Learn about the beta
[Page 649]

Index

References are to document numbers

    • Aaron, David L.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 178, 189, 199, 220, 239
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 1, 65
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 116
      • Panamanian political situation, 202
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 260
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 264
    • Acosta Hernandez, Valentin, 163
    • Adams, Brock:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 205
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 89
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 96, 99, 140, 145, 151
    • AFL-CIO, 94
    • Aguilar, Andres, 102
    • Ahumada, Adolpho, 21, 66
    • Albright, Madeleine, 170, 209, 220, 264
    • Alexander, Bill, 18
    • Alexander, Clifford L., Jr.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Consultative Committee meeting, 275
        • Costs of, 211, 221
        • Dolvin memoranda, 212
        • Ratification documents, 172
        • U.S. government organization for, 201, 205
        • U.S.-Panamanian planning, 194, 204, 224
        • White House briefing, 223
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 22, 28, 38, 41, 53, 65
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 144
    • Allen, James B., 7, 60, 104, 146, 148, 149
    • American Convention on Human Rights (San José pact), 102, 176
    • American Legion, 6
    • Andean Pact, 235
    • Anderson, Adm. George W., Jr., 51
    • Anderson, David, 157
    • Anderson, Jack, 22, 54
    • Andrus, Cecil D., 89, 96, 99, 139, 140, 145
    • Aragon, Joseph, 43, 96, 98, 99, 140
    • Argentina, 35
    • Arias, Arnulfo, 179, 183
    • Armacost, Michael, 266
    • Armao, Robert, 261, 265
    • Asao, Shinichiro, 266
    • Askew, Reubin, 266
    • Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Commission, 76
    • Atwood, J. Brian, 208, 221, 237, 243
    • AuCoin, Walter “Les,” 221
    • Baas, Marc, 164
    • Baker, Howard H., Jr.:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 6, 41
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
        • Allen amendment, 149
        • Cabinet discussions, 145
        • Christopher discussions, 133
        • Christopher memoranda, 105, 106
        • DeConcini amendment, 165
        • Linowitz memoranda, 132
        • Senate delegations to Panama, 129
        • Status reports, 124, 148, 151
        • Strategy planning, 137
        • Thomson memoranda, 104
        • Vance memoranda, 109
    • Barkley, Richard C., 22, 55
    • Barletta, Nicolás Ardito, 52, 58, 66, 94, 147
    • Barraclough, William G., 164
    • Bartlett, Dewey F., 152
    • Baucus, Max, 151
    • Bauman, Robert E., 83, 209, 215, 217, 221, 234, 244
    • Bayh, Birch, 146
    • Beckel, Robert G.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 220, 229
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 55, 78
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 124, 138, 143, 149, 151, 158
    • Becker, John P., 22
    • Belize, 240
    • Bell, Griffin B., 89, 96, 99, 140, 205
    • Bell, S. Morey, 9, 21, 32, 49, 55
    • Bellido, Lt. Col., 94
    • Bellmon, Henry L., 41, 53, 151
    • Bennet, Douglas J., Jr.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 208, 221, 232
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 16, 24, 45, 60, 64
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 115, 119, 124
    • Berger, Samuel R., 127
    • Bergland, Robert, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Biden, Joseph R., Jr., 105
    • Bilonick, Ricardo, 39, 198
    • Blake, John, 140
    • Blake, Mel, 265
    • Blum, Barbara, 140
    • Blumenfeld, Michael, 246
    • Blumenthal, W. Michael, 65, 89, 96, 99, 140, 205, 226
    • Bonior, David E., 221
    • Borg, C. Arthur, 24
    • Boston-Panama expropriation case, 102
    • Bourne, Peter, 140
    • Bowdler, William G.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 236, 271
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 259, 260, 262, 267, 268
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 253
      • U.S.-Panamanian post-treaty relations, 274
    • Bowen, David, 215, 217, 221, 223
    • Bowie, Robert R., 65
    • Boyd, Aquilino Edgardo:
      • Resignation of, 13, 14, 16
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee meeting, 15
      • U.S. presidential campaign (1976), 1
      • Vance meetings, 6, 8, 9, 13
    • Brademas, John, 247
    • Bremer, L. Paul, III, 271
    • Brizill, Dorothy A., 81, 127
    • Brooke, Edward W., III, 151
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 169, 171
    • Brooks, Col. Elmer T., 24, 55
    • Broomfield, William, 232
    • Brown, Gen. George S.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 194
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 22
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 89
        • Congressional briefings, 55
        • Joint Chiefs of Staff responses, 93
        • Policy Review Committee discussions, 6
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 10, 26, 40
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 151, 154
      • U.S. policy review, 2, 4, 6, 8
    • Brown, Hallah, 102
    • Brown, Harold:
      • Cuban-Panamanian relations, 11
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 216
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 22, 30, 40, 89, 91, 93
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 234
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 266
      • U.S.-Panamanian post-treaty relations, 274
      • U.S. policy review, 2, 6, 8
    • Brzezinski, Zbigniew K.:
      • Cuban-Panamanian relations, 29
      • Latin American countries, 35, 55, 190
      • Libyan-Panamanian relations, 29
      • Panama Canal operating expenses, 48
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Harold Brown memoranda, 216
        • Carter Panama visit (June 1978), 171, 176, 183
        • Ceremony (Oct. 1979), 239
        • Costs of, 220
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on, 209
        • Legislation for, 206
        • Ratification documents, 182, 184
        • U.S. Board of Directors membership, 254
        • U.S. government organization for, 170, 173, 177, 178, 181, 205, 206, 207
        • U.S.-Panamanian planning, 179, 217, 225
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 20, 23
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 39, 63, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 89, 94
        • Carter communications, 62
        • Congressional legal role in, 50
        • Joint Chiefs of Staff responses, 93
        • National committee proposals, 43
        • Policy Review Committee memoranda, 24
        • Sea-level canal provisions, 84
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 14
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
        • Cabinet discussions, 96, 99, 140, 145
        • Jordan-Galindo discussions, 122
        • Pastor memoranda, 122
        • Pastor Panama visit, 116, 118
        • Sabotage planning, 153
        • Senate delegations to Panama, 119
        • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence investigations, 97
        • Strategy planning, 98, 141, 166
        • U.S.-Panamanian communications, 111, 113
        • U.S.-Venezuelan discussions, 163
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 195, 198, 206, 230, 231, 234, 235
      • Panamanian political situation, 183, 202
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 260, 262, 272
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 84, 264, 266
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 250, 254
