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Index

Note: References are to document numbers.

  • Abrams, Gen. Creighton W., 58, 90, 101, 186, 261, 270, 321
    • Appointment to command position, 150, 189
    • Bombing of DRV, 337, 338
    • Clifford's assessment of, 302
    • Communist insurgency, 157, 157, 159, 302, 316, 328, 340
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 35, 156
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Assessment of, 159, 160
      • CIA-DOD briefing for Johnson, 162
      • Civilianization program, 302
      • Free World forces, 160
      • MACV Forward headquarters, 60
      • Morale of troops, 156
      • Presentation to Wise Men re, 156, 157
      • Tactical defeat, potential for, 156
      • Tour of duty extensions, 156
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 62, 157, 159, 302
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 68
    • Vann's assessment of, 290
    • Wise Men's reassessment of U.S. policy, 156, 157, 158
  • Acheson, Dean G., 125, 135, 155, 157, 158
  • Agnew, Spiro, 186, 327
  • Aiken, George, 109
  • Albert, Carl, 22, 35, 254
  • Algard, Ole, 66, 291
  • Allen, George, 41
  • Anderson, Robert, 234
  • Anh Ba, 6
  • An Ngoc Ho, 245
  • Antwerp contact, 277
  • ANZUS Council meeting, 183
  • Arends, Leslie, 254
  • Armstrong, Oscar, 75
  • Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). See Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN).
  • Ashmore, Harry, 184
  • Aspen peace initiative, 66
  • Aubrac, Raymond, 15
  • Au Ngoc Ho, 294
  • Australia, 253
  • Ayub Khan, Mohammad, 176, 200
  • Baggs, William, 184
  • Bailey, Charles, 47
  • Ball, George, 39, 155, 157, 158, 164, 209, 222, 282, 293, 333
  • Bates, William, 39, 142, 196, 254
  • Battle, Lucius D., 26
  • Berard, Armand, 81
  • Berger, Samuel R., 176, 261, 274, 277, 298
  • Binsberg, Gen., 43
  • Bo. See Mai Van Bo.
  • Bogdan, Cornelieu, 5, 9, 18, 71, 203
  • Boggs, Hale, 22, 35, 254, 339
  • Bogomolov, Sergei, 240, 246, 273, 286, 300, 322
  • Bohlen, Charles E., 81, 143, 185, 214, 265, 272, 279, 295, 316
  • Bolton, Francis, 254
  • Bombing of DRV (see also Bombing subheadings under Paris peace talks):
    • Aircraft losses, 59
    • Bombing between 19 and 20th parallels during peace talks, 226, 232, 233, 241, 248, 249, 252, 253, 255, 259, 261, 301
    • Cessation on unilateral basis, proposals for, 308, 312, 313, 314, 315, 324, 327
      • Abrams' argument against, 338
      • Harriman's assessment of failure to halt bombing, 336
      • Johnson's conversation with Humphrey re, 330
      • Johnson's rejection of, 316, 318, 321, 332, 338, 339
    • Cessation's effect on Communist conduct of war, 331, 337
    • Clifford Task Force recommendations, 103
    • Deferrals of strikes, 3
    • Democratic presidential platform position re, 339, 345
    • Effectiveness of bombing, PSAC report on, 251
    • Eisenhower's assessment of, 20
    • Financial costs associated with, 308
    • Hanoi-Haiphong targets, 59, 74, 86, 97
    • Infiltration into RVN, impact on, 337
    • Johnson's briefing for Nixon re, 310
    • Linkage of bombing to level of Communist violence, proposed, 319
    • Pause during winter of 1965–1966, 310
    • Peace talks site determination and, 216
    • Restriction on bombing announced March 31, 141, 147, 149, 152, 153, 163, 168, 169
    • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel if peace talks failed, 242, 243, 244, 248, 249, 256, 260
    • Saigon attacks by Communists, possible responses to, 205, 258
    • Soviet ships hit by bombs, 10
    • Thanh Hoa attack, 172, 173
  • Bonesteel, Gen. Charles, 198
  • Bow, Frank, 39
  • Bowles, Chester, 14, 142, 216
  • Boyd, Alan, 177
  • Boyd, Forrest, 47
  • Bradley, Gen. Omar, 155, 157, 158
  • Brandon, Henry, 58
  • Brezhnev, Leonid, 280
  • Brown, Lt. Gen. George S., 220, 337
  • Brown, Maj. Gen. Grover, 220, 321
  • Brown, Harold, 35, 126, 150, 340
  • Brown, Winthrop, 226
  • Bruce, David K. E., 246
  • Buchwald, Art, 112
  • Bui Diem, 140, 189, 234, 235, 294, 325
  • Bunche, Ralph, 81, 199, 200
  • Bundy, McGeorge, 39, 146, 147, 149, 155, 157, 158, 310
  • Bundy, William P., 5, 17, 24, 75, 81, 87, 92, 103, 113, 137, 140, 143, 155, 157, 158, 165, 167, 182, 189, 198, 213, 233, 254, 277, 278, 283, 288, 293, 294, 304, 312, 316, 325
    • Bombing of DRV, 141, 147, 149, 248, 255, 337
    • Honolulu Conference, 294
    • Johnson's March 31 speech, 147, 149, 163
    • Packers peace initiative, 8, 9
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Ashmore-Baggs mission to DRV, 184
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation on, 189
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 188
      • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates, 225, 227, 279
      • Mutual withdrawal issue, 320
      • Opening statements, 227
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 286
      • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178
      • U.S. delegation for, 232
    • Peace talks site determination, 190, 191
      • Bucharest option, 203, 214
      • DRV-U.S. private discussions re, proposed, 214
      • Neutral party to propose site, 203, 214
      • Paris option, 203, 214
      • Pressure on U.S. to agree to site, 214
      • Tehran option, 214
      • Thant's involvement, 214
      • U.S. requirements for acceptable site, 203
      • U.S. site proposals, 189, 201
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 89
    • Vance's possible visit to Vietnam, 70
  • Bunker, Ellsworth, 43, 50, 120, 143, 176, 237, 304, 321, 337
    • Bombing of DRV, 97, 137, 145, 165, 170, 248, 258
    • Communist insurgency, 14, 53, 82, 107, 245, 228, 235, 245, 302
    • Government of RVN:
      • Coup threat, 138
      • Factionalism within, 124
      • 1967 developments, 11
      • 1968 prospects, 25
      • Personnel changes, 138, 189, 235, 245
      • Thieu-Ky relationship, 25, 117, 138, 189
      • Thieu's leadership, 124
      • U.S. dissatisfaction with GVN performance, 138
      • U.S. covert support for, 343, 344
    • Honolulu Conference, 287
    • Johnson's March 31 speech, 170
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 28
    • Military program in Vietnam, 11, 77, 97, 124, 189, 249
    • Negotiation issue, 8, 97, 139
    • NLF offer to disband in return for government participation (Antwerp contact), 277
    • NLF recruitment, 124
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 228, 235
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 264, 265
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation on, 189
      • Informal meetings, initiation of, 264
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 189
      • Political settlement in the South issue, 292
      • RVN apprehensions re, 186, 189, 207, 235
      • RVN participation, 194, 207
      • Thieu's assessment of, 245
      • U.S. delegation for, 232
    • Peace talks site determination, 216
    • Press coverage of Vietnam, 11
    • Republic of Vietnam (RVN):
      • Coalition government, 14
      • DRV, private contacts with, 325
      • Economic situation, 76, 94
      • Labor unrest, 14
      • Lien Minh political front, 274, 298, 325
      • Martial law, 45
      • National political organization to compete with Communists, 117, 124
      • Pacification program, 82, 94, 117, 124, 189
      • Project Recovery following Tet offensive, 45, 62, 82, 94, 124
      • Self-defense program, 235
      • Tet offensive response, U.S. proposals for, 45, 53, 62
      • Tet offensive's psychological impact, 82
      • Thieu's State of the Union address, 53
      • Thieu's weekly radio speeches, 235
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN):
    • Tet offensive, 53, 62, 76, 82, 88, 94, 107, 189
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 68, 90, 117
    • U.S. personnel reductions in Vietnam, 46
    • Weekly reports, 11, 14, 25, 53, 62, 76, 82, 94, 107, 124, 170, 207, 218, 235, 245, 298
  • Burke, David, 23
  • Burke, John, 52, 75
  • Busby, Horace, 169, 185, 339
  • Buttercup prisoner exchange operation, 6, 36, 70
  • Byrd, Robert, 22, 35, 58, 59, 254
  • Calhoun, John A., 22, 228, 277
  • Califano, Joseph, 35, 89, 111, 186, 339
  • Cambodia:
    • Communist infiltration into RVN from, 97
    • Communist sanctuaries, 14, 82, 316
    • U.S. incursions into, 22, 249
  • Cao Van Vien, Gen., 21, 28, 44, 49, 90, 101, 124, 185, 270, 302, 340
  • Carroll, Gen. Joseph, 220
  • Carver, George A., Jr., 12, 19, 40, 155, 162, 188, 238, 255, 277, 325, 342, 344
  • Cassady, John, 209
  • Ceausescu, Nicolae, 5, 9, 18
  • Celac, Sergiu, 9
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 296
    • Bombing resumption north of 20th parallel should peace talks fail, 248
    • Communist insurgency, 19, 72, 83, 86, 95, 263, 311
    • Government of RVN, 86, 263, 325:
    • DRV defections, 279, 296
    • Lien Minh political front, 274
    • Military program in Vietnam, briefing for Johnson, 162
    • Negotiation issue, 95
    • Order of battle estimates, 202, 220
    • Pacification program, 72
    • Paris peace talks, 175, 263, 311
    • Project Recovery following Tet offensive, 72
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 44, 86
    • Tet offensive, 40, 41, 44, 56, 72, 73, 84
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., possible Communist response to, 95
    • War and Reconstruction Councils, 44
  • Chan. See Nguyen Chan .
