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Zaire


257. Telegram 1093 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, February 9, 1973, 1645Z

Ambassador Vance reported that despite Zairez's initiatives with communist governments in Guinea and the Peoples Republic of China, it had not changed its basic policy toward the United States.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL PORT-ZAIRE. Secret. Repeated to Lisbon, Luanda, Brussels, London, and Paris.


258. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, October 10, 1973, 10:30 a.m

During President Nixon and Secretary Kissinger's meeting with President Mobutu, they discussed world issues and bilateral relations with Zaire, including minerals trading and PL-480 assistance.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1027, Presidential/HAK Memcons, April-November 1973. Secret. The meeting took place in the Oval Office of the White House. Kissinger had met with Mobutu on October 3, in New York, during the UN General Assembly, and previewed the issues discussed here. (Memoranda of Conversation, October 3; ibid., Box 746, Country Files, Africa, Zaire, Vol. I)


259. Memorandum for the Record, Washington, February 1, 1974

[Source: Department of State, INR/IL Historical Files, Box 11, AF/CIA Meetings 1974-76. Secret. 3 pages not declassified


260. Memorandum From the Director of Central African Affairs (Cohen) to the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Easum), Washington, February 22, 1974

Cohen presented options for the sale of M-16 rifles to Zaire, including the need to consider possible Portuguese opposition to such sales.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, AF/I Files: Lot 75 D 420, MC Cases - Zaire 1974/3. Secret. Sent for action. Drafted by Robert Strand (AF/C). Recommendation 1 was neither approved nor disapproved. Easum initialed his approval of recommendation 2 on February 25.


261. Telegram 1948 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, March 4, 1974, 1508Z

Ambassador Vance strongly recommended to Assistant Secretary Easum that the United States approve the sale of M-16s to Zaire.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Papers of Sheldon B. Vance, 1967-1976, Box 4, TELS - Amb. Vance - 1974. Secret; Priority; Eyes Only. Drafted by DCM Michael H. Newlin; cleared by Col. Neilond, DAO, Col. Mallet, Zamish; and approved by Vance.


262. Official-Informal Letter From the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Easum) to the Ambassador to Zaire (Vance), Washington, March 6, 1974

Easum indicated that a decision on the sale of M-16s to Zaire would be deferred until after the completion of negotiations with Portugal on an assistance package.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, AF/C Files: Lot 76 D 464, POL ZAIRE, Official-Informal. Secret; Eyes Only. Drafted on March 5 by Robert R. Strand (AF/C), and cleared by Cohen. This copy did not bear Easum's signature.


263. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, August 13, 1974

Secretary Kissinger and Zaire State Commissioner for Foreign Affairs Umba-di-Lutete discussed bilateral relations, and Umba appealed for U.S. support of Holden Roberto, leader of Angola's FNLA liberation movement.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1974, P820097-1210. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by Walter L. Cutler (AF/C). The meeting took place at the Department of State on August 12 at 6:10 p.m.


264. Telegram 196820 From the Department of State to the Commander-in-Chief of United States Forces in Europe, September 12, 1974, 0012Z

Washington informed the Embassy that the U.S. Government had authorized the sale of M-16s to Morocco and was now prepared to authorize a cash sale to Zaire.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1974. Secret; Exdis. Drafted by Strand (AF/C), cleared by Cutler (AF/C), and approved by John W. Foley, Jr. (AF). This telegram is a repeat of a cable of the same number sent September 7 to Kinshasa. The original was not found. Kinshasa 7585, mentioned in para. 4, discusses the possibility of persuading Mobutu to oppose a UN vote on accepting Khmer Rouge as Camobdia's representatives to the UN. (Ibid.)


265. Official-Informal Letter From the Director of Central African Affairs (Cutler) to the Ambassador to Zaire (Hinton), Washington, October 25, 1974

Cutler informed Hinton of the status of negotiations between the Departments of State and Defense on military assistance to Zaire.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, AF/C Files: Lot 76 D 464, Admin Zaire (K) 7. Secret; Official-Informal. The letter is an unsigned copy and the enclosure is not attached.


266. Telegram 258756 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Zaire, November 22, 1974, 2343Z

The Embassy was instructed to tell the Government of Zaire of U.S. willingness to send a military technical advisory team.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1974. Confidential. Repeated to USCINCEUR, CINCUSAFE, CINCUSAREUR, and CINCUSNAVEUR. Drafted by Mullen (OASD/ISA) and Strand (AF/C); cleared in ISA/SA, DSAA/FMS, JS/J-5, USAF/XOXX-EN, OASD/ISA(AF), PM, and Navy, approved by Mulcahy (AF).