      • Soviet-Panamanian relations, 200
      • U.S. investment mission to Panama, 226, 248
      • U.S. policy review, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8
    • Buchanan, John, 232
    • Bunker, Ellsworth:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 157
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23
        • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 27, 28
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round:
          • Carter meetings, 71
          • Christopher memoranda, 38, 44
          • Linowitz memoranda, 36
          • Meeting minutes, 58
          • Policy Review Committee discussions, 65
          • Vance memoranda, 34, 59, 67
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 73, 75, 76, 80, 81, 89
        • Bunker-Linowitz-Reagan meeting, 87
        • Congressional briefings, 41, 53, 55
        • Congressional lobbying strategy, 23, 24
        • Defense Department role in, 30
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee meeting, 83
        • Latin American countries briefings, 31, 55
        • Latin American views of, 35
        • Linowitz appointment, 5, 14
        • National committee proposals, 43
        • Sea-level canal provisions, 64
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 14, 32, 57
        • Vance-Boyd meetings, 9
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
        • Christopher memoranda, 106
        • Galindo meetings, 130
        • Senate delegations to Panama, 129
        • Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings, 115, 116
        • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence investigations, 97, 100
        • U.S.-Panamanian communications, 111
      • U.S. policy review, 3, 6, 8
    • Burdick, Quentin N., 138, 139, 151, 152
    • Burke, Adm. Arleigh A., 51
    • Burns, D., 164
    • Bushnell, John A., 164, 238, 249
    • Butler, Landon, 43, 45, 89, 96, 98, 145, 188
    • Byrd, Harry F., 7, 23, 51
    • Byrd, Robert C.:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 7, 23, 41, 45, 51, 53, 55, 62
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
        • Allen amendment, 148, 149
        • Brown letter to, 150
        • Cabinet discussions, 145
        • Christopher discussions, 133, 146
        • Linowitz memoranda, 132
        • Panama delegation, 119
        • Status reports, 124, 143, 148, 151
        • Strategy planning, 137
        • Thomson memoranda, 104
        • Torrijos correspondence, 125
        • U.S.-Panamanian communications, 103, 116
        • Vance memoranda, 109, 128
      • Soviet-Panamanian relations, 200
    • Cabrera, Jose Maria, 275
    • Califano, Joseph A., Jr., 96, 140, 145, 151
    • Calderón, Jamie Arias, 17, 21, 27, 58, 111
    • Campbell, Alan K., 89, 99, 205
    • Cannon, Howard, 139, 142, 151, 152
    • Carasco, Jorge, 15
    • Carney, Adm. Robert B., 51
    • Carpenter, Lt. Col. William S., 65
    • Carrasco, Jorge, 116
    • Carroll, G. F., 57
    • Carroll, Julian, 131
    • Carswell, Robert, 145
    • Carter, Hodding, III, 24, 30, 52
    • Carter, Hugh, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Carter, James Earl, Jr., (“Jimmy”) (see also Carter-Torrijos correspondence):
      • Panama Canal operating expenses, 48
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Brown memoranda, 216
        • Christopher-Murphy discussions, 218
        • Costs of, 222
        • Hansen amendments, 180
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on, 214, 215, 229
        • Legislation for, Christopher memoranda, 169
        • Panama visit (June 1978), 169, 171, 176, 179, 183
        • Ratification documents, 182, 184
        • Royo correspondence, 224, 245, 255, 263, 269, 277
        • Statement (Sept. 20, 1979), 242
        • Torrijos correspondence, 185, 199, 277
        • U.S. Board of Directors membership, 249, 254, 255
        • U.S. economic aid to Panama and, 169, 189
        • U.S. Government organization for, 169, 188, 206, 207
        • U.S.-Panamanian planning, 169, 175, 217, 224, 225
        • White House briefing, 223
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 18, 19, 20, 23
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round:
          • Brzezinski memoranda, 63, 68,
            70
          • Christopher memoranda, 38, 44
          • Meetings, 71
          • Torrijos correspondence, 68, 72
          • Vance-Lewis Galindo meetings, 54
          • Vance memoranda, 42, 47, 59, 61, 67
          • Welcoming remarks, 39
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977):
          • Bunker-Linowitz memoranda, 75
          • Cabinet discussions, 89
          • Christopher memoranda, 73, 88
          • Jordan-Hyland memoranda, 76, 79
          • Signing ceremony, 85, 86, 90,
            92
          • Torrijos correspondence, 95
          • Torrijos meeting, 94
        • Bunker-Linowitz-Reagan meeting, 87
        • Chiefs of Naval Operations letter, 51
        • Communications to Congress, 62, 78, 82
        • Congressional leadership discussions, 3, 5
        • Congressional legal role in, 50
        • Department of Defense responses, 91
        • Galindo welcome remarks (May 16, 1977), 39
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee meeting, 83
        • Latin American countries briefings, 31
        • National committee proposals, 43
        • News conference (June 30, 1977), 58
        • Torrijos correspondence, 14, 19, 23, 25, 27, 68, 72
        • Torrijos meetings, 66, 94
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 7, 14
        • U.S. presidential campaign (1976), 1
        • Vance memoranda, 33, 69
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 162
        • Allen amendment, 148, 149
        • Brzezinski memoranda, 111
        • Byrd-Torrijos correspondence, 125
        • Cabinet discussions, 96, 99, 140, 145
        • Christopher-Byrd discussions, 133, 146
        • Christopher memoranda, 105, 106, 107
        • DeConcini amendment, 159, 160, 163, 167
        • Dole and Wallop amendments, 158
        • Fireside chat (Feb. 1, 1978), 99
        • Jordan-Galindo discussions, 122
        • Jordan/Pastor-Torrijos meetings, 112
        • Linowitz memoranda, 132
        • Panama plebiscite, 117, 132
        • Pastor Panama visit, 118
        • Phone calls, 142
        • Senate delegations to Panama, 119, 129
        • Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings, 101, 106, 109, 128, 135
        • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence investigations, 97, 100, 148
        • Speech, 134
        • Status reports, 114, 143, 148, 151
        • Strategy planning, 126, 137, 138, 139, 141, 152
        • Thomson memoranda, 104
        • Todman-Torrijos meetings, 103
        • Torrijos correspondence, 110, 117, 118, 121, 155, 158, 168
        • Torrijos discussions, 111, 113, 156, 159
        • Town hall meetings, 126
        • U.S.-Venezuelan discussions, 163
        • Vance-Javits/Ribicoff discussions, 126
        • Vance memoranda, 109, 123, 137
        • Vance speeches, 131
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 196, 206, 228, 231, 234, 235
      • Panamanian public protests, 47
      • Royo correspondence, 224, 245, 251, 252, 255, 263, 269, 277
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 258, 270, 272
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 64, 65, 76, 84, 108, 133, 266
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 218, 250, 251, 252
      • U.S. investment mission to Panama, 224
      • U.S. policy review, 7, 8, 12
      • U.S. presidential campaign (1976), 1
    • Carter administration transition. See U.S. policy review.