  • Chapman, Gen. Leonard, 31, 47, 64, 70, 104, 166, 227, 241, 340
  • Chernyakov, Yuri N., 10
  • China, People's Republic of, 1, 19, 78, 95, 181, 199, 327
  • Chou En-lai, 199
  • Christian, George, 23, 26, 31, 39, 47, 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 70, 74, 91, 104, 105, 113, 120, 121, 130, 142, 147, 149, 150, 157, 158, 160, 167, 172, 178, 185, 186, 187, 189, 191, 205, 216, 222, 225, 226, 227, 232, 233, 243, 249, 253, 261, 279, 282, 293, 304, 308, 316, 333
  • Christian Science Monitor, 333
  • Christopher, Warren, 261
  • Church, Frank, 147
  • Churchill, Winston S., 86,
  • Clarey, Adm. Bernard A., 150, 166
  • Clark, Joseph, 233
  • Clark, Ramsey, 149
  • Clay, Henry, 310
  • Clifford, Clark M., 23, 39, 47, 58, 60, 81, 97, 106, 116, 119, 121, 136, 159, 160, 167, 169, 171, 176, 177, 213, 228, 239, 270, 283, 286, 288, 293, 301, 311, 321, 325, 337, 338
    • Abrams, assessment of, 302
    • Bombing of DRV:
      • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 226, 232, 233, 241, 249, 253, 261
      • Cessation on unilateral basis, proposals for, 314, 324
      • Cessation's effect on Communist conduct of war, 331
      • Effectiveness of bombing, PSAC report on, 251
      • Financial costs associated with, 308
      • Hanoi-Haiphong targets, 59, 86,
      • Linkage of bombing to level of Communist violence, proposed, 319
      • Peace talks site determination and, 216
      • Restriction on bombing announced March 31, 144, 147, 149, 163, 166, 169, 172, 173, 174
      • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel if peace talks failed, 242, 249, 256, 260
      • Saigon attacks by Communists, possible responses to, 205
      • Thanh Hoa attack, 173
    • Bui Diem-Johnson meeting, 140
    • Cambodian sanctuaries, 316
    • Communist insurgency:
    • Confirmation as Secretary of Defense, 27
    • Congressional testimony by administration officials, 65, 232
    • Czechoslovakia, Soviet invasion, 316
    • Honolulu Conference, 294
    • Johnson's March 31 speech, 146, 147, 149, 163
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 185
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Bunker's briefing for Johnson, 189
      • Cambodia, incursions into, 249
      • Ceasefire issue, 185
      • Civilianization program, 302
      • Clifford-Wheeler visit to Vietnam, 261, 287, 302, 304
      • “Close to winning the war” viewpoint, 326
      • Free World forces, 70, 241, 276
      • Friendly fire casualties, 328
      • Helicopter mishap in Saigon, 261
      • “Infeasibility of military victory” viewpoint, 126, 241, 306
      • Landing above DMZ, proposed, 36
      • Offensive operations, 110
      • Public statements by military officials, policy re, 112
      • Reconnaissance flights, 186
      • Strategic guidance, reassessment of, 104
      • Tour of duty extensions, 104
      • U.S. command authority over all Free World forces, proposed, 70
      • Westmoreland's briefings for Johnson, 185, 186
    • Negotiation issue, 27, 66, 142, 333
    • Order of battle estimates, 202
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Assessment of, 238, 328
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 276
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 265
      • Bombing expansion, U.S. threat, 241
      • Congressional involvement, 226
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation re, 189, 249
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 189
      • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates, 225, 227, 253, 279
      • New approaches, Rusk's rejection of, 326
      • Opening statements, 227
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 282, 288, 326
      • Presidential campaign in U.S. and, 333
      • Productivity of talks, U.S. debate re, 243, 278
      • Unity among U.S. participants, need for, 227
      • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178
      • U.S. delegation for, 179, 180, 226, 232
      • U.S. public's support for war and, 242
      • U.S. public stance re, 196
      • Vance's briefing for Johnson and Congressional leaders, 254
    • Peace talks site determination, 187, 191, 196, 204, 212, 216
    • Presidential campaign in U.S., 333
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 187, 205, 302, 304, 328
    • Thieu's proposed visit to U.S., 261
    • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
      • Clifford Task Force recommendations, 86, 92, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 114
      • Composition of units to be deployed, 120, 129
      • Congressional involvement, 105, 142
      • Equipment support, 105
      • Johnson's meetings re, 64, 65, 67, 70, 74, 86, 91, 104, 105, 113, 120, 130, 142
      • Clifford, Clark M.—Continued
      • Troop augmentation by U.S.—Continued
      • Public announcement, 130, 142
      • Rationale for, 64, 70
      • Reserve call-ups, 104, 129, 189
      • Vietnam and non-Vietnam deployments, 130
      • Westmoreland's requests for, 70, 89, 114
      • Wheeler's Vietnam visit re, 67
    • U.S. policy on Vietnam:
      • De-escalation through negotiation, 146, 163
      • Financing reduction, 302
      • Kennedy's proposal for re-evaluation of, 123
      • Peace front, 146
    • Westmoreland's Army Chief of Staff appointment, 151
    • Wise Men's meetings, 142, 155, 157, 158
  • Clifford Task Force, 86, 92, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 114
  • Cline, John, 209
  • Cohen, Wilbur, 177
  • Collingwood, Charles, 185
  • Communist insurgency (see also Khe Sanh campaign; Tet offensive):
  • Congress, U.S.:
    • Anti-war Senators, Johnson's criticism of, 315
    • Bombing restriction announced March 31, 172
    • Clifford's confirmation as Secretary of Defense, 27
    • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution debate, 79, 86, 109, 111, 113
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 35
    • Military program in Vietnam, Johnson's meetings with Congressional leaders re, 22, 338
    • Paris peace talks, 226, 254
    • Peace talks site determination, 196, 217
    • Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 65, 86, 109, 120, 142, 232
    • Testimony by administration officials, 65, 86, 120, 232
    • Tet offensive, 39
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 105, 109, 111, 115, 122, 130, 142
  • Connally, John, 169, 176, 310
  • Cooper, Chester, 327
  • Cooper, John Sherman, 86,, 226
  • Couve de Murville, Maurice, 221
  • Cronkite, Walter, 228
  • Cushman, Gen. Leonard F., 12, 101
  • Czechoslovakia, Soviet invasion, 316, 336
  • Daley, Richard, 123, 146, 169, 176, 215, 333
  • Dam Si Hiem, 245
  • Daniel, Price, 60, 160
  • David, Sid, 47
  • Davidson, Daniel I., 5, 8, 9, 18, 71, 87, 139, 180, 182, 203, 226, 234, 246, 329, 342
  • Davidson, Lt. Gen. Phillip B., 22, 302
  • Davis, Jeanne, 294
  • Davis, Nathaniel, 26
  • Davis, Richard H., 9
  • Dean, Arthur, 155, 157, 158
  • Dean, John Gunther, 203
  • Dean, Sir Patrick, 246
  • Defense Intelligence Agency, 175
  • De Gaulle, Charles, 181
  • Democratic National Convention, 333, 339, 341
  • Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (see also Bombing of DRV ; Communist insurgency; Paris peace talks; Peace talks site determination):
    • GVN's legitimacy, possible acceptance of, 309
    • Leadership divisions, 19
    • Negotiation issue:
      • Aspen peace initiative, 66
      • DRV position, 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 95
      • Italian peace initiative, 87
      • Ohio peace initiative, 66, 71
      • Packers peace initiative, 5, 8, 71
      • Thant's peace initiative, 81
    • NLF, relations with, 19
    • RVN, private contacts with, 325
  • Denney, George, 175, 335, 344
  • DePuy, Maj. Gen. William E., 16, 51, 56, 67, 155, 162, 220
  • Desai, Morarji, 310
  • Diem. See Bui Diem .
  • Dillon, Douglas, 155, 157, 158
  • Diplomatic efforts toward settlement in Vietnam. See Negotiation issue.
  • Dirksen, Everett M., 36, 226, 227, 254, 308, 341
  • Doan Ba Cang, 94, 138
  • Dobrynin, Anatoliy F., 2, 10, 168, 185, 191, 197, 206, 222, 262, 269, 272, 279, 280, 282, 286
  • Dong. See Pham Van Dong .
  • Do Phat Quang, 211
  • D'Orlandi, Giovanni, 87
  • Douglas, Paul, 142
  • Dthlefsen, Maj. Merlyn, 47
  • Duggan, Ervin, 177
  • Duke, Angier Biddle, 198
  • Eaton, Cyrus, 273, 280
  • Eckhardt, Gen. George, 101
  • Edmunds, Col. A. C., 220
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D., 20, 39, 86, 176, 187, 225, 308, 310
  • Ellsworth, Bob, 310
  • Elsey, George M., 324, 326, 328, 340
  • Enthoven, Alain, 90, 100, 144, 202, 302, 337
  • Evans, Allan, 335
  • Ewell, Gen. Julian, 101
  • Fanfani, Amintore, 87
  • Fisher, Adrian, 160
  • Fisher, Roger, 139
  • Ford, Gerald R., 36, 226, 254, 310
  • Forsythe, Maj. Gen., 16, 94, 124, 138
  • Fortas, Abe, 130, 142, 147, 149, 150, 155, 157, 158, 159, 185, 222, 249, 253, 261, 265, 279
  • Foster, William, 160
  • Fowler, Henry, 26, 60, 92, 102, 104, 147, 149, 162, 177, 243
  • France, 221
  • Frankel, Max, 47
  • Freeman, Orville, 149
  • Free World forces in Vietnam. See under Military program in Vietnam.
  • Frei Montalva, Eduardo, 176
  • Fried, Edward, 243
  • Fulbright, J. William, 35, 65, 86, 109, 111, 120, 171, 172, 173, 176, 196, 217, 226, 232, 254
  • Galbraith, John Kenneth, 228
  • Gandhi, Indira, 216, 276, 297
  • Gaud, William, 60
  • Gelb, Leslie, 100
  • Geneva Conference, 2
  • Giap. See Vo Nguyen Giap, Gen.
