The study examined policy differences, failures of communication, and other concerns in U.S. relations with Nigeria.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, AF/W Files: Lot 77 D 84, POL 2-A, Political Relations: US/Nigeria. Secret; No Foreign Dissem; Controlled Dissem. Drafted by Clarke, cleared by Mark, and approved by Summ. The 29-page study is not published.
201. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Pickering) to the President’s Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft)
Pickering explained that difficulties in arranging a meeting between President Nixon and Chairman Gowon may have been contrived by Nigerian officials for their own purposes, and recommended that every consideration by given to Nixon’s receiving Gowon on October 6.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970–73, POL 7 Nigeria. Confidential. Drafted by John Loughran and Alan McKee (AF/W), redrafted by George Ward, cleared by Rudolf Aggrey (AF/W) and Ross. The three attachments were attached, but are not published.
Newsom noted the failure to agree on a date and time for the Nixon-Gowon meeting and strongly supported making some accommodation with the Nigerians.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger’s Staff Meetings, 1973–1977, Entry 5177, Box 1, Secretary’s Staff Meetings. Secret.
Ambassador Reinhardt reported that hawks within the Nigerian Government would use the failure of Chairman Gowon to obtain a meeting with Nixon as a point on which to harden relations with the United States.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1973. Confidential.
204. Briefing Memorandum From the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Ross) to Secretary of State Kissinger
Ross analyzed possibilities for approaching the Nigerian Government on cooperation in foreign aid, military support, and economic participation.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, AF/W Files: Lot 77 D 84, POL 2-A, Political Relations: US/Nigeria. Secret. Drafted by Kent Steinkamp (AF/W); cleared by Julius Katz (EB), and Robert Sherwood (AF/W); and Blake
Secretary of State Kissinger and Commissioner Arikpo reviewed the status of U.S.-Nigerian relations and other African issues in the United Nations.
Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 272, Memoranda of Conversations. Secret; Nodis. The meeting took place in the Secretary’s Suite at the Waldorf Hotel, during the Secretary’s trip to the United Nations. The Byrd Amendment exempted Rhodesian chrome and other metals from U.S. import restrictions imposed in support of a UN boycott against the Government of Rhodesia. (Congress and the Nation, Vol. IV, pp. 831, 857) Ford extended an invitation to Gowon for a State Visit in 1975 in telegram 255295 to Lagos, November 19. (Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 5, Nigeria, State Department Telegrams from SECSTATE)
206. Briefing Memorandum From the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (Hyland) to Secretary of State Kissinger
Hyland outlined Nigerian concerns with U.S. abstention on International Bank for Reconstruction and Development loans to Nigeria and other issues, and noted that Nigeria could reduce bilateral ties, including U.S. access to Nigerian oil.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975, P830114–1446. Secret; NODIS. Drafted by William B. Young (INR/RAA).
207. Action Memorandum From the Acting Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Mulcahy) to Secretary of State Kissinger
Mulcahy proposed a program to improve U.S.-Nigerian relations, with four principal recommendations: create a Joint U.S.-Nigeria Commission, stage a conference of American businessmen and Nigerian officials, signal appreciation of Nigeria as a friendly OPEC member, and agree to a diplomatic campaign of closer bilateral relations. Kissinger approved the recommendations with some reservations.
Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 202, Geopolitical Files, Nigeria, January-August 75. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by Howard K. Walker (AF/W); cleared in INR, S/P, NEA, EB/FSE, EB/ODF, EB/OT/GCP, and EB/IFD/OIA. On April 2, Kissinger initialed disapproval of recommendation 1, with the handwritten notation: “in a low key way,” approval of recommendation 2, and approval of recommendation 3A, with the handwritten notation: “in a thoughtful way.” He left recommendation 3B blank, but added a handwritten notation: “Let’s wait.” He also left recommendation 3C blank. He initialed approval of recommendation 4A, with the handwritten notation: “I want to see Nigerian Amb to start all this off.” He disapproved recommendation 4B, and approved recommendations 4C and 4D. He left recommendation 4E blank, but added the handwritten notation: “Let’s do case by case.”
208. Briefing Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs (Reinhardt) to Secretary of State Kissinger
Reinhardt evaluated Nigeria’s new leader, Murtala Muhammed, following a July 28 coup. He recommended avoiding close ties to the new regime but sending an economic/commercial mission to Nigeria.
Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 202, Geopolitical Files, Nigeria, January-August 75. Secret. Drafted by Reinhardt without clearances
209. Memorandum From Robert T. Hormats of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft)
Hormats warned that the Treasury Department would attempt to end all IBRD loans to Nigeria because of its oil wealth. He favored such loans because of Nigeria’s importance to U.S. policy in Africa and relations with the developing world in general.
Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 5, Nigeria. Confidential. Sent for information. Scowcroft initialed the memorandum. Attachment Tab A is attached but not published
The telegram transmitted an action memorandum with background information on the February 13 failed coup attempt in Nigeria and options and recommended for maintaining positive U.S.-Nigerian relations.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976. Limited Official Use; Priority. Drafted by Edward W. Lollis and Thomas W.M. Smith (AF/W), cleared in S/S, approved by Schaufele. There is no record of Kissinger’s response to the recommendations.
Kissinger responded to Simon’s letter of February 6 by maintaining his support for IBRD loans to Nigeria. He said the benefits gained by opposing the loans were small and doubtful, while the costs of deteriorating bilateral relations were likely to be significant and unnecessary.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976, P760031–2274. Confidential. On February 6, Simon wrote Kissinger that with $5 billion in foreign exchange reserves, Nigeria did not need three IRBD loans totalling $84 million. (Ibid., P760031–2277)
Ambassador Easum explained Nigeria’s motives for canceling Secretary of State Kissinger’s visit to Nigeria. He indicated that security concerns were the primary reason, although Nigeria’s wish to maintain distance from the United States was also a factor.
Source: Department of State, Lagos Embassy Files: Lot 79 F 43, ORG-POL-3, Henry Kissinger, Pending Visit. Confidential; Immediate; Exdis. Drafted by DCM Olivers S. Crosby, cleared by Robert L. Bruce of the Political Section, approved by Ambassador Donald B. Easum.
Ambassador Easum indicated that the Nigerian leadership had undoubtedly communicated to other governments its skepticism about the motives of Kissinger’s trip, but he expected the Lusaka speech to improve Nigeria’s attitude toward U.S. Africa policy.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976. Secret; Niact Immediate; NODIS.
The telegram reported that Secretary of State Kissinger and Kenyan Ambassador Garba discussed U.S.-Nigerian relations, Eastern and Southern Africa, Angola, and Guyana. Garba said Nigeria wanted to “normalize” relations with the United States.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976. Confidential; Exdis. Drafted by Thomas W.M. Smith (AF/W), cleared in S, approved by Schaufele.
Ambassador Easum reported that a foreign ministry official told him that Nigeria could not accept a visit from Kissinger on his upcoming trip to Africa. Easum commented that the continued xenophobic atmosphere in Nigeria influenced the decision.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976. Secret; Immediate; Nodis.
Kissinger, traveling in Tanzania, said that after a second Nigerian rejection of his proposed visit, he could not give the impression of a normal relationship between the two countries.
Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1976. Secret; Immediate; Nodis. Repeated to the Department.