    • Carter-Torrijos correspondence:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 185, 199, 277
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 14, 19, 23, 25, 27, 68, 72
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 110, 117, 118, 121, 155, 158, 168
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 250
      • U.S. economic aid to Panama, 72, 189
    • Carter, J. Hodding, III, 30, 52
    • Case, Clifford P., Jr., 15, 41, 53, 105, 109, 115
    • Castro, Fidel (see also Cuban-Panamanian relations), 102, 130, 179
    • Castrodale, Richard, 203
    • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA):
      • Cuban-Panamanian relations, 11
      • Documents not declassified, 37,
        46
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 210
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations,
        66
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 165
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 233
    • Chafee, John, 6, 129
    • Champion, Hale, 89, 99
    • Chester, Geraldeen, 214
    • Chile, 35
    • Chiles, Lawton, 55
    • Chinese-Panamanian relations, 270
    • Christopher, Warren M.:
      • Cuban-Panamanian relations, 29
      • Libyan-Panamanian relations, 29
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Christopher-Stennis-Levin discussions, 237
        • Circular 175 request, 219
        • Costs of, 187, 211
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on, 208, 214
        • Legislation for, 169
        • Murphy discussions, 218
        • Popper memoranda, 244
        • U.S. committee membership,
          246
        • U.S. Government organization for, 169, 186, 191, 201, 273
        • U.S.-Panamanian planning, 169, 191, 224, 236
        • Vance breakfast meeting, 221
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 17
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 38, 44
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 73, 81, 86, 88
        • Carter communications to Congress, 78
        • Latin American countries briefings, 31
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 16
        • Vance-Boyd meetings, 9
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 105, 106, 107
        • Byrd discussions, 133, 146
        • DeConcini amendment, 159, 165, 166, 167
        • Environmental groups statement, 127
        • GSP sugar benefits and, 164
        • Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings, 101, 106, 128, 135
        • Status reports, 143, 151
        • Strategy planning, 137
        • U.S.-Panamanian communications, 111, 125, 136
        • Vance memoranda, 109
        • Vance speeches, 131
      • Panamanian involvement in Belize, 240
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 198, 227, 236
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 267
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 133,
        266
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 218, 250, 253, 261
      • U.S. economic aid to Panama, 73, 169, 191
    • Church, Frank, 55, 105, 109, 115, 159, 200
    • Clark, Richard C., 115
    • Claytor, W. Graham, Jr., 241, 246, 258,
      273
    • Clift, A. Denis, 98, 247
    • Collins, Foster, 66
    • Colombia (see also Latin American countries), 31, 35, 54, 66,
      258
    • Commission on U.S.-Latin American Relations, 5, 12
    • Congress, U.S. (see also Congressional support for Panama Canal treaty negotiations; House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee; Senate Foreign Relations Committee):
      • House Post Office and Civil Service Committee, 209, 215
      • Senate Armed Services Committee, 214, 215
      • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, 6, 11, 97, 100, 146
    • Congressional support for Panama Canal treaty negotiations (see also Panama Canal treaty implementation; Panama Canal treaty ratification process):
      • Administration lobbying interactions:
        • Bell memoranda, 32
        • Carter communications, 62, 78, 82
        • Carter-Congressional leadership discussions, 3, 5
        • Chiefs of Naval Operations letter, 51
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee meeting, 83
        • Linowitz-Bunker-O’Neill discussions, 23
        • Mondale meeting, 74
        • Senate Judiciary Subcommittee hearings, 60
      • Administration lobbying strategy:
        • Brzezinski memoranda, 70
        • Carter-Linowitz-Bunker discussions, 23
        • Christopher memoranda, 16
        • Congressional briefings, 41, 45, 53, 55
        • Department of State papers, 3
        • Pastor memoranda, 5
        • Policy Review Committee discussions, 6, 24
      • Legal role, 50
      • Panamanian contacts with Congress:
        • Boyd-Senate Foreign Relations Committee discussions, 15
        • Todman memoranda, 17
        • Vance memoranda, 18
      • Status reports:
        • Bennet memoranda, 45
        • H.R. 7556 proposed amendment, 49, 52
        • Thurmond Resolution, 3, 5, 6
        • Vance-Gonzalez-Revilla discussions, 52
        • Vance memoranda, 7, 33
    • Conlin, Col. John, 4, 10
    • Connally, John, 90
    • Consalvi, Simon Bottaro, 163
    • Contreras, Lt. Col. Armando, 58, 61, 66, 172
    • Cooper, John Sherman, 94
    • Cooper, Richard N., 58, 59, 65, 67
    • Costanza, Midge, 140
    • Costa Rica (see also Latin American countries), 35, 54, 66
    • Costle, Douglas M., 89, 96, 99, 145
    • Cranston, Alan:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 6, 7, 41, 53, 55
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 109, 136, 138
    • Cronkite, Walter, 165
    • Cuban-Panamanian relations (see also Nicaraguan Revolution, Panamanian involvement in):
      • Brzezinski memoranda, 29
      • Massey memoranda, 11
      • Pastor-Torrijos discussions, 179
      • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence project, 11
      • U.S.-Panamanian communications, 102
    • Curtis, Carl T., 53
    • Curtis, David, 41
    • Cutler, Lloyd, 261
    • Cutter, Curtis C., 41, 56
    • Cutter, W. Bowman, 55
    • Danforth, John C., 139
    • Davis, Jeanne W., 6
    • DeConcini, Dennis W.:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 74
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
    • Defense, U.S. Department of (DOD) (see also Brown, Harold), 3, 22, 30, 91, 157, 178
    • De la Espriella, Ricardo, 193, 258, 262
    • De la Rosa, Alexander, 52
    • De la Rosa, Diogenes, 66
    • Delgado, 262
    • Denend, Leslie G., 260
    • Derwinski, Edward, 218, 221, 223
    • Dikeos, Victor H., 194
    • Dion, Mark, 52
    • Dobelle, Evan, 92
    • Documents not declassified, 37, 46
    • Dodson, Christine, 63, 77, 84
    • Dole, Robert, 107, 146, 148, 152, 158, 164
    • Dolvin, Lt. Gen. Welborn G.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 212
        • Consultative Committee meeting, 275
        • Costs of, 187
        • House-Senate differences, 241
        • Intelligence reports, 210
        • Joint Review Group Panama visits, 192, 194, 204
        • Ratification documents, 172
        • U.S. Board of Directors membership, 249
        • U.S. committee membership, 246
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 20, 21, 22
        • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 27
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 38, 54, 65
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 80
        • Congressional briefings, 41, 53, 55
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 26, 32, 40
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 258
      • U.S. policy review, 6
    • Domenici, Pete, 55, 151, 152
    • Dornan, Robert, 77, 83
    • Duncan, Charles W., Jr.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Consultative Committee meeting, 275
        • Dolvin memoranda, 212
        • Joint Review Group Panama visits, 204
        • Ratification documents, 172
        • U.S. Government organization for, 173, 177, 178, 186, 201
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 22, 54, 65, 208
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 266
    • Eastland, James O., 41, 53, 109
    • Egan, Michael, 145
