudan, May 28, 1975, 1700Z

The Department informed the Embassy that it had decided to authorize normal EX-IM Bank and OPIC transactions.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential. Drafted by Daniel Waterman in AF/E, cleared in NEA, S/CCT, AF/E, H, and Davis, approved by Sisco


232. Telegram 2367 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, October 9, 1975, 1024Z

Ambassador Brewer said that Egyptian President Sadat might ask the United States to speed normalization of relations with Sudan because of President Nimeiri's support for the Middle East peace process. Brewer also recommended lifting the hold on PL-480 sales and reopening the Defense Attaché office.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 234, Geopolitical Files, Sudan. Secret; Nodis.


233. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, April 7, 1976, 12:00 p.m.

Secretary of State Kissinger, Acting Assistant Secretary Seelye, and Sudanese Ambassador Deng discussed U.S.-Sudan relations. Kissinger agreed to see what could be done to fully normalize relations, as well as discuss with President Ford a possible meeting with President Nimeiri.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 275, Memoranda of Conversations, Chronological File. Confidential/Nodis. Drafted by Coote, approved in S on July 13. The conversation took place in the Secretary's Office.


234. Telegram 108761/T110717 From the Department of State to Secretary of State Kissinger, May 5, 1976, 0056Z

The Telegram transmitted an Action Memorandum on normalizing relations with Sudan to Secretary Kissinger, who was traveling abroad. The memorandum recommended resuming full relations with Sudan and attached a separate memorandum for President Ford that recommended he meet with President Nimeiri.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976. Confidential; Immediate; Exdis. Drafted by Robert S. Barrett in AF/E, cleared in S, by Sisco and Eagleburger, approved by Seelye. No action indicated, but in a briefing memorandum Scowcroft prepared for Ford's June 10 meeting with Nimeiri, he noted the May 17 approval of returning to normal bilateral relations with Sudan. (Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 6, Country Files, South Africa-State Department Telegrams, Sudan (2))


235. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, June 10, 1976, 10:34-11:20 a.m.

President Ford met with Sudanese President Nimeiri to discuss bilateral relations and security concerns in the Arab world and the Horn of Africa.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 19, Ford Administration. Secret; Nodis. The meeting place in the Oval Office of the White House.


236. Telegram 1988 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, July 7, 1976, 1220Z

The Embassy summarized President Nimeiri's success in weathering another coup attempt and assessed his popularity and stability.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976. Secret; Priority. Repeated to Addis Ababa, Cairo, Jidda, London, Moscow, Nairobi, Ndjamena, Paris, Tripoli, the Mission to the UN, USCINCEUR, and COMIDEASTFOR.


237. Telegram 2751 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, September 21, 1976, 0613Z

The Embassy country team recommended to Ambassador Brewer who was in Washington that the United States take advantage of Sudan's positive current attitude toward the United States to establish a positive relationship for the future.

Source: Department of State, Nairobi Embassy Files: Lot 79 F 186, POL Sudan, 1976. Secret. Repeated to Addis Ababa, Cairo, Jidda, Kuwait, London, Moscow, Nairobi, Paris, and Tripoli.


238. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to President Ford, Washington, November 1, 1976

Scowcroft recommended that Ford sign a Presidential Determination permitting the sale of defense articles and services to Sudan. Ford signed Presidential Determination 77-5.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Brent Scowcroft Daily Work Files, Box 56, Chronological File B. Confidential. Sent for action. Ford signed Tab A, Presidential Determination 77-5 on November 5. No classification marking. Tabs B and C are not published.