267. Telegram 562 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, January 21, 1975, 1313Z

Ambassador Hinton reported on a speech by President Mobutu critical of U.S. Africa policy in general and the nomination of Nathaniel Davis as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs in particular.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential; Immediate


268. Telegram 15843 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Zaire, January 23, 1975, 0210Z

The Department instructed Ambassador Hinton to tell President Mobutu directly that his comments about the Davis nomination were an improper interference in U.S. domestic affairs.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential; Immediate; Exdis. Drafted by Mulcahy, cleared in M, and approved by Kissinger.


269. Telegram 641 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, January 23, 1975, 1000Z

Ambassador Hinton explained that were he to carry out instructions in telegram 15843 (Document 268, he might face expulsion from Zaire. He added that his reaction had most likely reached President Mobutu through his aides.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential; Immediate; Exdis. Maurice Tempelsman was a diamond merchant with business interests in Zaire. In telegram 683 from Kinshasa, January 24, the Embassy reported that Tempelsman concluded from his meeting with Mobutu that the latter knew he had made a mistake in criticizing the Davis appointment. (Ibid.)


270. Telegram 1494 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Departments of State and Defense, and the Army Chief of Staff, February 20, 1975, 0958Z

Ambassador Hinton reported on a meeting with President Mobutu to discuss Zaire's defense problems and the need for U.S. military assistance.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential, Limdis.


271. Memorandum From the Chief of the U.S. Military Technical Advisory Team (Rockwell) and the Acting Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Mulcahy), Washington, March 7, 1975

In his cover memorandum to the MTAT report, Rockwell noted that preparation of the report was seen by Zaire as prima facie evidence that the United States had decided to increase military assistance to Zaire. He strongly recommended that the United States take tangible steps toward such assistance.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975, P820143-2376. Confidential; Noforn. Also sent to the Office of the JCS and OASD/ISA. The report was not attached, but a copy is located ibid., AF/C Files: Lot 77 D 411, DEF 19-9-1 ZAIRE (K) 8, Advisory Team 1975. A sanitized version of the report was prepared in French for the GOZ. (Memorandum for the Director, Joint Staff, March 25; Washington National Records Center, OASD/ISA Files, 330-78-0038, Box 26, Zaire)


272. Telegram 5166 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, June 13, 1975, 1230Z

Ambassador Hinton reported on a rumored coup attempt against President Mobutu, speculation of alleged U.S. involvement, and several arrests in Zaire.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential; Priority. Repeated to Dar Es Salaam, Lusaka, Bujumbura, Luanda, Paris, Brussels, Pretoria, London, Libreville, and Nairobi.


273. Minutes of the Secretary of State's Staff Meeting, Washington, June 16, 1975

Secretary Kissinger and Deputy Assistant Secretary Mulcahy discussed President Mobutu's allegations that Ambassador Hinton was involved in the planned coup against him.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Transcripts of Secretary of State Kissinger's Staff Meetings, 1973-1977, Entry 5177, Box 7, Secretary's Staff Meetings. Secret.


274. Telegram 5398 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, June 18, 1975, 2020Z

Ambassador Hinton reported that he had been instructed by Zaire Foreign Minister Bula to leave Zaire.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential; Immediate; LIMDIS.


275. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, June 18, 1975

Secreretary Kissinger and his staff discussed deteriorating U.S. relations with Zaire and its impact on developments in Angola, as well as the need to send a high-level representative to talk directly to President Mobutu.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975, P770089-0492. Secret; Sensitive. The meeting took place in the Secretary's office


276. Letter From Secretary of State Kissinger to Zairian President Mobutu, Washington, June 18, 1975

Secretary Kissinger expressed his belief that allegations of U.S. involvement in a plot against President Mobutu was a result of a misunderstanding between the United States and Zaire, and proposed sending former Ambassador to Zaire Sheldon Vance to Kinshasa for consultations.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, CL 257, Geopolitical Files, Zaire, August 74-June 75. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Cutler, cleared in S and by Mulcahy.


277. Action Memorandum From the Acting Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Mulcahy) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, June 20, 1975

Mulcahy reminded Kissinger that President Mobutu had accepted the offer to send Ambassador Vance and Director Cutler to Kinshasa to discuss coup allegations and Angola, and presented U.S. goals for the discussions.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, CL 257, Geopolitical Files, Zaire, August 74-June 75. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Cutler on June 19.