    • Eizenstat, Stuart E., 89, 96, 99, 140, 145, 264
    • Eleta, Fernando, 217
    • El Salvador. See Salvadoran Civil War
    • Erb, Guy F., 163
    • Escobar Bethancourt, Rómulo:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 15, 21
        • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 27
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 34, 38, 54, 58, 71, 72
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 80
        • Panamanian views of, 35
        • Vance-Boyd meetings, 9
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 105, 106, 113, 115, 116
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 270, 272
    • Escovar Salom, Ramon, 55
    • Fabrega Velarde, Edwin:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 172, 192, 194
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 9, 15, 27, 34
    • Facio Segreda, Gonzalo J., 35
    • Fallows, James M., 134
    • Fascell, Dante B., 221
    • Figgins, Dan, 238
    • Figuerido, Reinaldo, 163
    • Findley, Paul, 221
    • Fish, Hamilton, 243
    • Fisher, George, 34
    • Fithian, Floyd, 232
    • Ford, Charles R., 22, 40, 57
    • Ford, Gerald R., 1, 92, 138, 139, 142, 145
    • Ford, Wendell H., 124, 131, 138, 139, 143, 151, 161
    • Foreign Assistance Act (1961), 102
    • François-Poncet, Jean, 250
    • Frank, Jane, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Frawley, Betsy, 208
    • Freibers, 24, 55
    • Fukuda, Hiroshi, 266
    • Garcia Marquez, Gabriel, 102
    • Garn, Jake, 129
    • Gates, Thomas, 151
    • Geber, Anthony, 164
    • Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), 164
    • Ghotbzadeh, Sadegh, 256
    • Gilman, Ben, 232
    • Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry, 250
    • Glenn, John H., Jr., 105, 107, 109, 115
    • Gold, Marty, 11
    • Goldsmith, Sydney, 13
    • Goldwater, Barry, 41, 53, 109, 116, 138, 152
    • Gonzalez, Raymond E., 80, 116
    • Gonzalez, Rodrigo “Rory,” 21, 28, 66, 94, 116, 194
    • Gonzalez-Revilla, Nicolas:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 192, 194
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 6, 9, 28, 52, 58, 66, 94
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 116, 161
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 195, 197, 198
      • Political situation, 13, 179
    • Granum, Rex, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Gravel, Mike, 64, 264
    • Gregg, Donald, 266
    • Griffin, Robert P., 124, 133, 152
    • Grove, Brandon H., Jr., 203, 238, 240
    • Guthrie, Donald K., 53, 56, 60
    • Haahr, James C., 127, 203, 227, 238, 239, 247, 257
    • Habib, Philip C., 13, 52, 145
    • Hamilton, Lee H., 32, 166
    • Hanley, James M., 209, 247
    • Hanniford, Peter, 87
    • Hansell, Herbert J., 60, 157, 208, 219
    • Hansen, Clifford, 152
    • Hansen, George, 218, 221
    • Harden, Richard, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Harris, Patricia R., 89, 96, 145
    • Hatch, Orrin, 33, 55
    • Hatfield, Mark, 124, 139, 151
    • Hayakawa, Samuel, 33, 124
    • Heckler, Peggy, 243
    • Heinz, Henry John, III, 55, 138, 139, 151
    • Helms, Jesse A., 51, 62
    • Hemenway, Brewster R., 238
    • Herrera Perdomo, Ruben Dario, 66
    • Hervas, Antonio J.:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 9, 15, 27, 55, 58, 71, 85
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 113
    • Hickenlooper amendment, 102
    • Hodges, Kaneaster, Jr., 138, 139, 148
    • Hodges, Luther H., Jr., 248
    • Hoinkes, Mary E., 127
    • Holbrooke, Richard C., 164, 266
    • Holcomb, Rear Adm. M. Staser, 22, 77
    • Hollings, Ernest F. “Fritz,” 99, 114, 124
    • Holloway, Adm. James L., III, 4, 22,
      151
    • Holloway, Anne Forrester, 89, 145
    • Hornblow, Michael, 39
    • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 208, 209, 212, 214, 215, 217, 220, 229, 235
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 83
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 234
    • House Post Office and Civil Service Committee, 209, 215
    • Hubbard, Carroll, 83, 208, 229, 234, 236
    • Huddleston, Walter Dee, 55, 119, 131
    • Hufstedler, Shirley Mount, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Humphrey, Hubert H., Jr., 15, 41, 53, 99, 124
    • Hurtado, Hector, 163
    • Hutcheson, Richard, 215, 222
    • Hyland, William G., 6, 76
    • Iida, Cornelius, 266
    • Illueca, Jorge Enrique, 9, 256, 271, 275
    • Inderfurth, Karl F. “Rick”, 63, 98, 116, 166
    • Inouye, Daniel K., 11, 100, 109
    • Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 102
    • Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), 189
    • Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty), 3
    • Iran. See Shah of Iran residence in Panama
    • Iranian hostage crisis, 253, 256
    • Iribarren, Ignacio, 163
    • Jackson, Bill, 261
    • Jackson, Henry M. “Scoop”, 41, 53, 109
    • Jamaica, 185
    • Janis, Jay, 99, 140
    • Japan, 266
    • Javits, Jacob K., 6, 105, 115, 126
    • Jeffords, Jim, 243
    • Jenkins, Edgar, 232
    • Johnson, Lyndon B., 3
    • Johnston, J. Bennett, 55, 152
    • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) (see also Brown, Gen. George S.), 22, 40, 77, 89, 93
    • Jones, Gen. David C.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 194, 204, 205, 212, 275, 276
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 22
      • U.S. policy review, 4
    • Jones, Norvill, 128
    • Jordan, Hamilton:
      • Latin American countries, 190
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 54, 71
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 74, 76, 79, 92, 94
        • Congressional briefings, 45
        • Mondale meeting with Senators, 74
        • National committee proposals, 43
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 262
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 250, 256, 261, 265
    • Jorden, William J.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 157, 172, 177, 178, 188
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 20
        • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 28
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 34, 49, 61, 67
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 79, 80, 94
        • Congressional briefings, 55
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 32
        • Vance-Boyd meetings, 9, 13
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 98, 102, 136, 139, 161, 165, 168
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 198
      • Panamanian political situation, 13
      • U.S. policy review, 6
    • Kato, Koichi, 266
    • Katori, Yasue, 266
    • Katz, Julius L., 164
    • Kawashima, Yutaka, 266
    • Kerwin, Gen. Walter T. (“Dutch”), 22
    • Kester, John, 140
    • Kissinger, Henry A. (see also Tack-Kissinger principles):
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 1, 232
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 92
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 138, 139, 142, 145, 151
    • Knoche, Enno H., 6, 11
    • Komer, Robert W., 273
    • Kozak, Michael G., 55
    • Kraft, Tim, 89, 92, 96, 99
    • Kreps, Juanita M., 89, 96, 99, 140, 145, 205, 226
    • Lakas Bahas, Demetrio Basilio, 175
    • Lake, W. Anthony, 163
    • Lamb, Denis, 105
    • Lampert, Harvey D., 35
    • Lance, Bert, 89, 96, 99, 139, 140, 145
    • Latin America. See Latin American countries; U.S.-Latin American relations
    • Latin American countries:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation and, 176, 183, 185
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations and:
        • Briefings, 31, 55
        • Carter-Linowitz-Bunker discussions, 23
        • Department of State papers, 3
        • Panamanian-Venezuelan discussions, 58
        • Saunders memoranda, 35
        • Signing ceremony attendance, 85, 90, 94
        • Summit (Aug 1977), 66, 73, 76
        • Vance-Boyd discussions, 9
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process and, 96, 160, 163
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution and, 197
      • Pastor-Torrijos discussions, 190
    • Laxalt, Paul, 41, 53, 151
    • Leach, Jim, 232
