Learn about the beta

Negotiation and Signing of the Panama Canal Treaties, October 6, 1976–September 9, 1977


2. Presidential Review Memorandum

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council Institutional Files, Box 2, PRM/NSC 1–24 (1). Secret.


3. Paper Prepared in the Department of State

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, North/South, Box 42, Panama, PRM–1, 1/77. Secret. Prepared in response to PRM–1. The Defense Department and CIA contributed to the paper.


4. Memorandum From the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Brown) to the Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Source: National Archives, RG 218, Records of Chairman George S. Brown, Box 48, 820 (Panama) Bulky 1 Jan 1976–31 May 1977. Confidential; Eyes Only. Sent to Holloway, Jones, Rogers and Wilson.


5. Memorandum From Robert Pastor of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council Institutional Files, Box 24, PRM–01(1). Confidential. Sent for information.


6. Minutes of a Policy Review Committee Meeting

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council Institutional Files, Box 59, PRC 770001—1/27/77—Panama. Top Secret. The meeting took place in the White House Situation Room. All brackets except those that indicate omitted text are in the original.


7. Memorandum From Secretary of State Vance to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Subject File, Box 17, Evening Reports (State) 1/77–2/10/77. Secret. A note on the document reads: “The President has seen.” Carter initialed the memorandum and wrote: “cc: Vance.”


8. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski) to Multiple Recipients

Source: Carter Library, National Security Council Institutional Files, Box 59, PRC 770001—1/27/77—Panama. Secret. Sent to Vance, Harold Brown, Young, George Brown, Bunker, and Linowitz.


9. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: Department of State, Records of Cyrus R. Vance, Lot 84D241, Box 10, Nodis Memcons 1977. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Bell on February 2; cleared by Bunker and Todman, and approved by William H. Twaddell (S) on February 14. The meeting took place in the Secretary’s Suite and the James Madison Room.


10. Letter From the Commander in Chief of United States Southern Command (McAuliffe) to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Brown)

Washington National Records Center, IA Region Files, 1974–1979: FRC 330–87–0068, 1974–1978 JCS Defense Concepts. Secret. On February 7, an unknown hand wrote: “DJS approve action incl. draft reply” on the memorandum. A stamped notation reads: “No foreign dissem.”


11. Memorandum for the Record

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Congressional Affairs, Job 79M00983A, Box 8, Folder 4: SSCI Countries—Panama Sept 1972–May 1977. Secret. Drafted by Massey. All brackets except those that indicate omitted text are in the original.


12. Letter From President Carter to the Panama Canal Treaty Co-Negotiator (Linowitz)

Source: Carter Library, White House Central Files Subject File, Box C0 121, 1. No classification marking.


13. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Panama

Source: Department of State, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Office of the U.S. Permanent Mission to the OAS, Einaudi Country Files, 1977–1989, Lot 91D371, Box 6, Panama 1977. Confidential; Priority; Exdis. Drafted by Todman; cleared by Habib and Goldsmith; and approved by Vance.


14. Memorandum From the Panama Canal Treaty Co-Negotiator (Linowitz) for the Files

Source: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Linowitz Papers, Box 113, Panama Canal Treaties, Carter, Jimmy and White House Staff 1977, Feb–1978, Jan. Confidential; Personal.


15. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: Department of State, American Embassy Panama, Panama Canal Treaty Negotiation Files, 1964–1977, Lot 81F1, Box 127, POL 33.3.2. Confidential. The meeting took place in the conference room at the Hotel Contadora. The meeting ended at noon.


16. Memorandum From the Deputy Secretary of State (Christopher) to the Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations (Bennet)

Source: Department of State, Principal and S/S Memoranda for 1977, Lot 79D31, Box 1, Principal Memoranda, July–September 1977. Confidential.


17. Briefing Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs (Todman) to the Deputy Secretary of State (Christopher)

Source: Department of State, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Office of the U.S. Permanent Mission to the OAS, Einaudi Country Files, 1977–1989, Lot 91D371, Box 6, Panama 1977. Confidential. Drafted by Todman.


18. Memorandum From Secretary of State Vance to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Subject File, Box 17, Evening Reports (State), 2/11–28/77. Secret. Carter initialed the memorandum and wrote: “To Cy” in the upper right margin. All brackets except those that indicate omitted text are in the original.