278. Telegram 5605 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, June 23, 1975, 1550Z

Ambassador Vance in Kinshasa reported to Secretary Kissinger on his first meeting with Mobutu and their discussion about coup allegations and Angola.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Secret; Niact Immediate; Nodis; Cherokee. In telegram 5619 from Kinshasa, June 23, Vance provided details from Mobutu about the alleged involvement of the United States in the coup plot. (Ibid.) Vance then held two more meetings with Mobutu, as reported in telegram 5641 from Kinshasa, June 24 (ibid.), and telegram 5775 from Kinshasa, June 26. (Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, Box 7, Zaire, State Department Telegrams to SECSTATE - NODIS, 8/9/74-7/31/75)


279. Action Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Davis) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, July 3, 1975

Davis presented Kissinger with background, recommendations and options, for a U.S. assistance package to Zaire. Kissinger initialed his approval of several recommendations.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, CL 257, Geopolitical Files, Zaire, 12 July 1975. Confidential. Drafted by Robert B. Duncan (AF/EPS), cleared in EB, AID, E, and Vance. Kissinger initialed his approval of the following recommendations on July 5: to urge Mobutu to accept an IMF stabilization program; to authorize Congressional consultations; and to call Treasury Secretary Simon. Under intervention with EXIM, Deputy Secretary Robert Ingersoll's name is handwritten next to “Will call,” and handwritten below in parenthesis is “Ingersoll will call (President of the Ex-Im Bank William) Casey.” The options under “Proposed Implementation of Your Decisions” were left blank. The attachments cited are not published. Tab 1 was dated July 3 and Tab 2 was dated July 2.


280. Memorandum From Secretary of State Kissinger to President Ford, Washington, undated

Kissinger recommended that the President approve a budget amendment providing for an increase in assistance to Zaire. The attachment offered a political justification for the increase.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa, 1974-77, Box 7, Zaire (1). Confidential. Sent for action. The attachment is not published. A notation on the top of the first page reads: “The President has seen.” The President approved the amendment on July 19. (Memorandum from Connor to Kissinger and Lynn, July 19; ibid.)


281. Telegram 6877 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, July 24, 1975, 1335Z

Ambassador Vance summarized his discussion with President Mobutu regarding military assistance. Vance added that Mobutu did not regard offered U.S. assistance as adequate to the situation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Joseph Sisco, 1951-1976, Entry 5405, Box 22, Angola. Secret; Niact Immediate; Nodis; Cherokee.


282. Action Memorandum From the Acting Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Mulcahy) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, August 28, 1975

Mulcahy offered four options for gaining approval of the $20 million aid package for Zaire. Kissinger chose to have Assistant Secretary Sisco or INR Director Hyland speak to Senate leaders to dissuade them from holding hearings.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Papers of Sheldon B. Vance, 1967-1976, Box 2, Zaire, 1974-76. Confidential. Drafted by Robert Duncan (AF/EPS), cleared in H, PM/SAS, DA/AID, EB/ODF, and Vance. The recommendation “Have someone else contact above” was checked and dated September 11, with a handwritten note that reads, “HK (illegible) Sisco.” Tab 1, Letters to Senators Humphrey and Clark, Tab 2, Talking Points for use with Senators Humphrey, Clark, and Inouye and Congressman Passman, and Tab 4, H interim response to Senators Humphrey and Clark, were not attached. Tab 3, Letter from Senators Humphrey and Clark, August 1 was attached, but is not published.


283. Memorandum From Clinton E. Granger of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, September 8, 1975

Granger presented Kissinger with two recommendations concerning increased military assistance levels for Zaire. Deputy National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft approved both recommendations.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Presidential Country Files for Africa 1975-77, Box 7, Zaire (1). Confidential. Sent for action. The handwritten initials “RCM” (probably Rogers Morton) initialed for Granger. Brent Scowcroft initialed approval of both recommendations for Kissinger


284. Telegram 8559 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Departments of State and Defense, September 22, 1975, 1800Z

During a meeting with President Mobutu, Ambassador Vance presented two copies of a French version of the Rockwell Report.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Policy Files, 1975. Confidential. Repeated to CINCEUR.


285. Briefing Memorandum From the Acting Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Mulcahy) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, October 7, 1975

Mulcahy offered a strategy for discussing U.S. assistance to Zaire at a Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing on October 10.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, CL 257, Geopolitical Files, Zaire, August-November 1975. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Cutler, cleared by Vance.


286. Telegram 9078 From the Embassy in Zaire to the Department of State, October 11, 1975, 0955Z

Chargé Walker transmitted an assessment by the Embassy's political and economic reporting officers regarding U.S. policy in Zaire and Angola. They noted that Mobutu's interests were not entirely congruent with U.S. interests and cautioned against being drawn too deeply into the Angolan conflict.

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box CL 257, Geopolitical Files, Zaire, August-November 1975. Secret; Priority; Nodis; Cherokee.