    • Lemnitzer, Gen. Lyman, 94
    • Lesseur Lauria, Carmelo, 163
    • Levin, Carl, 237
    • Levitas, Elliott, 232
    • Lewis Galindo, Gabriel:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 176, 204, 210, 224
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 39, 49, 54, 67, 71, 94
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
        • Bunker meetings, 130
        • Carter-Torrijos discussions, 111, 113
        • DeConcini amendment, 165
        • GSP sugar benefits and, 164
        • Jordan discussions, 122
        • Senate delegations to Panama, 119
        • Todman-Torrijos meetings, 102
      • Panamanian involvement in Belize, 240
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 193, 198, 231
      • Panamanian political situation, 193, 202
      • Political situation, 179, 202
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 262, 270
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 264
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 252, 256
    • Libyan-Panamanian relations, 29, 54, 103
    • Linowitz, Sol M.:
      • Appointment of, 1, 5, 7, 9, 14
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23
        • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 27, 28
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 36, 54
          • Carter meetings, 71
          • Christopher memoranda, 38, 44
          • Meeting minutes, 58
          • Policy Review Committee discussions, 65
          • Vance memoranda, 34, 59, 67
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 73, 75, 76, 80, 81, 89
        • Bunker-Linowitz-Reagan meeting, 87
        • Congressional briefings, 41, 53, 55
        • Congressional lobbying strategy, 23, 24
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee meeting, 83
        • Latin American countries briefings, 31, 55
        • Latin American views of, 35
        • National committee proposals, 43
        • Sea-level canal provisions, 64
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 14, 32
        • U.S. presidential campaign (1976), 1
        • Vance-Boyd meetings, 9
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 97, 100, 113, 115, 116, 132, 139
      • U.S. policy review, 6, 8, 12
    • Lipshutz, Robert J., 89, 140, 145
    • Long, Russell B., 41, 53, 151
    • Lopez, Alfredo, 224
    • Lopez Guevara, Carlos, 66, 107, 210
    • López Michelson, Alfonso, 21, 31, 35, 54
    • López-Portillo, Jose Ramon, 85
    • Luers, William H., 22
    • Madigan, Mike, 11
    • Madonna, R. C., 276
    • Majano, Col. Adolfo, 268
    • Manfredo, Fernando, 113, 210, 275
    • Mansfield, Mike, 266
    • Mansfield, William H., III, 127
    • Marshall, Ray, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Massey, Donald F., 11
    • Matsunaga, Spark, 119, 124, 148
    • Matsuura, Koichiro, 266
    • McAfee, William, 240
    • McAuliffe, Eugene V., 22
    • McAuliffe, Lt. Gen. Dennis P., 6, 10, 26, 172, 223, 275
    • McBride, Gen. William V., 22
    • McCall, Dick, 124
    • McClellan, John L., 51, 62
    • McClory, Bob, 232, 243
    • McCloskey, Paul N., Jr., 83
    • McCullough, David, 134
    • McDonald, Lawrence, 107
    • McGee, Gale W., 52
    • McGiffert, David E., 172, 194, 204, 212, 274, 275
    • McGovern, George, 105
    • McGowan, Arturo, 116
    • McIntyre, James T., Jr., 108, 139, 188, 189, 205, 222
    • Meany, William George, 139
    • Melcher, John, 139, 148, 151, 152
    • Metcalf, Lee, 151
    • Metzenbaum, Howard, 119
    • Mexico (see also Latin American countries), 54, 85, 176
    • Michel, Robert, 232
    • Midgail, Carl, 116
    • Miller, William, 266
    • Mitchell, Bunny, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Mizrachi letter, 54
    • Moe, Richard, 89, 96, 99, 145
    • Mondale, Walter F.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 205, 206, 239, 247
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 1, 23, 71, 74, 94
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 128, 139, 151, 152, 153, 162
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 266
      • U.S. policy review, 2
    • Moore, Frank, 89
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 229
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 45
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 198
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 270
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 264
    • Moorer, Adm. Thomas H., 51, 109
    • Morgan, Robert B., 55, 114, 124
    • Morse, 265
    • Moss, Ambler H., Jr.:
      • Iranian hostage crisis, 256
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 209, 217, 223, 224, 236, 269, 275
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 22, 55, 60, 80
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 119, 127
      • Panamanian involvement in Belize, 240
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 227, 230, 231, 235, 238
      • Panamanian political situation, 193
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 258, 259, 260, 262, 267, 268
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 264
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 252, 253, 254, 256, 261, 265
      • Soviet-Panamanian relations,
        200
      • U.S.-Panamanian post-treaty relations, 257, 274
    • Moyers, Bill, 114, 116
    • Murphy, Daniel J., 32
    • Murphy, John M. “Jack” (see also House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee):
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Bennet memoranda, 208
        • Carter meeting, 206, 207
        • Christopher discussions, 218
        • Christopher-Stennis-Levin discussions, 237
        • Dolvin memoranda, 212
        • Legislation markup, 215
        • Moss-Royo discussions, 217
        • Panama trip, 209
        • Vance breakfast meeting, 221
        • Vance memoranda, 214
        • White House briefing, 223
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations,
        83
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 208, 228, 236
    • Muskie, Edmund S., 266, 268, 271
    • Nachmanoff, Arnold, 65
    • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 127
    • National Intelligence Estimates, NIE 84-1-77, “Panama: Developments and Prospects,” 3
    • National Security Decision Memoranda (NSDM):
      • No. 115, “Panama Canal Treaty Negotiations,” 3
      • No. 131, “Panama Canal Treaty Negotiations,” 3
      • No. 302, “Panama Canal Treaty Negotiations,” 1, 3
    • Nelson, Gaylord, 74
    • Newsom, David D., 253
    • Nicaragua (see also Nicaraguan Revolution, Panamanian involvement in), 35
    • Nicaraguan Revolution, Panamanian involvement in:
      • Bennet memoranda, 208
      • Brzezinski-Gonzalez Revilla discussions, 195, 198
      • Brzezinski memoranda, 206, 235
      • Carter-Torrijos discussions, 196
      • Christopher memoranda, 227,
        236
      • Intelligence reports, 233
      • McAuliffe testimony, 234
      • Pastor-Gonzalez Revilla discussions, 197
      • Pastor-Lewis Galindo discussions, 202
      • Pastor/Moss-Lewis Galindo discussions, 193
      • Pastor/Moss Panama mission, 230, 231
      • U.S. aid to Nicaragua and, 238, 247
      • Vance memoranda, 203, 228
    • Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), 179
    • Noriega, Lt. Col. Manuel, 94, 153, 183, 230, 252, 267
    • Numata, Sadaaki, 266
    • Nunn, Samuel, Jr., 109, 138, 139, 151
    • Nutting, Lt. Gen. Wallace, 276
    • Oberstar, James L., 83, 221
    • Obey, David R., 32
    • Office of Management and Budget, 169, 170, 188
    • Ogura, Kazuo, 266
    • Ohira, Masayoshi, 266
    • Okawara, Yoshio, 266
    • Okita, Saburo, 266
    • O’Leary, Jeremiah, 116
    • O’Mahony, Joseph E., 164
    • O’Neill, Thomas Phillip (“Tip”), Jr., 23, 206
    • Orfila, Alejandro, 86, 88, 160, 217
    • Organization of American States (OAS), 52, 86, 90, 160
    • Owen, Henry D., 264, 266
    • Ozores Typaldos, Carlos, 66, 224, 271
    • Packman, Martin, 20, 35
    • Panama Canal Act (1979), 245
    • Panama Canal operating expenses, 48
    • Panama Canal treaty. See Panama Canal treaty implementation; Panama Canal treaty negotiations; Panama Canal treaty ratification process.
