Horn of Africa


77. Telegram 45 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, January 2, 1973, 1533Z

Ambassador Ross Adair provided his views on the impact of the possible closing of the U.S. military facility at Kagnew Station in Asmara, Ethiopia.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, DEF 19-1 US-ETH. Secret; Immediate; Stadis; Exdis; Noforn. Repeated to Asmara.


78. Telegram 782 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, January 22, 1973, 1418Z

Chargé d'Affaires Parker W. Wyman reported on the implications for U.S. policy of the Somali threat to Ethiopia. He recommended immediate U.S. assistance to Ethiopia.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, ETH-SOMALIA. Secret; Priority. Repeated to Bonn, London, Mogadiscio, Moscow, Nairobi, Paris, Rome, Tel Aviv, USCINCEUR, and Asmara. The Airgram was sent from the Embassy as A-13 on January 24. (Ibid., RG 84, Addis Ababa Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 121, POL-DCM, MAP Level 1973)


79. Airgram A-23 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, February 7, 1973

Three embassy political officers dissented from the analysis in Document 78 and recommended against additional U.S. military assistance for Ethiopia.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Addis Ababa Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 121, POL-DCM, MAP Level 1973. Secret. Drafted by Bazil Brown, Daniel Waterman, and Edward Marcott on February 6. Cleared by DCM Parker W. Wyman.


80. Telegram 22877 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Ethiopia, February 7, 1973, 0010Z

An interagency response to Document 78 found general agreement with its analysis, but concluded that the Somali threat was not imminent and that the United States should not be the keeper of the peace in the Horn of Africa.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL ETH-US. Secret. Repeated to Bonn, London, Mogadiscio, Moscow, Nairobi, Paris, Rome, Tel Aviv, Asmara, and USCINCEUR. Drafted by Melone; cleared by AF/E, EUR/SOV, PM/ISO, DOD/ISA, AF/RA, and PM/MAS; approved by Newsom.


81. Telegram 2197 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, February 24, 1973, 0940Z

Ambassador Adair reported that Prime Minister Teshafi Aklilu Abte-Wold made an insistent plea for U.S. military support and a request for a meeting between Emperor Haile Selassie and President Nixon.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL ETH-US. Secret; Priority. Repeated to Asmara and Mogadiscio.


82. Telegram 43589 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Ethiopia, March 9, 1973, 1505Z

A preliminary interagency response to Embassy requests discouraged both an Ethiopian delegation visit to Washington and an official visit by the Emperor, but offered to pursue a business meeting for the Emperor with President Nixon.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL ETH-US. Secret. Repeated to Addis Ababa, Mogadiscio, Nairobi, Asmara, and USCINCEUR. Drafted by Melone on March 2; cleared by S/CPR, AF/RA, White House, PM/MAS, OSD/ISA, S/S, and AF/E; approved by Newsom.


83. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, April 4, 1973

Assistant Secretary Newsom and Ethiopian Ambassador Kifle Wodajo discussed the status of the Emperor's request for a meeting with President Nixon and limitations on U.S. military assistance for Ethiopia.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 13 ETH. Confidential. Drafted by Melone; cleared by Newsom.


84. Memorandum From Fernando Rondon of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, April 11, 1973

Rondon summarized recent developments in the Horn of Africa and recommended that Kissinger approve an attached NSSM to review U.S. interests and policy options. Kissinger approved the NSSM.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-200, NSSM 184. Secret. Sent for action. Cleared by Kennedy, Saunders, and Hyland. Kissinger initialed his approval. On the first page, Kissinger wrote: ”Brent-Send out the NSSM in usual way-Pres. is too preoccupied now. I would like to review Kagnew decision.” An attached handwritten note from Scowcroft to Kennedy reads: ”NSSM is approved for State/DOD coordination and issue. Note HAK wants to review the Kagnew decision. Why not crank that into the NSSM-if it could become an issue?" Tab I, Suggested memorandum for the President, with proposed NSSM request for approval, is not published.


85. Letter From the Deputy Secretary of Defense (Clement) to the Deputy Secretary of State (Rush), Washington, April 17, 1973

Clement informed Rush that budgetary constraints compelled the Defense Department to phase out Kagnew Station earlier than previously projected.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-200, NSSM 184. Secret


86. Briefing Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Newsom) to the Deputy Secretary of State (Rush), Washington, April 28, 1973

Newsom expressed reservations about the early closing of Kagnew Station because of its negative impact on U.S.-Ethiopian relations, and suggested phasing out withdrawal over a longer period of time.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, DEF 15-10 ETH-US. Secret. Drafted by Melone and Newsom on April 27; cleared by AF/E and AF/RS. Copies were sent to P, T, and PM.


87. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon, Washington, May 10, 1973

[3 pages not declassified in time for publication.]

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1027, Presidential/HAK Memcons, April-November 1973. Secret; Nodis. 3 pages not declassified in time for publication.


88. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, May 15, 1973, 11:03-12:13 p.m.

Nixon and Haile Selassie discussed the threat to Ethiopia and the prospect for U.S. assistance.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1027, Presidential/HAK Memcons, April-November 1973. Secret; Nodis. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House. In a separate meeting later that day, Acting Secretary of State Kenneth Rush informed the Emperor that the future of Kagnew Station was under review, although this reflected no change in U.S. relations with Ethiopia. (Memorandum of Conversation, May 15; ibid., RG 59, Central Files, 1970-73, POL 7 ETH)


89. National Security Study Memorandum 184, Washington, May 24, 1973

Kissinger notified the Departments of State and Defense and the CIA that President Nixon had directed a review of U.S. interests and policy options in the Horn of Africa. The directive was prompted by the continued U.S. presence at Kagnew Station and prospective problems over the succession to Haile Selassie.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-200, NSSM 184. Secret. A Copy was sent to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. NSSM 115, issued January 25, 1971, also concerned the Horn of Africa, but did not result in a NSDM. NSSM 115 is published in Foreign Relations Documents on Africa, 1969-1972. ( Document 309)


90. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, June 11, 1973

Assistant Secretary Newsom and Somali Ambassador Addou discussed the Somali-Ethiopian conflict and a desire for better U.S.-Somali relations.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 32-1 ETH-SOMALI. Confidential. Drafted in AF/E by Bruce Rogers; cleared by AF/E and Newsom.


91. Study Prepared by the Ad Hoc Inter-Departmental Regional Group for Africa, Washington, July 6, 1973

Prepared in response to NSSM 184, the paper presented an in-depth analysis of the Horn of Africa with policy options for the U.S.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-200, NSSM 184. Secret. NSSM 184 is published as Document 89. The Annexes are not published.


92. Minutes of Senior Review Group Meeting, Washington, July 25, 1973, 3:17-4:02 p.m

The Senior Review Group met to discuss the NSSM 184 study and to consider the future of Kagnew Station and military assistance to Ethiopia.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 305, National Security Council, Committees and Panels, Senior Review Group, March-July 1973. Secret. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room. Walters' briefing was not attached. The second draft of the follow-up study requested from the meeting is located in the National Archives, RG 59, AF/E Files: Lot 78 D 155, NSSM 184.


93. National Security Decision Memorandum 231, Washington, August 14, 1973

The NSDM directed the Departments of State and Defense to review U.S. military assistance to Ethiopia, ensuring that it was at or above the level requested for FY 1974, and directed the Department of State to inform Haile Selassie of U.S. intentions regarding Kagnew Station.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 305, National Security Council, Committees and Panels, Senior Review Group, March-July 1973. Secret. Copies were sent to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Director of Central Intelligence.


94. Telegram 181336 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Ethiopia, September 12, 1973, 2048Z

The Department instructed Ambassador Adair to inform Haile Selassie of the U.S. intention to withdraw most activity from Kagnew Station by the end of FY 1974, and provided guidance regarding the decision.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 736, Country Files, Africa, Ethiopia, Vol. II. Secret; Exdis. Also sent to Asmara and London. Repeated to CINCEUR, NAVCOMMSTA Asmara, CINCUSNAVEUR, CINCPAC Honolulu, and CINCPACFLT. Drafted by LTC. William Step (DOD/ISA) and Coote; cleared by AF/E, EUR/NE, PM/ISO, PM/PA, AF/RA, PM/ISP, S/S, and Kissinger; approved by Ross (AF).


95. Telegram 10832 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, September 17, 1973, 1213Z

Chargé d'Affaires Wyman reported on the reaction of Haile Selassie to the news conveyed by Wyman as instructed in telegram 181336 ( Document 94).

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Addis Ababa Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 121, Kagnew. Secret; Immediate; Limdis. Repeated Immediate to London and Asmara and to CINCEUR, NACCOMMSTA, CINCUSNAVEUR, CINCPAC Honolulu, and CINCPACFLT. Drafted and approved by Wyman.


96. Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting, Washington, October 19, 1973, 12:35 p.m

Secretary of State Kissinger and his staff discussed the planned visit of Haile Selassie to Moscow and options for a U.S. response.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's Staff Meetings, 1973-1977, Entry 5177, Box 10, Secretary's Staff Meetings. Secret. Newsom's Briefing Memorandum to Kissinger, October 19, included INR's assessment of Ethiopia and Somalia. (Ibid., Central Files1970-73, POL ETH-US)


97. Telegram 12831 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, November 10, 1973, 0801Z

Ambassador Adair reported that Assistant Secretary of State Newsom did not inform Haile Selassie of Kissinger's recommendation to the President that the United States provide Sidewinders to Ethiopia. Adair, with Newsom's concurrence, urged that the recommendation go forward.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 736, Country Files, Africa, Ethiopia Vol. II. Secret. Also sent to USCINCEUR. Newsom sent Kissinger an Action Memorandum recommending a Presidential Determination to extend credits to Ethiopia for the purpose of providing Sidewinders on November 20. (Ibid., Central Files, 1970-73, POL ETH-US)


98. Telegram 2432 From the Embassy in Sudan to the Department of State, November 11, 1973, 1120Z

Assistant Secretary of State Newsom reported on meetings with the Ethiopian Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, who repeated concerns about security and inadequate U.S. assistance. Newsom proposed six possible U.S. actions in response.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 736, Country Files, Africa, Ethiopia, Vol. II. Secret. Repeated to Mogadiscio.


99. Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting, Washington, January 7, 1974

Assistant Secretary of State Newsom discussed the sale of Sidewinder missiles to Ethiopia and suggested providing other weapons systems that did not require Congressional notification.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's Staff Meetings, 1973-1977, Entry 5177, Box 5, Secretary's Staff Meetings. Secret.


100. Intelligence Note RAAN-2 Prepared in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, January 14, 1974

The Intelligence Note analyzed Ethiopia's search for arms suppliers in a period of Soviet support to Somalia and uncertain prospects for U.S. military aid.

Source: Department of State, INR/IL Historical Files, Box 14, Ethiopia 1974-79. Secret; No Foreign Dissem. Drafted by Reid, cleared by Summ, and released by Mark.


101. Memorandum From Harold Horan and Richard T. Kennedy of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, February 22, 1974

Horan and Kennedy informed Kissinger of the need to make an urgent decision about Haile Selassie's May 1973 request for military assistance.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 736, Country Files, Africa, Ethiopia Vol. II. Secret. Sent for information. A handwritten notation next to the word "Information" reads: ”Urgent.” A handwritten note, dated February 23, on White House notepaper under the initials RCM was attached to the document and reads: ”Mtg w/Sec for clrnc. Scowcroft has seen and been briefed as to Horan concurrence.” Tab A, telegram 1859 from Addis Ababa, February 19, is not published.


102. Intelligence Note RAAN-9 Prepared by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, February 27, 1974

INR provided initial intelligence on the mutinies within the Ethiopian armed forces and its implications both for the Government of Ethiopia and for U.S.-Ethiopian relations.

Source: Department of State, INR/IL Historical Files, Box 14, Ethiopia 1974-79. Secret; No Foreign Dissem; Controlled Dissem; No Dissem abroad. Drafted by Reid


103. Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting, Washington, March 7, 1974, 3:10 p.m.

Assistant Secretary Easum and Secretary of State Kissinger discussed the change of Government in Ethiopia and options for U.S. military assistance.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's Staff Meetings, 1973-1977, Entry 5177, Box 2, Secretary's Staff Meetings. Secret.


104. Telegram 47999 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Ethiopia, March 9, 1974, 1755Z

The Departments of State and Defense concurred in instructing the Embassy to discuss the U.S. military assistance program with the new Ethiopian Government.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1974. Confidential; Priority. Repeated Priority to USCINCEUR. Drafted by KEELEY; cleared by DSAA, J5, ISA/SA, DOD/ISA, NSC, S/S, AF/RA, PM, and AF/E; and approved by Easum.


105. Telegram 3234 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, March 22, 1974, 1504Z

Chargé d'Affaires Wyman reviewed the relative merits of four options for U.S. military assistance, and recommended that the maximum assistance possible be provided.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Addis Ababa Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 121, MAP Level 1974. Secret. Repeated to Mogadiscio, Asmara, and USCINCEUR. Drafted and approved by Wyman; cleared by MAAG, POL, DAO.


106. Telegram 4228 From the Embassy in Ethiopia to the Department of State, April 17, 1974, 1225Z

Chargé d'Affaires Wyman informed the Department of the Ethiopian Prime Minister's emergency request for military equipment far beyond current levels of assistance, and discussed how the U.S. response would affect bilateral relations.

Source: National Archives, RG 84, Addis Ababa Embassy Files: Lot 77 F 121, MAP Level 1974. Secret; Immediate; Exdis. Repeated to Mogadiscio, Moscow, Sanaa, and USCINCEUR. Drafted and approved by Wyman; cleared by MAAG, POL, and DAO.