  • Ginsburgh, Robert N., 54, 108, 231, 242, 275
  • Goldberg, Arthur J., 2, 81, 131, 142, 147, 160, 177, 178, 181, 209
  • Goldstein, Ernest, 177
  • Goodpaster, Gen. Andrew J., 20, 51, 150, 180, 186, 189, 225, 227, 265, 302
  • Gore, Albert, 86,
  • Gorton, John, 189, 253
  • Goulding, Phillip G., 36, 37, 86,, 100, 106, 116, 173, 302, 324, 328
  • Government of RVN (GVN):
    • Coup threat, 138, 263
    • DRV's acceptance of GVN's legitimacy, 309
    • Factionalism within, 124
    • Huong's appointment as Prime Minister, 245
    • Huong's discussion with Komer re, 257
    • Intelligence report on, 263
    • Ky's threat to resign, 261
    • Negotiations, apprehensions re, 97
    • 1967 developments, Bunker's assessment, 11
    • 1968 prospects, Bunker's assessment, 25
    • Personnel changes, 138, 189, 232, 235, 245, 249, 263
    • Post-Tet prospects, 86
    • Stabilization program, 7
    • Thieu-Ky relationship, 25, 117, 138, 189, 279, 298, 325
    • Thieu's leadership, 88, 124, 261
    • U.S. covert support for, 343, 344
    • U.S. dissatisfaction with GVN performance, 138
    • Westmoreland's assessment of, 185
  • Graham, Phil, 176
  • Greene, Fred, 6
  • Gromyko, Andrei, 24, 246
  • Gronouski, John, 203
  • Gruening, Ernest, 172
  • Gwertzman, Bernard, 209
  • Habib, Philip C., 14, 52, 75, 86,, 89, 155, 189, 225, 227, 248, 284, 285, 291, 298, 300, 301, 334
  • Halperin, Morton, 100
  • Hamilton, Ed, 60
  • Harkins, Gen. Paul, 290
  • Harriman, W. Averell, 62, 81, 104, 142, 168, 182, 189, 200, 228, 246, 294, 298, 304, 345
    • Bombing of DRV, 174, 248, 252, 259, 261, 312, 313, 336
    • Communist insurgency, 78, 307, 312
    • Czechoslovakia, Soviet invasion, 336
    • Military program in Vietnam, 185, 189
    • Negotiation issue, 164
    • Italian peace initiative, 87
    • Ohio peace initiative, 71, 342
    • Packers peace initiative, 5, 8, 9, 18, 71
    • Soviet-U.S. cooperation, 164
    • Vatican's peace initiative, 139
    • Thant's peace initiative, 78
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Ashmore-Baggs mission to DRV re, 184
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 276
      • Paris peace talks—Continued
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 265, 273, 280
      • Bombing expansion threat by U.S., 240, 241
      • Demilitarized DMZ, 234
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation, 189
      • DRV troops in RVN, 253
      • Formal talks, course of, 230, 236
      • Informal meetings, initiation of, 240, 247, 252, 271, 273, 280, 281, 282
      • Informal meetings, reports on, 291, 299, 329, 334
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 188, 189
      • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates re, 225, 227, 279
      • Opening statements, 227, 230
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 283, 289, 291, 297, 299, 300, 317, 322
      • Political settlement in the South, 292
      • Productivity of talks, U.S. debate re, 278
      • Restraint by Communist forces, 247, 252, 322
      • Soviet interest in success of talks, 273
      • Soviet-U.S. discussions re, 240, 247, 252, 273, 280, 282, 289, 300, 305, 322
      • Summary report by Harriman and Vance, 312
      • Tho's arrival on behalf of DRV, 259
      • Unilateral bombing cessation strategy, U.S. consideration of, 312, 313
      • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178
      • U.S. delegation for, 179, 180
      • U.S. domestic political situation and, 225
    • Peace talks site determination, 191, 192, 200, 203, 206, 216
    • U.S. policy on Vietnam:
      • De-escalation through negotiation, 210, 219
      • DRV-NLF split, focus on, 279
      • Westmoreland, criticism of, 71
      • Wise Men's meetings, 155, 157, 158
  • Hasluck, Paul, 183
  • Hatfield, Mark, 310
  • Ha Thuc Ky, 62
  • Ha Van Lau, 190, 229, 284, 285, 299, 300, 305, 317, 323, 329, 334
  • Hay, Maj. Gen., 302
  • Hayden, Carl, 39, 149
  • Helms, Richard M., 12, 23, 26, 34, 38, 41, 44, 47, 50, 59, 60, 74, 86, 92, 113, 120, 121, 142, 155, 157, 158, 160, 172, 175, 178, 188, 202, 216, 226, 263, 277, 288, 293, 296, 304, 308, 321, 325, 342
    • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 233, 241
    • Communist insurgency, 19, 67, 220, 232, 282, 311, 316, 333
    • Czechoslovakia, Soviet invasion, 316
    • Government of RVN, 232, 249, 279
    • Military program in Vietnam, 36, 162, 185, 205
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation issue, 276
      • Bombing expansion threat by U.S., 241
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation re, 249, 311
      • Johnson's meeting with Nixon re, 327
      • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates re, 225, 227, 253, 279
      • Mutual withdrawal, 320
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 282
      • Vance's briefing for Johnson, 254
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 16, 67
    • Tet offensive, 36, 39, 72, 84
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 67, 70, 86, 91, 104, 105
  • Henkin, Daniel Z., 324
  • Hickenlooper, Bourke, 86, 109, 111, 226, 254
  • Hill, A. William, 209
  • Hoang Tung, 184
  • Hoang Van Lac, Brig. Gen., 294
  • Ho Chi Minh, 17, 19, 209
  • Hoffman, Burton, 209
  • Holbrooke, Richard C., 234, 291, 329
  • Holloway, Gen. Bruce K., 64
  • Holyoake, Keith, 183
  • Honolulu Conference, 287, 294, 303, 304, 308
  • Hoopes, Townsend, 74, 78, 126, 328
  • Hoover, J. Edgar, 310
  • Hope, Paul, 209
  • Ho Quang Phuoc, 277
  • Horner, Jack, 47, 209
  • Hornig, Donald, 160, 233
  • Houdek, Robert, 213
  • Hudson, David, 88
  • Hughes, Richard, 315
  • Hughes, Thomas L., 1, 41, 48, 56, 185, 194, 195, 236, 243, 259, 321, 335
  • Humphrey, Hubert H., 22, 26, 35, 47, 60, 91, 104, 142, 147, 157, 158, 159, 162, 169, 176, 177, 186, 206, 243, 254, 268, 310, 327, 330, 339, 345
  • Huong. See Tran Van Huong .
  • Hurwitch, Robert, 182, 208, 211, 345
  • Ignatius, Paul, 150, 328, 340
  • Iliescu, Marin, 9
  • India, 81, 216, 276, 282
  • Indonesia, 216, 221
  • International Control Commission (ICC), 299, 301
  • Isham, Heywood, 87
  • Italy, 87
  • Jackson, Henry, 111, 142
  • Javits, Jacob, 310
  • Jessup, Peter, 344
  • Johnson, Gen. Harold K., 31, 47, 64, 86, 90, 105, 136, 150, 166, 225, 226, 227, 233
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. (see also Weekly reports under Bunker, Ellsworth ), 29, 40, 86, 263, 270, 305, 312, 322, 325
    • Anti-war Senators, criticism of, 315
    • Bombing of DRV:
      • Aircraft losses, 59
      • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 226, 232, 233, 241, 248, 249, 253, 259, 261
      • Cessation on unilateral basis proposals, 308, 314, 315, 316, 318, 321, 324, 330, 332, 338, 339
      • Deferrals of strikes, 3
      • Democratic presidential platform position re, 339, 345
      • Effectiveness of bombing, PSAC report on, 251
      • Hanoi-Haiphong targets, 59, 74, 86,
      • Johnson's briefing for Nixon, 310
      • Linkage of bombing to level of Communist violence, proposed, 319
      • Pause during winter of 1965–1966, 310
      • Peace talks site determination and, 216
      • Restriction on bombing announced March 31, 147, 149, 152, 153, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177
      • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel should peace talks fail, 242, 243, 244, 249
      • Saigon attacks by Communists, possible responses to, 205, 258
      • Thanh Hoa attack, 173
    • Bui Diem, meeting with, 140
    • Buttercup prisoner exchange, 36, 70
    • Communist insurgency:
      • Abrams' assessment of, 157, 159
      • Aircraft used in, 60, 64
      • Cambodian sanctuaries, 316
      • Communist bloc support for, 78
      • Fighting ability of troops, 67
      • Future developments, U.S. estimates re, 83
      • Infiltration into RVN, 156, 198, 209, 227, 232, 253
      • Lull in fighting, 321
      • Saigon attacks, 282
      • Second (May) offensive, 222, 226, 232
      • Status in late February, 85
      • Third (August) offensive, 302, 309, 310, 316, 318, 333
    • Congressional testimony by administration officials, 65, 79, 86, 120
    • Dobrynin's meeting with, 168
    • Eisenhower's meeting with, 86,
    • Government of RVN, 232, 249, 279
    • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution debate, 79, 86, 109, 111
    • Honolulu Conference, 294, 303, 304, 308
    • Humphrey, praise for, 177
    • Robert Kennedy's meeting with, 176
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 22, 23, 26, 30, 31, 35, 51, 60, 64, 67, 91, 156, 176
    • Kosygin, correspondence with, 262, 269
    • March 31 speech (see also Restriction on bombing announced March 31 under Bombing of DRV ), 146, 147, 149, 163, 167, 169, 170, 171, 176
    • Military installations tour, 86
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Abrams' appointment to command position, 150, 189
      • Abrams' presentation to Wise Men re, 156, 157
      • Anti-aircraft missiles, 36
      • Bunker's briefing, 189
      • Cambodia, incursions into, 22, 249
      • Ceasefire issue, 282
      • CIA-DOD briefing for Johnson, 162
      • Civilian contractors used in, 91
      • Clifford-Wheeler visit to Vietnam, 302, 304
      • “Close to winning the war” viewpoint, 310
      • Disagreements among commanders re strategy, 26, 31
      • Feint of full-scale landing above DMZ, 36
      • Free World forces, 60, 64, 216, 241
      • Graphic depictions of U.S. strategy, 55
      • Helicopter mishap in Saigon, 261
      • Hospitals and medical personnel, 60
      • “Infeasibility of military victory” viewpoint, 241
      • Johnson's briefing for Nixon, 310
      • Johnson's meetings with Congressional leaders, 22, 338
      • Laos, incursions into, 205
      • Morale of troops, 156
      • Nuclear weapons, possible use of, 51, 176
      • Offensive operations, 101, 110
      • “Protracted effort with few casualties” strategy, 106, 119
      • Reconnaissance flights, 186
      • Rostow's proposed sequence of actions, 108
      • Tactical defeat, potential for, 156
      • Taylor's recommendations, 67
      • Tour of duty extensions, 58, 74, 104, 156
      • U.S. command authority over all Free World forces, proposed, 70
      • Vann's assessment of, 290
      • Westmoreland's briefings, 185, 186
      • Wheeler and Abrams' positive assessment, 159, 160
    • Negotiation issue:
      • DRV position, 4
      • Goldberg's proposal, 131, 142
      • Ohio peace initiative, 66
      • Packers peace initiative, 5, 8, 9, 18, 36
      • Roche's “gimmick” proposal, 17
      • San Antonio formula, 13, 47, 81
      • Soviet-U.S. cooperation, 168, 171
      • Thant's peace initiative, 78, 81,
      • U.K.-Soviet peace initiative, 24
      • Vatican peace initiatives, 118, 333, 341
    • Nixon's meetings with, 308, 310, 327
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Ashmore-Baggs mission to DRV re, 184
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 231, 237, 275, 276
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 262, 265, 267, 268, 295
      • Bombing expansion, U.S. threat, 241
      • Break-up, risk of to preserve talks, Rostow's proposal, 268
      • Briefings for Nixon, 310, 327
      • Briefings for Rockefeller and McCarthy, 266
      • Congressional involvement, 226
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation re, 189, 249, 309
      • DRV offer to initiate talks in response to bombing restriction announced March 31, 175
      • DRV's personal attacks on Johnson, 332
      • Formal talks, reports on, 236
      • Honolulu Conference discussions of, 303, 304
      • Informal meetings, 269, 284, 329
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 189
      • Meetings with U.S. delegates and foreign policy advisers, 225, 227, 253, 279
      • Meeting with Thant, 181
      • Opening statements, 227
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 281, 282, 284, 286, 288, 289, 293, 297, 310, 317, 323
      • Political settlement in the South, 224, 275, 277
      • Presidential campaign in U.S. and, 333
      • Procedural agreement, 229
      • Productivity of talks, U.S. debate re, 243
      • Rostow's proposed outline for talks, 179
      • RVN apprehensions re, 186
      • Separate talks on political and military issues, proposed, 282
      • Unilateral bombing cessation strategy, U.S. consideration, 314
      • Unity among U.S. participants, need for, 217, 227
      • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178
      • U.S. agenda for, 179, 223
      • U.S. delegation for, 179, 186, 187, 226, 232
      • U.S. public stance, 196
      • Vance's briefing, 254
    • Peace talks site determination, 187, 190, 191, 193
      • Administration discussions with Congressional leaders re, 196
      • Alternative sites, 201
      • Bombing of DRV during negotiations, 216
      • Bucharest option, 215
      • Congressional criticism of discussions, 217
      • DRV-U.S. private discussions, proposed, 204, 212, 215, 216
      • Harriman's position, 191
      • Neutral party to propose site, 215
      • Paris site, agreement on, 221
      • Press conference statements, 209
      • Soviet involvement, 191, 197
      • Thant's involvement, 215
      • U.S. requirements for acceptable site, 195
    • Presidential campaign in U.S., 150
      • Democratic National Convention, 333, 339, 341
      • Democratic presidential platform position re bombing of DRV, 339, 345
      • Humphrey-Nixon unanimity re Vietnam, 345
      • Meeting with Robert Kennedy, 176
      • Meeting with Nixon, 310
      • Paris peace talks and, 333
      • Withdrawal from, 169, 209
    • Pueblo crisis, 22, 39, 47
    • Republic of Vietnam (RVN), 62, 298
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 64, 70, 104, 157, 159, 186, 187
    • State of the Union address, 13
    • Tet offensive, 36, 37, 39, 42, 47, 57, 72, 76, 84
    • Thant, meeting with, 181
    • Thieu, correspondence with, 186
    • Thieu, meetings with. See Honolulu Conference above.