    • Panama Canal treaty implementation (see also Nicaraguan Revolution, Panamanian involvement in):
      • Brooke amendment, 169, 171
      • Brown memoranda, 216
      • Carter Panama visit (June 1978), 169, 171, 176, 179, 183
      • Carter-Royo correspondence, 224, 245, 263, 269, 277
      • Carter statement (Sept. 20, 1979), 242
      • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 185, 199, 277
      • Ceremony (Oct. 1979), 239, 247
      • Christopher-Murphy discussions, 218
      • Christopher-Stennis-Levin discussions, 237
      • Circular 175 request, 219
      • Consultative Committee meeting, 275
      • Costs of, 187, 211, 220, 221, 222, 223
      • Dolvin memoranda, 212
      • Hansen amendments, 180
      • House Foreign Affairs Committee on, 215
      • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on, 208, 209, 212, 214, 215, 217, 220, 229, 235
      • House Post Office and Civil Service Committee on, 209, 215
      • House-Senate differences, 237, 241
      • Intelligence reports, 210
      • Joint Chiefs of Staff letter to Torrijos, 276
      • Legislation for, Christopher memoranda, 169
      • Muskie-Ozores discussions, 271
      • Popper memoranda, 244
      • Ratification documents, 172, 182, 184
      • Soviet-Panamanian relations and, 200
      • Tarnoff memoranda, 242
      • U.S. Board of Directors membership, 249, 254, 255
      • U.S. committee membership, 246
      • U.S. economic aid to Panama and, 169, 189, 191, 213, 217, 224
      • U.S. Government organization for:
        • Brown memoranda, 181
        • Brzezinski memoranda, 206
        • Christopher memoranda, 169, 186, 273
        • Duncan memoranda, 173
        • House-Senate differences, 241
        • Jorden memoranda, 157, 177
        • McIntyre memoranda, 188, 205
        • Memorandum of Understanding, 201
        • Pastor memoranda, 170, 178
        • Popper memoranda, 191
        • Vance memoranda, 207
      • U.S.-Panamanian planning:
        • Carter-Lakas correspondence, 175
        • Christopher memoranda, 169
        • Joint Review Group Panama visits, 192, 194, 204
        • Moss-Royo discussions, 217
        • Pastor Panama visit, 179
        • Patton-Torrijos discussions, 174
        • Popper memoranda, 191
        • Royo U.S. visit, 217, 224, 225
        • Torrijos U.S. visit, 236
      • Vance breakfast meeting, 221
      • Vance phone calls, 232, 243
      • White House briefing, 223
    • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
      • Feb. 1977 negotiating round:
        • Bunker memoranda, 20
        • Carter-Linowitz-Bunker discussions, 23
        • Meeting minutes, 15
        • State-Defense discussions, 22
        • Todman memoranda, 17
        • Vance memoranda, 18, 19
        • Wells memoranda, 21
      • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 27, 28
      • May-July 1977 negotiating round:
        • Brzezinski-Lewis Galindo discussions, 39
        • Brzezinski memoranda, 63, 68, 70
        • Carter meetings, 71
        • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 68, 72
        • Carter welcoming remarks, 39
        • Christopher memoranda, 38, 44
        • CIA information cables, 66
        • Linowitz memoranda, 36, 54
        • Meeting minutes, 58
        • Policy Review Committee discussions, 65
        • Vance-Gonzalez-Revilla meetings, 52
        • Vance-Lewis Galindo meetings, 49, 54
        • Vance memoranda, 34, 42, 47, 59, 61, 67, 69
      • Final stages (Aug. 1977):
        • Bunker-Linowitz memoranda, 75
        • Cabinet discussions, 89
        • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 95
        • Carter-Torrijos meeting, 94
        • Christopher memoranda, 73, 88
        • JCS memoranda, 77
        • Jordan-Hyland memoranda, 76, 79
        • Jorden memoranda, 80
        • Signing ceremony, 85, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94
      • Bunker-Linowitz-Reagan meeting, 87
      • Carter news conference (June 30, 1977), 58
      • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 14, 19, 23, 25, 27, 68, 72
      • Carter-Torrijos meetings, 66, 94
      • Congressional legal role in, 50
      • Defense Department responses, 91
      • Defense Department role in, 30
      • Joint Chiefs of Staff responses, 93
      • Kissinger-Boyd communications, 1
      • Latin American countries briefings, 31, 55
      • National committee proposals, 43
      • Panamanian views of, Saunders memoranda, 35
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 64, 65, 76, 84
      • Tack-Kissinger principles, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 52, 150
      • Thurmond Resolution, 3, 5, 6
      • U.S. negotiating strategy:
        • Bell memoranda, 32
        • Brown memoranda, 26, 40
        • Carter-Linowitz discussions, 14
        • Christopher memoranda, 16
        • Linowitz memoranda, 54
        • McAuliffe memoranda, 10
        • Parfitt memoranda, 57
        • Policy Review Committee discussions, 6, 7
      • Vance-Boyd meetings, 6, 8, 9, 13
      • Vance memoranda, 33
    • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
      • Administration letters to Senators, 144, 150, 154
      • Allen amendment, 148, 149
      • Aragon memoranda, 140
      • Boston-Panama expropriation case and, 102
      • Brzezinski memoranda, 111
      • Bunker-Lewis Galindo meetings, 130
      • Byrd-Torrijos correspondence, 125
      • Cabinet discussions, 96, 99, 140, 145
      • Carter fireside chat (Feb. 1, 1978), 99
      • Carter memoranda, 162
      • Carter phone calls, 142
      • Carter speech, 134
      • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 110, 117, 118, 121, 155, 158, 168
      • Carter-Torrijos discussions, 111, 113, 156, 159
      • Carter town hall meetings, 126
      • Christopher-Byrd discussions, 133, 146
      • Christopher memoranda, 105, 106, 107
      • Cranston-Torrijos meetings, 136
      • Cuban-Panamanian relations and, 102
      • DeConcini amendment, 159, 160, 163, 165, 166, 167
      • Dole and Wallop amendments, 158
      • Environmental groups statement, 127
      • GSP sugar benefits and, 164
      • Jordan-Lewis Galindo discussions, 122
      • Jordan/Pastor-Torrijos meetings, 112
      • Linowitz memoranda, 132
      • Panamanian bond payment and, 147, 161
      • Panama plebiscite, 116, 117, 132
      • Pastor memoranda, 122
      • Pastor Panama visit, 116, 118
      • Possible sabotage planning and, 153
      • Senate Armed Services Committee hearings, 124
      • Senate delegations to Panama, 119, 120, 124, 129
      • Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings, 101, 106, 109, 115, 116, 128, 133
        • Christopher memoranda, 135
      • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence investigations, 97, 100, 146, 148
      • Status reports, 114, 124, 143, 148, 151, 191
      • Strategy planning:
        • Bennet/Beckel/Thomson memoranda, 124
        • Brzezinski-Jorden memoranda, 98
        • Carter memoranda, 141, 152
        • Jorden/Moore memoranda, 139
        • Moore memoranda, 138
        • Pastor memoranda, 166
        • Thomson memoranda, 104
        • Vance memoranda, 126, 137
      • Todman-Torrijos meetings, 102, 103
      • U.S.-Venezuelan discussions, 163
      • Vance-Javits/Ribicoff discussions, 126
      • Vance memoranda, 109, 123, 128, 137
      • Vance speeches, 131
    • Panamanian political situation, 3
      • Boyd resignation, 13, 14, 16
      • Brzezinski memoranda, 183
      • Linowitz memoranda, 54
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation and, 176
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process and, 122, 136
      • Pastor-Lewis Galindo discussions, 202
      • Pastor/Moss-Lewis Galindo discussions, 193
      • Pastor-Torrijos discussions, 179
      • Vance memoranda, 33
    • Panamanian public protests, 47, 52
    • Panama Task Force, 98
    • Paredes, Col. Ruben D., 113