19. Memorandum From Secretary of State Vance to President Carter

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Subject File, Box 17, Evening Reports (State), 2/11–28/77. Secret. Carter initialed the memorandum and wrote: “Cy.”


20. Briefing Memorandum From Ambassador at Large (Bunker) and Panama Canal Treaty Co-Negotiator (Linowitz) to Secretary of State Vance

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Official and Personal Files of Ambassador at Large Ellsworth Bunker, Lot 78D300, Box 4, Panama Key Documents, 1977. Secret. The report was forwarded to Brzezinski on February 26 under a covering memorandum from Borg. (Ibid.) Brzezinski forwarded the report to Carter in a March 1 memorandum. (Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, Country File, Box 60, Panama, 1–10/77)


21. Memorandum From the Deputy Director for Operations of the Central Intelligence Agency (Wells) to Multiple Recipients

Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Office of the Deputy Director for Intelligence, Job 80R01362A: Committees Task Forces Boards Councils Files, Box 2, Folder 18: CPS Latin America. Secret; [handling restriction not declassified]. Sent to Saunders, Bunker, Linowitz, Dolvin, Bell, and Pastor. All brackets except those that indicate omitted text are in the original.


22. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Official and Personal Files of Ambassador at Large Ellsworth Bunker, Lot 78D300, Box 3, Panama, DOADOD, Liaison With. Secret. Drafted by Richard C. Barkley (S/AB) on March 9. The meeting took place at the Department of Defense. Copies were sent to Einaudi, Todman, Luers, Bell, Wyrough, Becker, Chester, Kozak, Bunker and Linowitz.


23. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, North/South, Pastor, Country, Panama, PRM–1, 2–4/77. Secret.


24. Briefing Memorandum From Multiple Senders to Secretary of State Vance

Source: Carter Library, Congressional Liaison Office, Francis, Copeland, Small (Coordination), Freibers, Brooks, Naechterlein, Tate, and Thomson, Box 6, (Panama Canal Treaty Negotiations), 1/3/77–4/2/77 (CF, OIA 193). Confidential. Drafted by Pezzullo. Sent from Bunker, Linowitz, Bennet, Carter, and Todman. An unknown hand wrote: “Beefed up version of Feb. 14 version by Pezzullo. WH was sent this one.”


25. Letter From President Carter to General Torrijos

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Brzezinski Material, President’s Correspondence with Foreign Leaders, Box 15, Panama: General Omar Torrijos Herrera 2/77–7/78. No classification marking. In telegram 053007 to Panama City, March 10, the Department transmitted the text of the letter to Jorden with instructions to “deliver English text to General at earliest possible time.” The Department noted that the “letter is secret and not intended for publication.” (National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy File, D770081–0879)


26. Letter From the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Brown) to the Commander in Chief of United States Southern Command (McAuliffe)

Source: National Archives, RG 218, Records of Chairman George S. Brown, Box 48, 820 (Panama) Bulky 1 Jan 1976–31 May 1977. Secret.


27. Memorandum of Conversation

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Official and Personal Files of Ambassador at Large Ellsworth Bunker, Lot 78D300, Box 1, Negotiating Round (Washington, DC) March 13, 1977. Secret. Drafted by Anthony J. Hervas and Stephanie van Reigersberg (OPR/LS) on March 18. The meeting took place at the Panamanian Embassy Residence.


28. Telegram From the Embassy in Panama to the Department of State

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Official and Personal Files of Ambassador at Large Ellsworth Bunker, Lot 78D300, Box 3, Panama, DOADOD, Liaison With. Confidential; Immediate; Exdis.


29. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski) to the Deputy Secretary of State (Christopher)

Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, North/South, Box 39, Pastor, Country, Panama, 1–3/77. Secret. An unidentified hand wrote: “Let Pastor know” on the top of the memorandum.


30. Letter From Secretary of Defense Brown to Secretary of State Vance

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Official and Personal Files of Ambassador at Large Ellsworth Bunker, Lot 78D300, Box 4, Panama Public + Congressional Educ. Secret. The letter was forwarded to Hodding Carter on April 7 under a covering memorandum from Bunker. (Ibid.) Vance’s initials are stamped on the letter.