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Sources

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, Volume XXIX, Panama, 1977–1981

The records of the White House, the Department of State, and the Department of Defense provided the bulk of the key documentation for this volume. The Carter Presidential Library in Atlanta, Georgia, is the best source of high-level decision-making on the administration’s policies toward Panama. The Library’s National Security Adviser files contain a number of important collections. In particular, the State Evening Reports from Secretary of State Vance to President Carter, found in the Brzezinski Material Subject File, contain some of the best records of Carter’s handwritten thoughts and decision-making on the Panama Canal Treaties issue. The Brzezinski Material Trip File holds a wealth of important memoranda from National Security Adviser Brzezinski to Carter and between Brzezinski and other high-level interagency officials. The President’s Correspondence with Foreign Leaders File in the Brzezinksi Material provided critical correspondence between Carter and Torrijos and Royo, in addition to other records. The Brzezinski Material Country File and the Brzezinski Office File also contain valuable memoranda. Within the NSC staff, Robert Pastor was a key player on Panama issues, and the Pastor Country files on Panama in the Staff Material, North/South collection, provided numerous essential documents for this volume. In the Office of the Chief of Staff files, Hamilton Jordan’s Files provided key documents on a range of issues, including two pivotal telcons between Carter and Torrijos in March of 1978 and congressional outreach and public relations records. Other valuable collections for this volume include the Papers of Walter F. Mondale, who was directly involved in the treaties issue, the NSC Institutional Files, which document the Presidential Review Policy Process and Policy Review Committee meetings as well as other important topics, and the Subject File in the White House Central Files.

Records of the Department of State, located at the National Archives and Records Administration facility in College Park, Maryland, and at the Department of State, provided essential materials for this volume. The Official and Personal Files of Ambassador at Large Ellsworth Bunker (Lot 78D300) contain the richest source of key documents on negotiating the treaties with Panama, including transcripts and summaries of negotiations, important memoranda of conversation, and strategizing documents. The files of Assistant Secretary for Congressional Affairs J. Brian Atwood (Lot 81D115) proved to be useful for doc[Page XVI]umenting public and congressional outreach efforts. Files from American Embassy Panama were helpful, particularly the Panama Canal Treaty Negotiation Files, 1964–1977 (Lot 81F1) for providing important memoranda of conversation, telegrams, transcripts and other documents related to the 1977 negotiations. The files of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance and Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher provided select documents, and the records of David P. Newsom, Under Secretary for Political Affairs, 1978–1981 (Lot 81D154) were the main source of documents on the Shah of Iran’s stay in Panama. The Department’s Central Foreign Policy File contained useful telegrams.

The Department of Defense played a central role in the Carter administration’s foreign policy toward Panama, and the documents selected for this volume provide an essential high-level Department of Defense perspective. The key collections mainly came from Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, held at the Washington National Records Center in Suitland, Maryland. The IA Region Files, 1974–1979, contain the records of the Department of Defense’s lead representative on the Panama Canal Treaties within the interagency, General Welborn G. Dolvin, and provided a rich source of materials. The Official Records (Secret and Below) of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Special Assistant to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense also proved valuable. In addition, the Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, RG 218, Records of Chairman George S. Brown and Records of Chairman David C. Jones contained helpful documentation.

Other valuable collections for this volume include Central Intelligence Agency files, the Sol M. Linowitz Papers at the Library of Congress, and Record Group 185, the records of the Panama Canal at the National Archives and Records Administration facility in College Park, Maryland.

In addition to the paper files cited below, a growing number of documents are available on the Internet. The Office of the Historian maintains a list of these Internet resources on its website and encourages readers to consult that site on a regular basis.