    • Parfitt, Harold R., 57, 60, 172
    • Pastor, Robert A.:
      • Cuban-Panamanian relations, 29, 179
      • Latin American countries, 190
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 21, 23
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 39, 65, 68, 71
        • Administration lobbying strategy, 5
        • Carter-Torrijos meeting, 94
        • National committee proposals, 43
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 122
        • DeConcini amendment, 160
        • Panama visit, 116, 118
        • Senate delegations to Panama, 119
        • Strategy planning, 98, 166
        • U.S.-Panamanian communications, 102, 111, 112, 113
        • U.S.-Venezuelan discussions, 163
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution:
        • Brzezinski-Gonzalez Revilla discussions, 195, 198
        • Carter-Torrijos discussions, 196
        • Gonzalez Revilla discussions, 197
        • Intelligence reports, 233
        • Lewis Galindo discussions, 193, 202
        • Pastor/Moss Panama mission, 230, 231
      • Panamanian political situation, 179, 193, 202
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 259, 260, 262, 270, 272
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 264
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 250
      • Soviet-Panamanian relations, 200
      • U.S. policy review, 5, 6
    • Patton, David W., 174
    • Percy, Charles H., 109, 115
    • Pérez, Carlos Andrés, 31, 54, 55, 58, 163
    • Perez-Balladares, Ernesto, 66, 210, 275
    • Perez Guerrero, Manuel, 163
    • Peterson, Esther, 140
    • Pettigrew, Dick, 140, 145
    • Pezzulo, Lawrence A., 24, 32, 55
    • Pitty, Nander, 9, 52
    • Platt, Nicholas, 266
    • Plaza, Gonzalo, 55
    • Policy Review Committee (PRC):
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 6, 7, 24, 65
      • U.S. policy review, 6, 8
    • Popper, David H.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 215, 244
        • Ceremony (Oct. 1979), 247
        • Christopher-Stennis-Levin discussions, 237
        • Circular 175 request, 219
        • Consultative Committee meeting, 275
        • Costs of, 211
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on, 208
        • U.S. committee membership, 246
        • U.S. government organization for, 177, 191
        • U.S.-Panamanian planning, 191, 192, 194, 204
        • Vance phone calls, 243
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 127, 130
    • Powell, Jody, 14, 45, 92, 98, 134, 254
    • Precht, Henry, 253
    • Presidential Review Memoranda, No. 1, “Panama,” 2, 5
    • Press, Frank, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Pritchard, Joel, 221
    • Pryce, William T., 80
    • Randolph, Jennings, 139, 142, 151
    • Raphel, Arnold L., 261
    • Read, Benjamin H., 246
    • Reagan, Ronald, 87, 116
    • Rhodes, John, 232, 244
    • Ribicoff, Abraham A., 126
    • Ricks, Walt, 11
    • Riegle, Donald W., Jr., 119
    • Robles, Winston, 102
    • Rockefeller, Jay, 131, 145
    • Rogers, Gen. Bernard W., 4, 41, 53
    • Rogers, William, 218
    • Romberg, Alan, 266
    • Rosenthal, Benjamin, 54
    • Roth, Bill, 139, 151, 152
    • Royo, Aristides:
      • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 27
      • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 38
      • Carter correspondence, 224, 245, 251, 252, 255, 263, 269, 277
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 210
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 58
          • Carter meetings, 71
          • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 72
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 206, 227, 230, 231
      • Political situation, 193, 202
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 258
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 258, 264
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 251, 252, 253, 256
    • Rusk, Dean, 232
    • Saenz, Paul, 165
    • Saied, Abraham, 66
    • Salaman, Marcel, 230, 256, 262
    • Salas Dominguez, Eligio, 66
    • Salvadoran Civil War, 258, 259, 260, 262, 267, 270, 272
    • Sandinistas. See Nicaraguan Revolution, Panamanian involvement in
    • Santa Marta Summit (1980), 277
    • Sarbanes, Paul S., 41, 53, 115, 119
    • Sasser, James, 119
    • Sato, Yoshiyasu, 266
    • Saudi investment in Panama, 202
    • Saunders, Harold H., 21, 35, 66
    • Schecter, Jerrold, 98, 122, 166
    • Schlesinger, James R., 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Schmitt, Harrison, 53
    • Schultze, Charles L., 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Schweiker, Richard, 139, 151
    • Scott, William R., 99
    • Scranton, William, 151
    • Sea-level canal provisions:
      • Bennet memoranda, 64
      • Brzezinski memoranda, 84
      • Christopher-Byrd discussions, 133
      • Claytor-Royo discussions, 258
      • Jordan-Hyland memoranda, 76
      • McIntyre memoranda, 108
      • Pastor memoranda, 264
      • Policy Review Committee discussions, 65
      • U.S.-Japanese discussions, 266
    • Sebastian, Peter, 42
    • Senate Armed Services Committee, 214, 215
    • Senate Foreign Relations Committee:
      • Bayh report, 146
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 182
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 15
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification hearings, 101, 106, 109, 115, 116, 128, 133, 135
    • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI), 6, 11, 97, 100, 146
    • Shah of Iran residence in Panama:
      • Brzezinski memoranda, 254
      • Carter-Royo correspondence, 251, 252
      • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 250
      • Christopher memoranda, 253
      • Christopher-Murphy discussions, 218
      • Moss-Torrijos discussions, 256
      • Newsom memoranda, 265
      • Raphel-Armao discussions, 261
    • Shapiro, Irving, 151
    • Sierra Club, 127
    • Sights, Dale, 131
    • Sitton, Lt. Gen. Ray B., 22
    • Slack, John, 18
    • Slocombe, Walter, 22
    • Small, David, 55
    • Smith, Lt. Gen. William Y., 22, 65, 77
    • Snyder, Marion Eugene (“Gene”), 49, 83
    • Solarz, Stephen J., 43
    • Solomon, Anthony M., 58, 59, 67
    • Solomon, Jay, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Somoza Garcia, Anastasio (see also Nicaraguan Revolution, Panamanian involvement in), 198, 206, 235
    • Soviet-Panamanian relations, 200
    • Sparkman, John J., 15, 41, 53, 107, 109, 115, 161
    • Spear, Moncreiff J., 127
    • Spiegel, John W., 164
    • Spooner Act (1902), 87
    • Stafford, Robert T., 74
    • Stennis, John C., 109, 124, 215, 224, 237
    • Stevens, Theodore F. (“Ted”), 109, 142, 143, 151, 152
    • Stewart, Jake, 220
    • Stone, Richard, 105, 106, 115, 124
    • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT), 122
    • Strauss, Robert S., 139, 226
    • Stroessner, Alfredo
    • Sumiya, Kiyoshi, 266
    • Tack-Kissinger principles, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 52, 150
    • Talmadge, Herman, 139, 151, 154
    • Tarnoff, Peter R.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 242, 249
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 35, 55, 81, 84
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 164
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 84, 264
    • Tate, Mercer D., 24, 55, 151
    • Taylor, T. Elkin, 172
    • Taylor, Gen. Maxwell, 94, 109
    • Tejeira, Eduardo, 210
    • Teshima, Reishi, 266
    • Thatcher, Margaret, 250
    • Thomson, Robert:
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 24, 55
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
        • Allen amendment, 149
        • Carter phone calls, 142
        • Dole and Wallop amendments, 158
        • Status reports, 124, 143, 148, 151
        • Strategy planning, 98, 104, 138
    • Thornton, Thomas, 65
    • Thurmond, James Strom (see also Thurmond Resolution), 51, 62, 184
