Africa Region


1. Memorandum From Fernando Rondon of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, January 2, 1973

Rondon presented a plan of action for Africa during the second Nixon Administration. His recommendations were not acted upon.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 747, Country Files-Africa, Africa General, vol. II. Secret. Sent for action. Kennedy concurred. No action indicated. Kissinger wrote in the margin next to recommendation 1, “Like who?” and next to recommendation 2, “What makes you think that?” Attachment Tab A, “Guidelines for a NSSM Study on Africa South of the Sahara,” is not published. Attached at Tab B is “US Interests in Sub-Sahara Africa.”


2. Research Study RAAS-1 Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, January 26, 1973

The study examined the growing Arab influence in West Africa and how it made the Middle East a point of disagreement between the United States and African states.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL AFR-ARAB. Secret; No Foreign Dissem; Controlled Dissem. Drafted by Inskeep, cleared by Summ, approved by Mark.


3. Memorandum of Conversation, London, March 15, 1973

Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs David Newsom summarized U.S. views on Africa at the beginning of the second Nixon Administration for his counterparts from the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL AFR. Confidential. Drafted by Michael L. Milligan (AF) on May 4.


4. Memorandum From the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Ross) to the Under Secretary of State for Security Affairs (Tarr), Washington, April 10, 1973

Ross attached a reexamination of United States purposes, goals and rationale behind U.S. security assistance programs for Africa.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, AF/I Files: Lot 75 D 420, Box 1, MAP FY 74. Confidential. Drafted by Andre J. Navez (AF/RA), cleared by Peter Walker (AF/RA). The memorandum is a copy with an indication that Ross signed the original.


5. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, June 1, 1973

Eliot reviewed efforts of donors to combat the Sahel drought and noted that the Department of State and the Agency for International Development (AID) were working to promote a multi-donor program.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 747, Country Files, Africa, General, March 1970-. Unclassified.


6. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, June 18, 1973

Kissinger outlined the international relief effort underway and transmitted a memorandum from Secretary of State Rogers to Nixon proposing that Nixon support U.N. efforts against the Sahel drought and that he appoint Deputy AID Administrator Maurice Williams as U.S. special drought coordinator.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 297, Geopolitical Files, Memoranda to the President, June 1973. No classification marking. Sent for action. A notation on the memorandum reads: “The President has seen.” No action indicated, but Tab A, the attached proposed letter to Waldheim was signed in nearly unchanged form on June 20 and is printed in the Department of State Bulletin, Vol. LXIX, No. 1776, July 9, 1973, pp. 66-67. Tab B, the memorandum from Rogers to Nixon on June 8, 1973, was Limited Official Use. Rush signed for Rogers. In addition, Williams was appointed drought coordinator on June 20. Tab C, the telegram from Ambassador Scali, is not published.


7. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, July 19, 1973

Eliot transmitted information on Secretary of State Roger's proposal for the formation of a Presidential Commission on African Development.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 1 AFR-US. Limited Official Use. No record of further action on the proposed Presidential Commission was found. Attachment 2, a draft executive order, attachment 3, “A list of suggested names within categories for membership on the Commission,” and attachment 4, “Estimate of cost and funding source,” are not published.


8. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, August 21, 1973

Kissinger summarized and attached a progress report from Maurice Williams on his work as Special Coordinator for American Assistance to the West African Drought Disaster.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 747, Country Files, Africa, General, March 1970-. No classification marking. Sent for information. Nixon highlighted Williams' name in the first sentence of the memorandum and wrote: “good job.” Tab A, Progress Report to the President from Maurice Williams on the African drought relief effort, August 10, is not published here. It was printed in the Department of State Bulletin, Vol. LXIX, No. 1786, September 17, 1973, pp. 380-83.


9. Memorandum From Secretary of State Kissinger to President Nixon, Washington, undated

Kissinger summarized and attached a progress report from Special Coordinator Maurice Williams based on his September 8-21 trip to the Sahel. Williams said that the Sahel countries would need urgent food aid for at least a year, and that plans were needed for the larger problem of recovery.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 747, Country Files, Africa, General, March 1970-. No classification marking. Sent for information. The attached report of September 27 from Maurice Williams is not published here. It was printed in the Department of State Bulletin, Vol. LXIX, No. 1796, November 26, 1973, pp. 669-73.