    • Thieu's proposed visit to U.S., 261
    • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
      • Clifford Task Force recommendations, 92, 102, 104, 105
      • Composition of units to be deployed, 120, 129
      • Congressional involvement, 105, 130, 142
      • Equipment support, 91, 105
      • Financing for, 121, 156
      • Induction increases, 104
      • Johnson's comments to Robert Kennedy, 176
      • Johnson's decisions, 70, 130
      • Johnson's meetings re, 64, 65, 67, 70, 74, 86, 91, 104, 105, 109, 111, 113, 120, 121, 130, 142
      • McNamara's recommendations, 69
      • Press coverage of administration debate re, 116
      • Public announcement re, 130, 142, 167
      • Rationale for, 64
      • Reserve call-ups, 70, 74, 91, 104, 111, 128, 129
      • Vietnam and non-Vietnam deployments, 130
      • Westmoreland's requests for additional troops, 68, 70, 89, 156
      • Wheeler's trip to Vietnam, 86, 90
    • U.S. policy on Vietnam:
      • Australian support, 253
      • Declaration of war, 64
      • De-escalation through negotiation, 146, 163
      • Disengagement from Vietnam, proposals for, 125
      • Humphrey-Nixon unanimity re, 345
      • Kennedy's proposal for re-evaluation, 123
      • Nitze's refusal to testify before Congress, 133, 150, 156
      • Peace front, 146
      • Personnel reductions in Vietnam, 46
      • Political offensive against policy in U.S., 58
      • Renewal of U.S. public support, proposal for, 161
      • Rostow's proposed sequence of actions, 148
    • Vance's possible visit to Vietnam, 70, 74
    • Westmoreland's appointment as Army Chief of Staff, 150, 151, 250
    • Wheeler's continuance as JCS chairman, 150
    • Wilson, correspondence with, 24
    • Wise Men's meetings, 135, 142, 154, 156, 157
  • Johnson, Vice Adm. Nels, 301
  • Johnson, Tom, 23, 26, 29, 31, 35, 39, 47, 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 67, 70, 74, 91, 104, 105, 113, 120, 121, 130, 142, 147, 156, 157, 158, 162, 167, 172, 177, 178, 181, 185, 186, 189, 205, 216, 226, 227, 232, 233, 253, 254, 261, 265, 279, 282, 293, 308, 310, 316, 327, 333
  • Johnson, U. Alexis, 179, 184
  • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 38, 50, 51, 169, 310, 326
    • Bombing of DRV:
      • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 253
      • Cessation on unilateral basis proposals, 316
      • Effectiveness of bombing, PSAC report on, 251
      • Restriction on bombing announced March 31, 166, 169, 174
      • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel if peace talks failed, 256, 260
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 30, 31, 35
    • Military program in Vietnam, 239, 326
    • Order of battle estimates, 220
    • Paris peace talks, 301
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 64, 70, 74, 96, 239
    • Wheeler's continuance as chairman, 150
  • Jones, James “Jim,” 4, 142, 157, 158, 169, 181, 185, 189, 190, 232, 265, 304, 339
  • Jorden, William J., 49, 140, 147, 148, 180, 201, 225, 227, 275, 279, 291
  • Kaplan, Harold, 226, 275, 291
  • Katzenbach, Nicholas deB., 26, 44, 52, 60, 81, 87, 92, 116, 141, 142, 155, 157, 158, 160, 175, 176, 185, 188, 189, 233, 248, 296, 287, 297, 312, 325
    • Bombing of DRV, 10, 172, 174, 177, 253
    • Communist insurgency, 253, 282
    • Military program in Vietnam, 98, 185, 186
    • Negotiation issue, 8, 10
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 276
      • Johnson's meetings re, 225, 227, 253, 279
      • Mutual withdrawal, 320
      • Opening statements, 227
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 282, 283, 289, 293
      • Political settlement in the South, 292
      • Productivity of talks, U.S. debate re, 243
      • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178, 182
      • Vance's briefing for Johnson and Congressional leaders, 254
    • Peace talks site determination, 182, 191, 195, 196, 199
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 89
    • U.S. policy on Vietnam, 253, 279
  • Kaul, T. N., 199
  • Keeney, Spurgeon, 160
  • Kelly, George, 87
  • Kennedy, Edward M. “Ted,” 23, 26, 31, 156, 172, 176, 339
  • Kennedy, John F., 176
  • Kennedy, Robert F., 111, 123, 146, 149, 150, 156, 176, 206, 226, 228, 242, 264, 273, 310
  • Kerwin, Maj. Gen., 270
  • Keyserling, Leon, 149
  • Khang. See Le Nguyen Khang, Gen.
  • Khe Sanh campaign, 36, 83, 156, 157, 279
    • Attacks on Khe Sanh, 22, 54
    • Communist troop strength, 64, 67
    • Dien Bien Phu analogy, 51
    • Johnson's meetings re, 23, 26, 31, 35
    • Lang Vei evacuation, 60, 61
    • Operation Pegasus, 176
    • Significance for U.S., 60
    • Thieu's assessment of, 28
    • U.S. offensive actions, 91
    • U.S. reinforcement capability, 51, 64
    • U.S. reinforcement of Khe Sanh prior to attack, 12
    • Walt's assessment of, 61
    • Westmoreland's assessment of, 30, 185
  • King, Martin Luther, Jr., 150, 185
  • Kissinger, Henry, 15, 139
  • Knowland, William, 86,
  • Komer, Robert W., 16, 45, 62, 68, 94, 138, 143, 189, 245, 257, 258, 298, 302
  • Kopytin, Aleksandr, 293
  • Korea, Republic of, 39, 65, 70, 216, 276
  • Kosygin, Alexei N., 2, 24, 78, 168, 171, 200, 262, 264, 265, 267, 268, 269, 272, 273, 280, 295, 297, 320
  • Krim, Arthur, 169
  • Krulak, Lt. Gen. Victor, 198
  • Kuznetsov, Vasily, 268
  • Ky. See Nguyen Cao Ky .
  • Laird, Melvin, 254
  • Lang, William, 21
  • Lansdale, Edward, 88, 277
  • Laos, 97, 205, 320
  • Lapham, Lewis, 40
  • Lau. See Ha Van Lau .
  • Lausche, Frank John, 86,
  • Le Duc Tho, 259, 271, 273, 275, 285, 291, 327, 328, 329, 334
  • Le Ngoc Chan, 194
  • Le Nguyen Khang, Gen., 101, 302, 340
  • Leonhart, William, 7, 23, 226, 320
  • Le Van Kim, Gen., 185
  • Le Van Thu, 245
  • Levison, Larry, 339
  • Lien Minh political front, 274, 298, 325, 343, 344
  • Lincoln, Abraham, 70
  • Lindquist, Robert, 183
  • Lindsay, John, 146
  • Livesay, R. Eugene, 328, 340
  • Loan. See Nguyen Ngoc Loan, Gen.
  • Loc. See Nguyen Van Loc .
  • Locke, Eugene, 7
  • Lodge, Henry Cabot, 39, 65, 76, 106, 119, 151, 155, 157, 158
  • Long, Russell, 22, 35
  • Luong The Sieu, 245
  • Macovescu, George, 5, 8, 9, 18, 71
  • Macy, John, 177
  • Maguire, Charles, 177
  • Mahon, George, 39, 121, 142, 254
  • Mai Thi Vang, 6
  • Mai Tho Truyen, 62
  • Mai Van Bo, 1, 4, 15, 104, 199, 291
  • Malik, Yakov, 199
  • Manac'h, Etienne, 1, 234
  • Manatos, Mike, 35, 177
  • Manescu, Corneliu, 212, 215
  • Mansfield, Mike, 22, 35, 71, 86,, 109, 111, 172, 173, 176, 226, 227, 254, 308, 316
  • Marcovich, Herbert, 15
  • Marcy, Carl, 173
  • Marder, Murrey, 18
  • Marks, Leonard, 26, 60, 160, 177, 243, 253
  • Marshall, Gen. George C., 86,
  • Maurer, Ion, 5
  • McAuliffe, Col. D. P., 220
  • McCain, Adm. John S., 189, 198, 301, 337
  • McCarthy, Eugene, 86, 123, 156, 178, 228, 266, 309, 310, 330, 333
  • McCloy, John, 155
  • McConnell, Gen. John P., 31, 47, 155, 166, 243, 301, 321, 328, 340
  • McCormack, John, 22, 35, 226, 254
  • McGill, Ralph E., 78
  • McGovern, George, 172
  • McGrory, Mary, 209
  • McManaway, Clay, 257
  • McNamara, Robert S., 16, 31, 35, 39, 40, 46, 51, 167, 189, 310
    • Australian support for U.S. policy, 253
    • Bombing of DRV, 3, 59, 74, 253
    • Communist insurgency, aircraft used in, 60
    • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution debate, 79, 86
    • Johnson's March 31 speech, 176
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 12, 22, 23, 60, 64, 67
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Anti-aircraft missiles, 36
      • Ceasefire, 253
      • Civilian contractors used in, 69, 91
      • Disagreements among commanders re strategy, 26
      • Landing above DMZ, possible, 36
      • Free World forces, 64
      • Hospitals and medical personnel, 60
      • Nuclear weapons, possible use, 176
      • Tet holiday truce, 21
      • Tour of duty extensions, 74
      • U.S. command authority over all Free World forces, proposed, 70
    • Packers peace initiative, 8
    • Paris peace talks, 253
    • Political offensive against U.S. policy, 58
    • Refugee and medical care programs, 23
    • RVNAF mobilization, 64
    • Tet offensive, 36, 37
    • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
      • Clifford Task Force recommendations, 92
      • Equipment support, 91
      • Johnson's meetings re, 64, 65, 67, 70, 74, 91
      • Recommendations, 69, 70
      • Reserve call-ups, 70, 74, 91
      • Westmoreland's requests for additional troops, 89
      • Wheeler's trip to Vietnam, 86
    • Vance's possible visit to Vietnam, 74
    • Westmoreland's Army Chief of Staff appointment, 151
  • McPherson, Harry C., Jr., 42, 65, 89, 142, 146, 147, 149, 152, 159, 162, 163, 167, 172, 185, 290, 304, 309
  • Mehlert, Calvin, 88
  • Michalowski, Jerzy, 171
  • Micunovic, Veljko, 171
  • Military program in Vietnam (see also Bombing of DRV ; Khe Sanh campaign; Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces; Tet offensive; Troop augmentation by U.S.):
    • Abrams' appointment to command position, 150, 189
    • Abrams' presentation to Wise Men re, 156, 157
    • Anti-aircraft missiles, 36
    • Bunker's briefing for Johnson, 189
    • Cambodia, incursions into, 22, 249
    • Cambodia and Laos infiltration routes, focus on, 97
    • Ceasefire issue, 144, 185, 253, 282
    • Chemical weapons, possible use of, 51
    • CIA-DOD briefing for Johnson, 162
    • Civilian contractors used in, 65, 69, 91, 302
    • Clifford-Wheeler visit to Vietnam, 261, 287, 302, 304
    • “Close to winning the war” viewpoint, 310, 326
    • Covert action against DRV, 335
    • Defections by NLF, encouragement of, 279, 296
    • Disagreements among commanders re strategy, 26, 31
    • Eisenhower's assessment of, 20
    • Free World forces, 60, 64, 65, 70, 77, 160, 216, 241, 253, 276
    • Friendly fire casualties, 328
    • Helicopter mishap in Saigon, 261
    • Hospitals and medical personnel, 60
    • “Infeasibility of military victory” viewpoint, 126, 241, 306
    • In-place teams, 335
    • Johnson's briefing for Nixon re, 310
    • Johnson's meetings with Congressional leaders re, 22, 338
    • Landing above DMZ, possible, 36
    • Laos, incursions into, 205
    • MACV Forward headquarters, 60
    • Major Communist offensive, capacity for response to, 239
    • Maritime operations, 335
    • Mining of DRV ports, 108
    • Morale of troops, 156
    • 1967 developments, Bunker's assessment, 11
    • Nuclear weapons, possible use of, 51, 176
    • Offensive operations, 101, 110, 116, 124
    • Operation Delaware/Lam Son 216, 222
    • Political/psychological actions, 7, 335
    • “Protracted effort with few casualties” strategy, 106, 119
    • Public statements by military officials, policy re, 112
    • Reconnaissance flights, 186
    • Rostow's proposed sequence of actions, 108
    • “Search and destroy” operations, 106, 119
    • Soviet response to escalation, 98
    • Strategic guidance, reassessment of, 103, 104
    • Strategic reserve. See Reserve call-ups under Troop augmentation by U.S.