Unpublished Sources

  • Department of State, Washington, D.C.
    • Central Foreign Policy File. These files have been transferred or will be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park, Maryland.
      • P Reels
      • D Reels
      • N Reels
    • INR/IL Historical Files. Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1980s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research
    • Lot Files. These files have been transferred or will be transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration in College Park, Maryland.
      • American Embassy Panama
        • Panama Canal Treaty Negotiations Files, 1964–1977, Lot 81F1
        • Panama Canal Treaty Negotiation Files, Classified and Unclassified, Political and Economic Files 1976–1978, Lot 80F162
        • Political Section Classified Files, 1978, Lot 81F59
        • Political Section Unclassified Files, 1978, Lot 81F58
        • Classified Political Subject Files, 1979, Lot 82F93
        • Unclassified Political Subject Files, 1979, Lot 82F94
        • Classified and Unclassified Political Subject Files, 1979–1980, Lot 83F67
      • Bureau of Inter-American Affairs
        • Office of the U.S. Permanent Mission to the OAS, Luigi R. Einaudi Country Files, 1977–1989, Lot 91D371
        • Office of the U.S. Permanent Mission to the OAS, Luigi R. Einaudi Administration and People Files, 1974–1989, Lot 91D372
      • Office of the Executive Secretariat
        • Records of Cyrus R. Vance, Secretary of State, 1977–1980, Lot 84D241
        • Records of David P. Newsom, Under Secretary for Political Affairs, 1978–1981, Lot 81D154
      • Personal Files of Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance, Lot 80D135
      • Principal and S/S Memoranda for 1977, Lot 79D31
      • Principal and S/S Memoranda for 1978, Lot 80D90
  • National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland
    • Record Group 59, Files of the Department of State
      • Central Foreign Policy File
      • Files of Assistant Secretary for Congressional Affairs, J. Brian Atwood, Subject Files and Chrons 1977/78/79/80, Lot 81D115
      • Official and Personal Files of Ambassador at Large Ellsworth Bunker, Lot 78D300
      • Official Working Papers of the Director of the Policy Planning Staff Anthony Lake, 1977—January 1981, Lot 82D298
      • Records of the Office of the Deputy Secretary, Warren Christopher, Lot 81D113
      • Records of the Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance, Science and Technology, Security Assistance Country and Subject Files, 1979, Lot 82D44
      • Subject Files of Secretary of State Edmund S. Muskie, 1963–1981, Lot 83D066
    • Record Group 185, Records of the Panama Canal
      • Negotiation and Planning Records for the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty
      • Subject Files of the 1979 Panama Canal Treaty Planning Group, 1950–1980 (Entry 13)
    • Record Group 218, Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff
      • Records of Chairman George S. Brown
      • Records of Chairman David C. Jones
  • Jimmy Carter Presidential Library
    • Donated Historical Material
      • Brzezinski Donated Material
      • Papers of George D. Moffett
      • Papers of Walter F. Mondale
    • National Security Affairs
      • Brzezinski Material
        • Agency File
        • Brzezinski Office File
        • Country File
        • Presidential Correspondence with Foreign Leaders File
        • Subject File
        • Trip File
    • National Security Affairs
      • Staff Material
        • North/South
        • Office
        • Press and Congressional Relations
    • National Security Council
      • Institutional Files
    • President’s Files
      • Plains Files
    • Presidential Materials
      • President’s Daily Diary
    • Staff Office Files
      • Records of the Office of the Chief of Staff
        • Hamilton Jordan’s Files
        • Landon Butler’s Files
      • Records of the Office of Congressional Liaison
        • Bob Beckel’s Subject Files
        • Frank Moore’s Subject Files
        • Jeff Neuchterlein’s Subject Files
    • Vertical File
    • White House Central Files
      • Subject File
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • Directorate of Intelligence, Office of Current Intelligence Files
      • Job 79M00983A
      • Job 80M00165A
      • Job 80R01362A
      • Job 82B00007R
      • Job 82B00421R
      • Job 97S00360R
  • Library of Congress
    • Sol M. Linowitz Papers
  • National Security Council
    • Carter Intelligence Files
  • Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
    • Record Group 330, Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense
      • IA Region Files, 1974–1979, FRC: 330–87–0068
      • AGC International Affairs, 1952–1981, FRC: 330–84–0047
      • 1977 Country Files, FRC: 330–80–0035
      • Foreign Military Rights Affairs, 1970–1977, FRC: 330–79–0089
      • Foreign Military Rights Affairs, 1969–1978, FRC: 330–80–0024
      • 1977 Official Records (Secret and Below) of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Special Assistant to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, FRC: 330–80–0017
      • 1978 Official Records (Secret and Below) of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Special Assistant to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, FRC: 330–81–0202
      • 1979 Official Records (Secret and Below) of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Special Assistant to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, FRC: 330–82–0205
      • 1980 Official Records (Secret and Below) of the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Special Assistant to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, FRC: 330–82–0217
      • 1981 Official Records (Secret and Below) of the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the Executive Secretary to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense, FRC: 330–83–0104

Published Sources

  • Arthur Andersen and Co. Analysis of the Estimated Cash Requirements of the Panama Canal Commission, 1979–1983. Chicago: A. Andersen, 1978.
  • Brzezinski, Zbigniew. Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977–1981. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1983.
  • Carter, Jimmy. Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President. New York: Bantam Books, 1982.
  • ___. White House Diary. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2010.
  • The Chicago Tribune.
  • Jorden, William J. Panama Odyssey. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984.
  • Linowitz, Sol M. The Making of a Public Man: A Memoir. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1985.
  • The New York Times.
  • Newsweek.
  • Organization of American States. Charter of the Organization of American States. Washington: Pan American Union, 1949.
  • ___. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Panama. Washington: General Secretariat, Organization of American States, 1979.
  • Time.
  • United Nations. Charter of the United Nations. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1945.
  • ___. Yearbook of the United Nations, 1967, 1973. United Nations, New York: Office of Public Information, 1969, 1976.
  • United States Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Study Commission. Interoceanic Canal Studies, 1970: Final Report. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.
  • United States Congress. Congressional Record. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • United States Department of State. Bulletin, 1977–1980. Washington.
  • ___. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the New Panama Canal Treaties. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.
  • United States National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon B. Johnson, 1963–1964. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965.
  • ___. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Gerald R. Ford, 1976–1977. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.
  • ___. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Jimmy Carter, 1977–1981. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978–1982.
  • The Wall Street Journal.
  • The Washington Post.