10. Telegram 6590 From the Embassy in Kenya to the Department of State, September 27, 1973, 1730Z

The telegram reported on a meeting in Nairobi between the President of the African Development Bank, Abdelwahab Labidi, and U.S. officials. Labidi expressed dismay at the lack of progress in U.S. approval of membership in the Bank.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1973. Limited Official Use. Repeated to Abidjan.


11. Briefing Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Newsom) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, October 5, 1973

Newsom reviewed the full range of U.S. policy toward Africa and presented objectives and options for achieving them. He also recommended that the Africa Bureau undertake a study of Africa policy. The recommendations were left blank.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files, 1970-73, POL AFR-US. Secret. The recommendation was left blank.


12. Memorandum From Harold Horan of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, October 13, 1973

Horan noted that four of the six posts proposed for Mrs. Nixon's trip to Africa had responded to a query about the advisability of her visit. Three of the four expressed reservations.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 747, Country Files, Africa, General, March 1970-. Secret; Nodis. Sent for information. Scowcroft wrote: “Thanks.” The attachments: Embassy telegrams 1738 from Ndjamena, 4581 from Dakar, 3186 from Bamako, and 3157 from Niamey, all dated October 13 are not published.


13. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, October 15, 1973, 11:30 a.m.-12:05 p.m.

Upper Volta President Lamizana expressed appreciation for U.S. assistance to the Sahel and described the need for further action. President Nixon said that he would do his best to provide needed support.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 2, 10/15/73. Confidential.


14. Memorandum From the Acting Administrator of the Agency for International Development (Williams) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, October 19, 1973

Williams summarized discussions with the ministers of the six drought stricken countries who accompanied President Lamizana to Washington.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 747, Country Files, Africa, General, March 1970-. No classification marking.


15. Memorandum From the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, January 5, 1974

Scowcroft transmitted Assistant Secretary Newsom's draft memorandum, providing background on U.S. policy against furnishing Sidewinder missiles to Africa. Newsom recommended a selective relaxation of the policy. Scowcroft recommended delaying a decision on Newsom's recommendation.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 747, Country Files, Africa, Africa General. Secret; Sensitive. A handwritten notation reads: “HAK has seen.” The draft at Tab A was attached, but is not published. The final version is Document 16.


16. Action Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Newsom) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, January 5, 1974

The memorandum provided background information on U.S. policy against furnishing Sidewinder missiles to Africa, but Assistant Secretary Newsom recommended a relaxation of the policy.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, AF/I Files: Lot 75 D 420, Box 1, POL 23 Nigeria. Secret. Drafted by A. Navez and Newsom. Cleared by EUR, PM, L/PM, AF/E, AF/W, and NEA/RA. The recommendation was left blank.


17. National Security Study Memorandum 201, Washington, April 25, 1974

The NSSM informed the Secretaries of Defense and State, and the Director of the CIA that President Nixon had directed a study of U.S. policy for providing military assistance and arms to the countries of black Africa, including current objectives and possible alternate policies.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-204, NSSMs, NSSM 201. Secret. A copy was sent to the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff


18. Telegram 175398 From the Department of State to All African Diplomatic Posts, August 11, 1974, 1512Z

The Department reported on a meeting between Secretary of State Kissinger and OAU chiefs of mission in Washington.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 1, Africa General, State Department Telegrams. Confidential; Exdis. Repeated to Luanda, Lourenco Marques, Paris, and USUN. Drafted by Mulcahy; cleared in S/S and S; approved by Easum.


19. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 21, 1974

Ford spoke to the Congressional Black Caucus about his interest in Africa.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 5, August 21, 1974. Unclassified. The meeting was held in the Cabinet Room of the White House. The Byrd Amendment permitted the United States to import chrome from Southern Rhodesia, overcoming a United Nations Security Council Resolution establishing an embargo on trade with that country.


20. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Springsteen) to the President's Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, August 29, 1974

Springsteen attached a memorandum describing the drought in West Africa, the nature of U.S. assistance, and the problems ahead.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 1, Africa, General (1). Confidential. Springsteen sent Scowcroft updated reports on October 16 (ibid.) and December 13. (Ibid., General (2))


21. Response to National Security Study Memorandum 201, Washington, October 8, 1974

The document reviewed U.S. arms policy in black Africa, U.S. interests, future prospects, and options.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, NSC Institutional File, Box 7, IF/NS File for President, Military Assistance and Arms Policy in Black Africa. Secret. The annexes are not published here. DOD endorsed Option 3 (Memorandum from Clements to Kissinger, December 13; ibid.), as did the Department of State. (Memorandum from Springsteen to Scowcroft, December 16; ibid., Box 10, IF/NA File for the President, Military Assistance and Arms Policy in Black Africa) The CIA suggested a few changes to the background portion of the study, but endorsed no specific option. (Memorandum from Colby to Davis, December 4, 1974; ibid.)


22. Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting, Washington, December, 23, 1974

Secretary of State Kissinger, Assistant Secretary Easum, and Director Vest discussed U.S. military aid issues regarding sub-Saharan conflicts.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Kissinger's Staff Meetings, 1973-1977, Entry 5177, Box 5, Secretary's Staff Meetings. Secret. Portions unrelated to Africa are not published here.


23. Telegram 566 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, January 21, 1975, 1415Z

The telegram transmitted a letter to President Ford from Congressman Charles C. Diggs (D-MI), who expressed his opposition to the nomination of Nathaniel Davis as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Unclassified; Immediate. A summary of Mobutu's speech to AAI is published as Document 267.


24. Telegram 14449 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Zaire, January 21, 1975, 2332Z

At President Ford's request, Secretary of State Kissinger replied to Congressman Diggs with strong support for the nomination of Nathaniel Davis.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 7, Zaire, State Department Telegrams from SECSTATE - Nodis. Unclassified; Immediate. Drafted by Brown and approved by Kissinger.


25. Telegram 040694 From the Department of State to All African Diplomatic Posts, February 23, 1975, 0103Z

Kissinger transmitted to the OAU Secretary General Mboumoua a message concerning the nomination of senior officials for posts in the United States and his dismay in learning of the OAU's consensus resolution commenting on the nomination of Nathaniel Davis.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Ethiopia Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 121, OAU Relations with United States. Limited Official Use; Immediate. The text of the OAU's press release on OAU letterhead is located at Howard University, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Manuscript Department, Charles Diggs Papers, Box 220, Unnamed Folder


26. Telegram 300 From the Embassy in Somalia to the Department of State, February 27, 1975, 1035Z

Chargé Samuel J. Hamrick, Jr. reported on the internal discussions that led to the OAU statement opposing the Nathaniel Davis nomination.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential; Exdis. Repeated to Addis Ababa.


27. Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting, Washington, April 8, 1975, 8:00 a.m.

Secretary of State Kissinger, Nathaniel Davis, and Deputy Secretary Ingersoll discussed Kissinger's meeting later in the day with African ambassadors.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's Staff Meetings, 1973-1977, Entry 5177, Box 6, Secretary's Staff Meetings. Secret.


28. Telegram 84081 From the Department of State to All African Diplomatic Posts, April 12, 1975, 0205Z

The Department reported on the April 8 meeting between Kissinger and African ambassadors in which an exchange of views on U.S.-African relations took place.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Ethiopia Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 121, OAU Relations with the United States. Confidential; Priority; Limdis. Repeated priority to USUN, and to London and Paris.


29. Action Memorandum From Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Mulcahy) and Director of Policy Planning (Lord) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, June 27, 1975

Lord and Mulcahy transmitted a major review of U.S. Africa policy and recommended that Secretary of State Kissinger hold an analytical staff meeting to discuss the attached paper. Kissinger approved the recommendation.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 326, Department of State, Policy Planning History Project, Vol. 9, Additional Papers: African and East Asian Affairs, 1973-75. Secret. Drafted by Willard de Pree (S/P) and John Blane (AF); cleared in INR, PM, IO, and EB. The Agency for International Development (AID) drafted a dissent to this paper and it is published as an attachment as Tab 1. A memorandum from Administrator of AID Daniel Parker to Lord is published as Tab 2. Kissinger initialed his approval on July 7. No record of an analytical staff meeting was found.


30. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 19, 1975

Secretary of State Kissinger and members of the Congressional Black Caucus discussed U.S. policy toward Africa. Caucus members asked for more U.S. attention to the region.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 274, Memoranda of Conversations, Chronological File. Limited Official Use; Nodis. Drafted by Howard T. Robinson (H), cleared by Ambassador Charles James (AF). The paper referred to by Congressman Rangel can be found in Howard University, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Manuscript Department, Charles Diggs Papers, Box 345, Folder 49.