    • Tactical defeat, potential for, 156
    • Taylor's recommendations, 67
    • Tet holiday truce, 21
    • Tour of duty extensions, 58, 64, 74, 104, 156
    • Troop reduction proposals, 301
    • U.S. capacity to respond to military threats elsewhere in world and, 239
    • U.S. command authority over all Free World forces, proposed, 70, 77
    • U.S. strategy, 55
    • Vann's assessment of, 290
    • Westmoreland's advice upon departure from Vietnam, 250
    • Westmoreland's briefings for Johnson, 185, 186
    • Wheeler and Abrams' positive assessment of, 159, 160
  • Mill, John Stuart, 29
  • Mills, Wilbur, 176, 193, 232
  • Momyer, Gen. William H., 23, 30, 35, 90, 172, 173, 176
  • Moor, Dean, 19
  • Moorer, Adm. Thomas H., 31, 47, 64, 301, 340
  • Morgan, Thomas, 35, 254
  • Morse, Wayne, 86, 310
  • Moyers, Bill, 169, 310, 345
  • Mundt, Karl, 86, 111
  • Murphy, Charles, 176, 198, 339
  • Murphy, Robert, 155, 157, 158
  • National Liberation Front (NLF) (see also Communist insurgency):
    • Buttercup prisoner exchange operation, 6
    • Coalition government issue, 14, 20
    • Defections, U.S. policy of encouraging, 279, 296
    • DRV, relations with, 19
    • Intelligence collection concerning, 143
    • Offer to disband in return for participation in government (Antwerp contact), 277
    • Recruitment by, 124
  • National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) No. 328, 143
  • National Security Agency (NSA), 32, 263
  • National Security Council (NSC) meetings, 26, 60, 160, 243
  • Negotiation issue (see also Paris peace talks; Restriction on bombing announced March 31st under Bombing of DRV ):
    • Aspen peace initiative, 66
    • DRV position, 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 95
    • Goldberg's proposal, 131, 142
    • GVN apprehensions, 97
    • Harriman's recommendations, 164
    • Italian peace initiative, 87
    • Ohio peace initiative, 66, 71, 342
    • Packers peace initiative, 5, 8, 9, 18, 36, 71, 104
    • Pennsylvania peace initiative, 15
    • Roche's “gimmick” proposal, 17
    • San Antonio formula. See U.S. position below.
    • Shah of Iran's peace initiative, 104
    • Soviet-U.S. cooperation, 164, 168, 171
    • Thant's peace initiative, 78, 81,
    • U.K.-Soviet peace initiative, 24
    • U.S. position (San Antonio formula), 2, 10, 13, 27, 47, 81, 131
    • Vatican's peace initiatives, 118, 139, 333, 341
  • Negroponte, John, 285, 329, 334
  • Nehru, B. K., 276
  • Nelson, Gaylord, 111, 150
  • Nelson, William, 279
  • Neubert, Joseph W., 18
  • Ne Win, Gen., 310
  • Newsweek, 228
  • New York Times, 60, 112, 116, 200, 202
  • Ngo Minh Loan, 66, 291, 342
  • Nguyen Bao Tri, Gen., 124, 185
  • Nguyen Cao Ky (see also Government of RVN ), 14, 62 [Page 1006]
    • Bombing of DRV, 145, 165
    • Buttercup prisoner exchange operation, 70
    • CIA interview with, 325
    • Clifford-Wheeler visit to Vietnam, 302
    • Communists' third (August) offensive, 302
    • Helicopter mishap in Saigon, 261
    • Honolulu Conference, 287
    • NLF recruitment, 124
    • Paris peace talks, 194, 235
    • Project Recovery following Tet offensive, 45, 62, 72
    • Self-defense program, 235
    • Urban security, 90, 91
    • U.S. financial support for, 343, 344
    • War and Reconstruction Councils, 44
    • Westmoreland's farewell, 270
  • Nguyen Chan, 182, 189, 204, 208, 211, 342
  • Nguyen Dinh Phuong, 285
  • Nguyen Duc Thang, Gen., 16, 44, 101, 124, 189
  • Nguyen Duy Trinh, 1, 4, 5, 24, 66, 185
  • Nguyen Luu Vien, 62, 245
  • Nguyen Minh Vy, 285, 291, 299, 334
  • Nguyen Ngoc Loan, Gen., 36, 54, 60, 235, 261, 270, 340
  • Nguyen Phu Duc, 245
  • Nguyen Thanh Le, 291
  • Nguyen Tho Chan, 66, 185
  • Nguyen Thuong, 189, 190
  • Nguyen Van Chuc, 207
  • Nguyen Van Huong, 124, 344
  • Nguyen Van La, Gen., 16
  • Nguyen Van Loc, 16, 134, 138, 189, 207, 245
  • Nguyen Van Minh, Gen., 261
  • Nguyen Van Sao, 275
  • Nguyen Van Thieu (see also Government of RVN ), 7, 62
    • Bombing of DRV, 137, 145, 165, 170, 248, 255
    • Buttercup prisoner exchange operation, 70
    • Cambodia, Communist forces in, 14
    • CIA interview with, 325
    • Clifford-Wheeler visit to Vietnam, 302
    • Communist offensives, 82, 302
    • Communist propaganda statements, 107
    • Honolulu Conference, 287, 294, 303, 304
    • Johnson, correspondence with, 186
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 28
    • Negotiation issue, 1
    • NLF offer to disband in return for participation in government (Antwerp contact), 277
    • Packers peace initiative, 8
    • Paris peace talks, 186, 189, 194, 235, 245, 270, 302, 303, 304
    • Republic of Vietnam (RVN):
      • Coalition government, 14
      • DRV, private contacts with, 325
      • Lien Minh political front, 274, 298, 325
      • Martial law, 45
      • Pacification program, 124, 189, 263, 302
      • Project Recovery, 45, 94, 124
      • State of the Union address, 53
      • Urban security, 90, 91
      • War and Reconstruction Councils, 44
      • Weekly radio speeches, 235
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 16, 63, 91, 117, 132, 134, 218, 328
    • Tet holiday truce, 21
    • Tet offensive, 53, 62, 94, 107
    • U.S. financial support for, 343, 344
    • U.S. visit (see also Honolulu Conference above), 261, 287
    • Westmoreland's farewell, 270
  • Nguyen Van Tho, 245
  • Nguyen Van Truong, 235
  • Nguyen Van Vy, Gen., 185, 245
  • Nguyen Van Huong, 298
  • Nhur, Paul, 245
  • Nitze, Paul H., 16, 26, 31, 44, 60, 64, 91, 92, 103, 104, 105, 119, 120, 127, 130, 133, 146, 150, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 166, 189, 228, 232, 238, 239, 243, 293, 301, 306, 319, 320, 321, 324, 325, 326, 328, 331, 337, 344
  • Nixon, Richard M., 105, 178, 281, 308, 310, 327, 330, 345
  • Non-Group, 188, 320
  • Norway, 66, 342
  • Noyes, Crosby, 209
  • Noyes, Newbold, 209
  • Noyes, Tommy, 209
  • Nugent, Pat, 149, 176
  • Nugroho, 184
  • Oberemko, Valentin, 240, 273, 280, 322
  • Oberg, J. C. S., 66
  • O'Brien, Lawrence, 35, 161, 177
  • O'Donohue, Daniel, 137
  • Oelhert, Benjamin, 200
  • Ohio peace initiative, 66, 71, 342
  • Ortona, Egidio, 87
  • Pacification program. See under Republic of Vietnam.