    • Thurmond Resolution (Senate Resolution 301), 3, 5, 6
    • Thyden, James, 78
    • Todman, Terence A.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 157, 177
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 17, 20
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 42, 52, 65
        • Carter-Torrijos meeting, 94
        • Congressional lobbying strategy, 24
        • Latin American views of, 35
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 32
        • Vance-Boyd meetings, 9, 13
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 102, 103, 163, 164
      • U.S. policy review, 6
    • Torrijos Herrera, Gen. Omar (see also Carter-Torrijos correspondence):
      • Assassination attempt, 54
      • Chinese-Panamanian relations, 270
      • Drug trafficking rumors, 146, 148
      • Latin American countries, 85, 190
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Carter correspondence, 185, 199, 277
        • Carter discussions, 196
        • Intelligence reports, 210
        • Joint Chiefs of Staff letter, 276
        • Joint Review Group Panama visits, 194
        • Pastor discussions, 179
        • Patton discussions, 174
        • U.S. visit, 236
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23
        • Mar. 1977 negotiating round, 28
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 39, 52, 55, 66, 68, 72
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 75, 80, 92, 94, 95
        • Carter correspondence, 14, 19, 23, 25, 27, 68, 72
        • Carter meetings, 66, 94
        • Panamanian views of, 35
        • U.S. presidential campaign
          (1976), 1
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process:
      • Panamanian involvement in Belize, 240
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution:
        • Brzezinski-Gonzalez Revilla discussions, 198
        • Brzezinski memoranda, 235
        • Carter discussions, 196
        • Pastor-Gonzalez Revilla discussions, 197
        • Pastor/Moss-Lewis Galindo discussions, 193
        • Pastor/Moss Panama mission, 230, 231
        • U.S. military aid to Nicaragua and, 238
      • Political situation, 3, 14, 33, 54, 179, 183, 193
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 258, 259, 260, 262, 267, 268
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 250, 252, 253, 256, 265
    • Tower, John, 41, 53, 116
    • Trudeau, Pierre, 85
    • Turner, Adm. Stansfield, 2, 46, 89, 100, 145
    • Twaddell, William H., 9, 49, 52
    • United Nations, 3
    • U.S. economic aid to Panama (see also U.S. investment mission to Panama):
      • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 72, 189
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation and, 169, 189, 191, 213, 217, 224
      • In Panama Canal treaty negotiations:
        • Bell memoranda, 32
        • Brzezinski memoranda, 63, 68, 70
        • Bunker-Linowitz memoranda, 75
        • Bunker-Linowitz-Reagan discussions, 87
        • Carter communications to Congress, 82
        • Carter meeting discussions, 71
        • Carter-Torrijos correspondence, 72
        • Christopher memoranda, 73
        • Congressional briefings, 41, 55
        • Department of State papers, 3
        • Jordan-Hyland memoranda, 76, 79
        • Meeting minutes, 58
        • Policy Review Committee discussions, 65
        • Vance-Gonzalez-Revilla discussions, 52
        • Vance-Lewis Galindo discussions, 49, 54
        • Vance memoranda, 42, 59, 61, 67, 69
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process and, 142, 164
    • U.S. investment mission to Panama, 224, 226, 248
    • U.S.-Latin American relations:
      • Carter trip (1978), 102
      • GSP sugar benefits and, 164
      • U.S.-Panamanian communications, 102
    • U.S.-Panamanian post-treaty relations, 257, 274
    • U.S. policy review:
      • Brown memoranda, 4
      • Brzezinski memoranda, 8
      • Commission on United States-Latin American Relations report, 12
      • Department of State papers, 3
      • Pastor memoranda, 5
      • Policy Review Committee discussions, 6
      • Presidential Review Memorandum No. 1, 2, 5
      • Vance memoranda, 7
    • U.S. presidential campaign (1976), 1
    • Vaky, Viron P. (“Pete”):
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation, 179, 219, 224, 236, 246, 247
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 163
      • Panamanian involvement in Belize, 240
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 203, 227, 238
    • Vance, Cyrus R.:
      • Panama Canal treaty implementation:
        • Ceremony (Oct. 1979), 239
        • Christopher-Stennis-Levin discussions, 237
        • Costs of, 211, 221
        • Hansen amendments, 180
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on, 214, 215
        • Phone calls, 232, 243
        • Ratification documents, 182
        • Tarnoff memoranda, 242
        • U.S. Board of Directors membership, 249
        • U.S. economic aid to Panama and, 213
        • U.S. Government organization for, 157, 173, 178, 205, 207
        • U.S.-Panamanian planning, 192, 224, 236
      • Panama Canal treaty negotiations, 33
        • Feb. 1977 negotiating round, 18, 19, 20
        • May-July 1977 negotiating round, 34, 42, 47, 59, 61, 67, 69
          • Carter meetings, 71
          • Lewis Galindo discussions, 49, 54
          • Policy Review Committee discussions, 65
        • Final stages (Aug. 1977), 89, 90, 94
        • Boyd meetings, 6, 8, 9, 13
        • Congressional briefings, 45
        • Congressional lobbying strategy, 24
        • Defense Department role in, 30
        • House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee meeting, 83
        • National committee proposals, 43
        • Panamanian views of, 35
        • Senate Judiciary Subcommittee hearings, 60
        • U.S. negotiating strategy, 16
        • U.S. presidential campaign
          (1976), 1
      • Panama Canal treaty ratification process, 109, 123, 128, 137
        • Allen amendment, 149
        • Cabinet discussions, 96, 99, 140
        • Carter memoranda, 162
        • Carter-Torrijos correspondence,
          158
        • Christopher-Byrd discussions, 133, 146
        • Christopher memoranda, 105
        • GSP sugar benefits and, 164
        • Javits/Ribicoff discussions, 126
        • Letters to Senators, 144
        • Panamanian bond payment and, 147, 161
        • Panama plebiscite, 117
        • Senate delegations to Panama, 129
        • Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings, 101, 106, 115
        • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence investigations, 100
        • Speeches, 131
        • Strategy planning, 98, 126, 137, 139, 141
        • U.S.-Venezuelan discussions, 163
      • Panamanian involvement in the Nicaraguan Revolution, 203, 228, 238
      • Panamanian public protests, 47
      • Salvadoran Civil War, 259, 262
      • Sea-level canal provisions, 64, 65,
        266
      • Shah of Iran residence in Panama, 261
      • U.S. investment mission to Panama, 226
      • U.S. policy review, 2, 6, 7, 8
    • Van Dyke, Ted, 59
    • Van Reigersberg, Stephanie, 27, 196
    • Vargas, Resires, 275
    • Vargas, Felix C., 252
    • Venezuela (see also Latin American countries), 31, 35, 54, 55, 58, 66
    • Wagner, David G., 49
    • Waldheim, Kurt Josef, 256
    • Wallop, Malcolm, 158
    • War Powers Resolution (1973), 53
    • Warren, Charles, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Watson, Jack, 89, 96, 99, 140, 145
    • Wayne, John, 116
    • Weicker, Lowell P., 124, 148
    • Wells, William W., 21
    • White, John P., 89, 139, 140, 145, 187
    • Whitten, Jamie, 221
    • Whitten, Les, 22
    • Williams, John, 94
    • Williams, 74
    • Wilson, Gen. Louis H., Jr., 4, 22
    • Wurfel, Walt, 98
    • Wyrough, Richard R., 32, 34, 55, 80,
      271
    • Zablocki, Clement J., 221
    • Zorinsky, Edward, 138, 139, 151
    • Zumwalt, Adm. Elmo, 109