  • Packers peace initiative, 5, 8, 9, 18, 36, 71, 104
  • Pahlavi, Muhammed Reza Shah, 104, 214
  • Paine, Thomas, 39, 47
  • Paris peace talks (see also Peace talks site determination):
    • Ashmore-Baggs mission to DRV re, 184
    • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation issue (see also Phase I-Phase II proposal below), 228, 231, 235, 237, 275, 276
    • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 262, 264, 265, 267, 268, 272, 273, 280, 295
    • Bombing expansion threat by U.S., 240, 241
    • Break-up risk in order to preserve talks, Rostow's proposal re, 268
    • Clifford's assessment, 238, 328
    • Congressional involvement, 226
    • Demilitarized DMZ (see also Phase I-Phase II proposal below), 234, 299
    • DRV delegation for, 199, 221, 259
    • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation re, 189, 249, 309, 311
    • DRV offer to initiate talks in response to bombing restriction announced March 31st, 175, 184, 187
    • DRV personal attacks on Johnson, 332
    • DRV troops in RVN issue, 253
    • Formal talks, course of, 230, 326
    • Former presidents' views, 225
    • Honolulu Conference discussions, 303, 304
    • Informal meetings, initiation of, 240, 247, 252, 262, 264, 269, 271, 273, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284
    • Informal meetings, reports on, 285, 291, 299, 323, 329, 334
    • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 188, 189, 232, 289, 297
    • Intelligence reports on, 263
    • Johnson's briefings for Nixon, 310, 327
    • Johnson's briefings for Rockefeller and McCarthy, 266
    • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates, 225, 227, 253, 279
    • Johnson's meeting with Thant, 181
    • Mutual withdrawal, 320
    • New approaches, Rusk's rejection of, 326
    • Opening statements, 227, 230
    • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 291, 293, 297, 299, 300, 301, 305, 310, 317, 322, 323, 326, 334
    • Political settlement in the South, 224, 275, 277, 292
    • Presidential campaign in U.S. and, 263, 333
    • Press coverage of, 243
    • Prisoner of war release arrangements, 300
    • Procedural agreement, 229
    • Productivity of talks, U.S. debate re, 243, 278
    • Restraint by Communist forces, 247, 252, 322
    • Rostow's proposed outline for course of talks, 179
    • RVN apprehensions, 186, 189, 194, 207, 235, 263
    • RVN participation, 194, 207, 334
    • RVN-U.S. consultations, 218
    • RVN-U.S. relations, impact on, 270
    • Separate talks on political and military issues, proposed, 282
    • Soviet interest in success of talks, 273
    • Soviet-U.K. discussions, 246
    • Soviet-U.S. discussions, 240, 247, 252, 273, 280, 281, 282, 286, 289, 300, 305, 322
    • Summary report by Harriman and Vance, 312
    • Thieu's assessment of, 245
    • Thieu's proposed negotiating strategy, 302
    • Unilateral bombing cessation strategy, U.S. consideration of, 312, 313, 314
    • Unity among U.S. participants, need for, 217, 227
    • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178, 182
    • U.S. agenda, 179, 223
    • U.S. delegation, 179, 180, 186, 187, 226, 232
    • U.S. domestic political situation and, 225, 242
    • U.S. gains and losses, 271
    • U.S. public stance re, 196
    • Vance's briefing, 254, 301
    • World opinion re, 253, 271
  • Park Chung Hee, 65, 216, 276
  • Parker, Alan, 307
  • Patterson, Eugene, 78
  • Paul VI, Pope, 18, 171, 215, 216, 282, 333, 341
  • Peace talks site determination, 187, 190
    • Administration discussions with Congressional leaders, 196
    • Bombing of DRV during negotiations, 216
    • Bucharest option, 203, 212, 214, 215
    • Bunker's proposal, 216
    • Chinese involvement, 199
    • Congressional criticism of discussions, 217
    • DRV proposals, 185, 189, 190
    • DRV-U.S. private discussions re, proposed, 204, 206, 208, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216
    • Harriman's position, 191, 192, 200
    • Johnson's explanations of his thinking, 191, 193
    • Johnson's press conference statements on, 209
    • Neutral party to propose site, 203, 214, 215
    • Paris, agreement on, 203, 214, 221
    • Pressure on U.S. to agree to site, 214
    • Soviet involvement, 191, 197, 199, 200, 206
    • Tehran option, 214
    • Thant's involvement, 199, 200, 214, 215
    • U.S. proposals, 182, 189, 200, 201
    • U.S. requirements, 195, 197, 203
  • Peers, Lt. Gen. William R., 101
  • Pennsylvania peace initiative, 15
  • Perritt, Lt. Col. H. H., 162
  • Perry, Jack, 246, 273, 300, 322
  • Petri, Lennart, 66
  • Pham Van Dong, 5, 24, 185
  • Phan Hien, 329, 334
  • Phan Quang Dan, 62, 245, 257
  • Phan Van Su, 87
  • Phap Tri, Thich, 245
  • Pho Quoc Chu, Lt. Col., 261
  • Phoenix program, 279
  • Pierson, DeVier, 123
  • Pope, Cmdr. Daniel K., 31
  • Porter, William, 198
  • Presidential campaign in U.S., 146, 149, 150, 178, 206, 308
    • Democratic National Convention, 333, 339, 341
    • Democratic presidential platform position re bombing of DRV, 339, 345
    • Humphrey-Nixon unanimity re Vietnam, 345
    • Johnson-Kennedy meeting, 176
    • Johnson-Nixon meeting, 310
    • Johnson's willingness to be nominated, 339
    • Johnson's withdrawal from, 169, 209
    • New Hampshire primaries, 123
    • Paris peace talks and, 263, 333
  • President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB), 84
  • President's Science Advisory Board (PSAB), 233
  • President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC), 251
  • Press coverage of Vietnam, 11, 20, 47, 106, 116, 119, 156, 243, 310
  • Prisoners of war, 291, 300, 329
    • Buttercup operation, 6, 36, 70
  • Provisional Reconnaissance Unit (PRU), 143
  • Proxmire, William, 147
  • Pueblo crisis, 22, 39, 47, 310
  • Raimondi, Luigi, 18, 118, 139, 216
  • Rather, Dan, 47
  • Rayburn, Sam, 86,, 176
  • Read, Benjamin H., 15, 132, 182, 200, 232, 233, 265, 271, 283, 293
  • Reagan, Ronald, 178
  • Redmont, Bernard, 4
  • Reilly, Sir Patrick, 246
  • Reischauer, Edwin O., 142
  • Republic of Vietnam (RVN) (see also Government of RVN ):
  • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN):
    • Abrams' assessment, 157, 159
    • Clifford's assessment, 302
    • Communists' third (August) offensive, 340
    • Corruption, 44, 49, 117
    • Improved performance with U.S. support, 67
    • Increased responsibility for conduct of war, 102, 302, 328
    • Ineffective units, 90, 91
    • Information program, 302
    • Intelligence report on, 263
    • Mobilization for, 63, 64, 70, 91, 117, 124, 132, 134, 160, 189, 218, 257, 304
    • Modernization program, 97, 102, 104, 117, 186, 187, 205, 239
    • Reorganization program, 16, 44
    • Saigon defenses, 340
    • Shortages problem, 302
    • Stabilization program, 7
    • Tet offensive, 56, 62, 75, 86, 91, 338
    • U.S. command authority over, proposed, 70, 77
    • Westmoreland's assessment of, 185
  • Reserve call-ups. See under Troop augmentation by U.S.
  • Resor, Stanley, 127, 150
  • Reuss, Henry, 150
  • Reynolds, Frank, 47
  • Ribicoff, Abraham, 150
  • Ridgway, Gen. Matthew B., 47, 70, 142, 155, 156, 157, 158, 164
  • Rivers, L. Mendel, 121, 142, 196
  • Robb, Capt. Charles, 261
  • Roberts, Chalmers, 47, 308, 315
  • Roberts, Gene, 112
  • Roche, John, 17, 177
  • Rockefeller, Nelson, 149, 169, 266, 310
  • Romania. See Packers peace initiative.
  • Rosson, Lt. Gen. William B., 51, 101, 302
  • Rostow, Elspeth, 55
  • Rostow, Walt W., 7, 16, 19, 23, 26, 35, 38, 39, 44, 47, 50, 51, 56, 65, 74, 86, 88, 90, 95, 101, 120, 121, 130, 140, 159, 165, 167, 168, 176, 182, 205, 213, 231, 232, 254, 263, 271, 283, 294, 297, 304, 308
    • Bombing of DRV:
      • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 233, 248, 249, 253, 259
      • Cessation on unilateral basis proposals, 308
      • Cessation's practical effect on Communist conduct of war, 331
      • Hanoi-Haiphong targets, 86,
      • Infiltration into RVN, impact on, 337
      • Peace talks site determination and, 216
      • Restriction on bombing announced March 31, 147, 149, 153, 172
      • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel if peace talks failed, 242
      • Saigon attacks by Communists, possible responses to, 258
      • Thanh Hoa attack, 173
    • Buttercup prisoner exchange operation, 70
    • Communist insurgency, 83, 85, 198, 222, 226, 232, 309, 333
    • Government of RVN, 23, 309, 344
    • Honolulu Conference, 294
    • Johnson's March 31 speech, 147, 149
    • Johnson's meetings with Nixon, 310
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 31, 54, 61, 176
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Bunker's briefing, 189
      • Cambodia, incursions into, 249
      • Landing above DMZ, proposed, 36
      • Mining of DRV ports, 108
      • Offensive operations, 110, 116
      • “Protracted effort with few casualties” strategy, 106
      • Rostow's proposed sequence of actions, 108
      • Tet holiday truce, 21
      • Tour of duty extensions, 64
      • U.S. strategy, 55
      • Westmoreland's briefings, 185, 186
    • Negotiation issue:
      • DRV position, 4
      • Goldberg's proposal, 131
      • Ohio peace initiative, 66
      • Packers peace initiative, 5, 8
      • Roche's “gimmick” proposal, 17
      • Vatican peace initiatives, 118, 333
    • NLF offer to disband in return for participation in RVN government (Antwerp contact), 277
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Ashmore-Baggs mission to DRV re, 184
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 275, 276
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 262, 265, 295
      • Bombing expansion, U.S. threat, 241
      • Break-up risk in order to preserve talks, Rostow's proposal re, 268
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation re, 189, 309
      • Formal talks, reports on, 236
      • Informal meetings, initiation of, 284
      • Informal meetings, reports on, 329
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 289
      • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates, 225, 227, 253, 279
      • Opening statements, 227
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 281, 282, 284, 286, 288, 289, 293
      • Political settlement in the South, 224, 275, 277, 292
      • Rostow's proposed outline for course of talks, 179
      • RVN apprehensions re, 186
      • Soviet-U.S. discussions re, 305
      • Tho's arrival on behalf of DRV, 259
      • Unity among U.S. participants, need for, 217
      • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178
      • U.S. delegation for, 179, 180, 232
      • U.S. domestic political situation and, 225
      • U.S. public stance re, 196
      • U.S. public's support for war and, 242
    • Peace talks site determination, 187, 190
      • Administration discussions with Congressional leaders re, 196
      • Alternative sites, 201
      • Bombing of DRV during site negotiations, 216
      • Bucharest option, 203
      • DRV-U.S. private discussions re, proposed, 204, 212
      • Paris site, agreement on, 221
      • Soviet involvement, 197
      • Thant's involvement, 199
      • U.S. requirements for acceptable site, 195, 197
    • Republic of Vietnam (RVN), 20, 274, 298, 310
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 70, 102
    • Tet offensive, 40, 42, 43, 49, 57, 60, 72
    • Thieu's proposed visit to U.S., 261
    • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
      • Clifford Task Force recommendations, 92, 102, 104, 105
      • Financing for, 102, 128
      • Johnson's meetings re, 64, 67, 70, 86, 91, 104, 105, 113
      • Press coverage of administration debate re, 116
      • Reserve call-ups, 102, 128
      • Rostow's recommendations, 93
      • Westmoreland's requests for, 68, 89
      • U.S. policy on Vietnam:
      • Disengagement proposals, 125
      • DRV-NLF split, focus on, 279
      • Political offensive against policy in U.S., 58
      • Proposed sequence of actions, 148
    • Vance's possible visit to Vietnam, 70
    • Wise Men's meetings, 135, 142, 154, 155, 157, 158
  • Rusk, Dean, 16, 17, 23, 24, 26, 34, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46, 47, 50, 51, 56, 62, 81, 97, 101, 111, 113, 159, 182, 236, 259, 268, 269, 288, 304, 321, 322, 325, 337, 345
    • ANZUS Council meeting, 183
    • Bombing of DRV:
      • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 232, 233, 241, 248, 249, 255, 261
      • Cessation on unilateral basis proposals, 313, 314, 315, 316, 338
      • Hanoi-Haiphong targets, 59, 74, 86,
      • Linkage of bombing to level of Communist violence, proposed, 319
      • Peace talks site determination and, 216
      • Restriction on bombing announced March 31, 137, 141, 145, 147, 149, 153, 165
      • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel if peace talks failed, 248
      • Saigon attacks by Communists, possible responses to, 205
      • Soviet ships hit by bombs, 10
    • Bui Diem-Johnson meeting, 140
    • Buttercup prisoner exchange operation, 6, 36
    • Cambodian sanctuaries, 14, 316
    • Communist insurgency, 48, 6, 307
    • Infiltration into RVN, 227
    • Second (May) offensive, 222, 232
    • Third (August) offensive, 316, 333
    • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution debate, 86,
    • Congressional testimony by administration officials, 65, 86,, 120, 232
    • Czechoslovakia, Soviet invasion, 316
    • Government of RVN, 232, 249, 279
    • Honolulu Conference, 294, 308
    • Johnson-Nixon meetings, 310, 327
    • Johnson's March 31 speech, 147, 149, 163, 176
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 64, 91
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Abrams' presentation to Wise Men, 156
      • Anti-aircraft missiles, 36
      • Bunker's briefing, 189
      • Cambodia, incursions into, 22, 249
      • “Close to winning the war” viewpoint, 326
      • Defections by NLF, encouragement of, 279, 296
      • “Infeasibility of military victory” viewpoint, 241
      • Johnson's meetings with Congressional leaders re, 338
      • Laos, incursions into, 205
      • “Protracted effort with few casualties” strategy, 106
      • Reconnaissance flights, 186
      • Strategic guidance, reassessment of, 104
      • Tour of duty extensions, 58
      • U.S. command authority over all Free World forces, proposed, 70
      • Westmoreland's briefings, 186
    • Negotiation issue:
      • DRV position, 1
      • Goldberg's proposal, 142
      • Harriman's recommendations, 164
      • Italian peace initiative, 87
      • Ohio peace initiative, 71
      • Packers peace initiative, 5, 8, 9, 36, 71, 104
      • Shah of Iran's peace initiative, 104
      • Vatican's peace initiatives, 139, 333
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Ashmore-Baggs mission to DRV re, 184
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 237
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 265
      • Bombing expansion threat by U.S., 241
      • DRV objectives, U.S. speculation re, 189, 249, 311
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 188, 189, 232, 297
      • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates, 225, 227, 279
      • New approaches, Rusk's rejection of, 326
      • Opening statements, 227
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 288, 289, 293, 297, 310
      • Presidential campaign in U.S. and, 333
      • Productivity of talks, U.S. debate re, 278
      • Soviet-U.K. discussions re, 246
      • Unilateral bombing cessation strategy, U.S. consideration of, 312, 313
      • U.S. delegation for, 226, 232
    • Peace talks site determination, 187, 199, 203, 214
      • Bombing of DRV during site negotiations, 216
      • Bucharest option, 215
      • DRV-U.S. private discussions re, proposed, 204, 212, 213, 214, 215
      • Neutral party to propose site, 215
      • Soviet involvement, 197
      • Thant's involvement, 215
      • U.S. requirements for acceptable site, 197
      • U.S. proposals, 200, 201
    • Presidential campaign in U.S., 333, 339
    • Republic of Vietnam (RVN), 52, 298
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 64, 67, 132, 134
    • Tet offensive, 36, 42, 48, 75
    • Thieu's proposed visit to U.S., 261
    • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
      • Clifford Task Force recommendations, 92, 104, 105
      • Congressional involvement, 130, 142
      • Equipment support, 105
      • Induction increases, 104
      • Johnson's meetings re, 64, 65, 67, 70, 74, 86, 91, 104, 105, 130, 142
      • Public announcement re, 130, 142
      • Westmoreland's requests for, 70, 89
      • Wheeler's Vietnam visit re, 67, 86,
    • U.S. policy on Vietnam:
      • ANZUS discussion, 183
      • “A to Z” review, 120
      • Declaration of war issue, 64
      • DRV-NLF split, focus on, 279
    • Vance's possible visit to Vietnam, 74
    • Wise Men's meetings, 142, 155, 156, 157, 158
  • Russell, Richard B., 39, 65, 74, 104, 111, 113, 121, 142, 146, 150, 156, 173, 176, 196, 250, 254, 261
  • Ryan, Gen. John D., 150
  • Sacred Sword Patriotic League (SSPL), 335
  • Saigon attacks. See under Communist insurgency.
  • Saltonstall, Richard, 47
  • San Antonio formula. See U.S. position under Negotiation issue.
  • Saunders, Harold Barefoot, 26, 35, 177
  • Scherer, Ray, 47
  • Schnittker, John, 177
  • Schnyder, Felix, 216
  • Schultze, Charles L., 3
  • Seaborg, Glenn, 160
  • Sea Cabin group, 301
  • Seib, Charles, 209
  • Seignious, Gen. George, 265, 291
  • Seitz, Gen. Richard, 86,, 156
  • Shah of Iran, 104, 214
  • Sharp, Adm. Ulysses S. Grant, 21, 34, 38, 43, 50, 63, 68, 99, 112, 115, 136, 150, 157, 189, 198, 221, 233
  • Sheehan, Neil, 116
  • Shepard, William, 313
  • Shriver, Sergeant, 149, 240, 281, 305
  • Sidle, Gen. Winant, 16, 23, 36, 302
  • Sihanouk, Prince Norodom, 14, 199, 316
  • Sisco, Joseph, 26, 81,, 199
  • Smith, Adm. Abbott, 19, 86, 175
  • Smith, Bromley, 26, 60, 160, 177, 197, 199, 229, 243, 291, 292, 293, 312, 316, 317, 319, 321, 322, 323, 325
  • Smith, Cyrus, 177
  • Smith, Hedrick, 116
  • Smith, Margaret Chase, 39, 142, 196
  • Sorensen, Theodore, 123, 176
  • Soviet Union:
    • Bombing of Soviet ships in DRV ports, 10
    • Communist insurgency, 19, 78
    • Czechoslovakia invasion, 316, 336
    • Military escalation in Vietnam, possible response to, 98
    • Negotiation issue, 10, 24, 164, 168, 171
    • Paris peace talks:
    • Peace talks site determination, 191, 197, 199, 200, 206
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., response to, 95
  • Sparkman, John, 35, 86,, 109, 111
  • Special National Intelligence Estimates, SNIE 53–68, 263
  • Steadman, Richard, 21, 100, 135, 150
  • Stennis, John, 39, 142, 147, 176
  • Stewart, Michael, 241, 246
  • Stillwell, Maj. Gen., 302
  • Stoessel, Walter, 203, 243
  • Sullivan, William H., 199, 205, 216, 226, 228, 246
  • Sutherland, Jack, 47
  • Swank, Emory, 185
  • Sweden, 66
  • Sweet, Charles, 88
  • Symington, W. Stuart, 142, 196
  • Tanner, Henry, 15
  • Taylor, Gen. Maxwell D., 39, 47, 92, 113, 120, 130, 261, 288, 308, 310
    • Bombing of DRV:
      • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 253
      • Cessation on unilateral basis proposals, 316
      • Linkage of bombing level to that of Communist violence, proposed, 319
      • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel if peace talks failed, 244, 249
      • Saigon attacks by Communists, possible responses to, 258
    • Communist insurgency, 67, 253, 316, 321
    • Military program in Vietnam, 104, 185, 249, 253
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation issue, 231
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 267
      • Johnson's meetings with U.S. delegates and foreign policy advisers re, 225, 227, 253, 279
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 282, 285, 286, 293
      • Rostow's proposed outline for course of talks, 179
      • Separate talks on political and military issues, proposed, 282
      • U.S. agenda for, 179, 223
      • U.S. delegation for, 179, 226
    • Tet offensive, 84
    • Troop augmentation by U.S., 67, 70, 91, 104, 105
    • Wise Men's meetings, 155, 157, 158
  • Temple, 304
  • Tet offensive:
    • Battle of the Bulge analogy, 58
    • Bunker's assessment of, 53, 62, 76, 82, 94, 107, 189
    • Casualties, 39, 43, 49, 50, 53, 60, 62, 72, 75, 76, 94
    • CIA Saigon Station report on, 40
    • Communist gains and losses, 72, 88
    • Communist objectives, 41, 48, 50, 62, 88, 91, 107
    • Communist recognition of failure, 57
    • Communist units participating in, 73
    • Eisenhower's assessment of, 310
    • Forewarnings of, 32, 40
    • Intelligence failure by Communists, 72
    • Intelligence failure by U.S. and RVN, 49, 84
    • Intelligence reports on, 41, 72, 73, 84
    • Johnson's meetings re, 36, 39
    • Johnson's press conference on, 47
    • Johnson's speech on, 42
    • “No retreat” instruction to Communist units, 57, 62
    • Propaganda value for Communists, 40, 43, 49, 55
    • Property damage, 62, 76, 82, 94
    • Pueblo crisis and, 39
    • RVNAF, positive effects in, 338
    • RVNAF performance, 56, 62, 75, 91
    • RVN response. See under Republic of Vietnam.
    • Scope and intensity of, 33, 38, 50
    • Second wave attacks, 82, 94
    • Three-phase campaign, 43
    • Uprising by Vietnamese populace, Communist expectation of, 57, 62, 72, 88, 94
    • U.S. appraisals of, 37, 49, 75, 76, 88, 290
    • U.S. Embassy, attack on, 36, 38, 40
    • U.S. public opinion, impact on, 33
    • Westmoreland's reports on, 34, 38, 43, 50, 185
  • Thailand, 70, 328
  • Thang. See Nguyen Duc Thang, Gen.
  • Thanh Le, 275
  • Thant, U, 78, 81, 171, 181, 190, 197, 199, 200, 214, 215, 232, 268
  • Thieu. See Nguyen Van Thieu .
  • Tho. See Le Duc Tho .
  • Thompson, Llewellyn E., Jr., 98, 171, 178, 185, 191, 246, 265, 272, 286, 295
  • 303 Committee, 143, 343, 344
  • Thuy. See Xuan Thuy .
  • Tibbetts, Margaret Joy, 66
  • Tomorowicz, Bohdan, 139
  • Ton That Thien, 245
  • Toon, Malcolm, 10
  • Tower, John, 111
  • Tran Bach Dang, 6
  • Tran Chanh Thanh, 194, 245
  • Tran Kim Phuong, 194
  • Tran Luy, 245
  • Tran Quang Co, 285
  • Tran Quoc Buu, 298, 344
  • Tran Thien Khiem, 245
  • Tran Van An, 62, 124
  • Tran Van Dac, Lt. Col., 228, 245
  • Tran Van Don, 124, 235, 274, 298, 344
  • Tran Van Hai, 270
  • Tran Van Huong, 62, 189, 207, 218, 235, 245, 257, 263, 274, 302
  • Tran Van Tuyen, 62
  • Trinh. See Nguyen Duy Trinh.
  • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
  • Trudeau, Pierre-Elliot, 232
  • Trueheart, William, 335
  • Truman, Harry S, 176, 225
  • Truong, Gen., 302
  • Truong Binh Tong, 6
  • Truong Thai Ton, 245
  • Tuckner, Howard, 156
  • Tydings, Joseph, 111
  • Udall, Stewart, 177
  • Ullman, Richard, 116
  • Unger, Leonard, 203
  • United Kingdom, 24, 246
  • United Nations, 2
  • U.S. policy on Vietnam (see also Bombing of DRV ; Military program in Vietnam; Troop augmentation by U.S.):
    • ANZUS discussion re, 183
    • “A to Z” review, 120, 131
    • Australian support, 253
    • Declaration of war issue, 64
    • De-escalation through negotiation issue, 146, 163, 210, 219
    • Disengagement from Vietnam, proposals for, 109, 111, 125, 158
    • DRV-NLF split, focus on, 279
    • Economic assistance, 257
    • Financing reduction, 302
    • Humphrey-Nixon unanimity re, 345
    • Kennedy's proposal for re-evaluation of, 123
    • Nitze's refusal to testify before Congress, 133, 150, 156
    • Peace front, 146
    • Personnel reductions in Vietnam, 46
    • Political offensive against policy in U.S., 58
    • Public opinion re, 33, 326
    • Refugee and medical care programs, 23
    • Renewal of U.S. public support, O'Brien's proposal for, 161
    • Rostow's proposed sequence of actions, 148
    • Wise Men's meetings re, 135, 142, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
  • Valenti, Jack, 310
  • Vance, Cyrus R., 26, 65, 67, 155, 157, 158, 198, 209, 228, 236, 246, 292, 294, 298, 304
    • Bombing of DRV, 248, 301, 312, 313, 327
    • Communist insurgency, 307e, 312
    • Military program in Vietnam, 253, 301
    • Ohio peace initiative, 342
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation issue, 276
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 265
      • Demilitarized DMZ issue, 234, 299
      • Informal meetings, initiation of, 271, 281, 284
      • Informal meetings, reports on, 285, 291, 299, 323, 329, 334
      • Johnson's briefings for Nixon, 327
      • Johnson's meetings re, 225, 227, 253
      • New approaches, Rusk's rejection of, 326
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 283, 284, 285, 286, 288, 289, 291, 293, 297, 299, 300, 301, 317, 322, 323, 326
      • Procedural agreement, 229
      • Restraint by Communist forces, 322
      • Soviet-U.S. discussions re, 273, 280, 286, 289, 305, 322
      • Summary report by Harriman and Vance, 312
      • Unilateral bombing cessation strategy, U.S. consideration of, 312, 313
      • U.S. delegation for, 179, 186, 187
      • Vance's briefings for, 254, 301
    • Peace talks site determination, 192
    • Vietnam visit, proposed, 70, 74
  • Vann, John Paul, 290
  • Van Van Cua, 261, 270
  • Vatican's peace initiatives, 118, 139, 333, 341
  • Vien. See Cao Van Vien, Gen.
  • Viet Cong. See National Liberation Front (NLF).
  • Vietnam. See Democratic Republic of Vietnam; Republic of Vietnam.
  • Vietnam Alliance of National, Democratic, and Peace Forces, 263
  • Vo Long Trieu, 62
  • Vo Nguyen Giap, Gen., 28, 65, 260
  • Vu Quoc Thuc, 245
  • Vy. See Nguyen Minh Vy .
  • Walker, Lannon, 52
  • Wallace, George, 310
  • Wallner, Woodruff, 203
  • Walsh, John P., 6, 165, 241, 246, 297, 327
  • Walt, Lt. Gen. Lewis, 61, 86,, 301, 324, 328
  • Warnke, Paul, 59, 78, 92, 100, 105, 106, 119, 150, 180, 189, 233, 286, 293, 320, 324, 328, 337, 340
  • Washington Post, 130
  • Washington Star, 209
  • Watson, Marvin, 104, 232, 339
  • Weaver, Robert, 177
  • Welsh, Paul V., 220
  • Westmoreland, Gen. William C., 143, 159, 219, 221, 270, 333
    • Army Chief of Staff appointment, 150, 151, 250
    • Communist insurgency:
      • Saigon attacks, 23
      • Second (May) offensive, 228, 232
      • Status in late February, 85
      • Third (August) offensive, 310, 324, 328, 333, 340
      • Three-phase strategy for early conclusion of war, 63, 68
    • Criticism of, 65, 71
    • Eisenhower's assessment of, 86,
    • Government of RVN, assessment of, 185
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 12, 23, 26, 28, 30, 35, 51, 60, 67, 185
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Briefings for Johnson, 185, 186
      • Cambodia, incursions into, 249
      • Ceasefire issue, 185
      • Chemical weapons, possible use of, 51
      • Civilian contractors used in, 91
      • Disagreements among commanders re strategy, 26
      • Final advice, 250
      • Friendly fire casualties, 328
      • Johnson's meetings with Congressional leaders re, 338
      • MACV Forward headquarters, 60
      • Nuclear weapons, possible use of, 51
      • Offensive operations, 101
      • Public statements by military officials, policy re, 112
      • Reconnaissance flights, 186
      • Tet holiday truce, 21
      • Troop reduction proposals, 301
      • U.S. command authority over all Free World forces, proposed, 77
    • Order of battle estimates, 202
    • Project Recovery following Tet offensive, 45
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 63, 117, 185, 328, 340
    • Tet offensive, 34, 38, 43, 50, 53, 60, 185, 338
    • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
      • Clifford Task Force recommendations, 104, 114
      • Composition of units to be deployed, 115, 122, 136
      • Requests for, 63, 68, 70, 89, 90, 99, 114, 156, 157
      • Resistance in government and the public, 136
      • Wheeler's trip to Vietnam re, 90
  • Weyand, Lt. Gen. Frederick C., 51, 63, 101, 302
  • Wheeler, Gen. Earle G., 16, 40, 44, 50, 92, 101, 103, 113, 121, 225, 226, 239, 293, 301, 308, 310, 325, 337, 338
    • Bombing of DRV:
      • Aircraft losses, 59
      • Bombing between 19th and 20th parallels during peace talks, 232, 233, 241, 249, 253, 261
      • Cessation on unilateral basis proposals, 316
      • Deferrals of strikes, 3
      • Effectiveness of bombing, PSAC report on, 251
      • Hanoi-Haiphong targets, 59, 74, 86,
      • Linkage of bombing to level of Communist violence, proposed, 319
      • Peace talks site determination and, 216
      • Restriction on bombing announced March 31, 144, 166, 172
      • Resumption of bombing north of 20th parallel if peace talks failed, 256, 260
      • Saigon attacks by Communists, possible responses to, 205
    • Communist insurgency:
    • Honolulu Conference, 294
    • JCS Chairman, continuance as, 150
    • Khe Sanh campaign, 156, 157
      • Communist troop strength, 64, 67
      • Johnson's meetings re, 23, 26, 31, 35
      • Significance for U.S., 60
      • U.S. offensive actions, 91
      • U.S. reinforcement capability, 51, 64
      • U.S. reinforcement of Khe Sanh prior to attack, 12
      • Westmoreland's assessment of, 30, 185
    • Military program in Vietnam:
      • Abrams' appointment to command position, 150
      • Abrams' presentation to Wise Men re, 156, 157
      • Anti-aircraft missiles, 36
      • Bunker's briefing for Johnson, 189
      • Cambodia, incursions into, 249
      • Ceasefire issue, 144
      • CIA-DOD briefing for Johnson, 162
      • Civilian contractors used in, 91
      • Clifford-Wheeler visit to Vietnam, 261, 287, 302, 304
      • Disagreements among commanders re strategy, 26, 31
      • Free World forces, 60, 64, 241, 276
      • Helicopter mishap in Saigon, 261
      • Hospitals and medical personnel, 60
      • “Infeasibility of military victory” viewpoint, 241
      • Landing above DMZ, proposed, 36
      • Laos, incursions into, 205
      • Nuclear weapons, possible use of, 51
      • Offensive operations, 110
      • Operation Delaware/Lam Son 216, 222
      • “Protracted effort with few casualties” strategy, 119
      • Public statements by military officials, policy re, 112
      • “Search and destroy” operations, 119
      • Tactical defeat, potential for, 156
      • Tet holiday truce, 21
      • Tour of duty extensions, 58, 64, 74, 104, 156
      • U.S. command authority over all Free World forces, proposed, 70
      • Westmoreland's briefings for Johnson, 185, 186
      • Wheeler and Abrams' positive assessment of, 159, 160
    • Order of battle estimates, 91, 202, 220
    • Paris peace talks:
      • Bombing cessation leading to military de-escalation, 276
      • Bombing cessation to promote breakthrough at talks, Soviet appeal for, 265
      • Bombing expansion threat by U.S., 241
      • Harriman's briefing for Johnson and foreign policy advisers, 279
      • Instructions for U.S. representatives, 189
      • Phase I-Phase II proposal (Zorin proposal), 282
      • U.S. acceptance of DRV offer to initiate talks, 178
      • U.S. delegation for, 186, 232
      • Vance's briefing for Johnson and Congressional leaders, 254
      • Vance's briefing for Johnson and foreign policy advisers, 253
    • Peace talks site determination, 216, 221
    • Press censorship, 119
    • Republic of Vietnam, urban security in, 90, 91, 119
    • Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces (RVNAF/ARVN), 64, 91, 104, 304, 340
    • Tet offensive, 34, 36, 38, 39, 43, 58, 60, 91
    • Troop augmentation by U.S.:
    • U.S. policy on Vietnam:
      • De-escalation through negotiation issue, 210, 219
      • Political offensive against policy in U.S., 58
      • Public opinion re, 326
  • Wise Men's meetings, 142, 156, 157, 158
  • Wilson, Harold, 24, 81,
  • Wilson, Woodrow, 176
  • Wirtz, Willard, 177
  • Wise Men's meetings on U.S. policy, 135, 142, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
  • Xuan Thuy, 199, 221, 230, 234, 236, 243, 253, 259, 271, 281, 284, 291, 329, 334, 336
  • Young, Milton, 39, 142, 254
  • Young, Stephen, 150, 261
  • Zorin, Valerian, 240, 247, 252, 273, 280, 281, 286, 289, 300, 305, 322
  • Zwick, Charles, 46, 162