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Index

References are to document numbers

    • Aaron, David L.:
      • analysis of developments in Horn of Africa, 87
      • Army Corps of Engineers study in Somalia, 91
      • covert actions, 103
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • illegal transfer of Saudi arms to Somalia, 58
      • meetings:
        • Carter-Gromyko, 85
        • with Gedle-Ghiorgis, 57
        • with Mengistu, 57, 58, 65
        • of the NSC, 62
        • of the PRC, 11, 27
        • of the SCC:
          • Jan. 21, 1977, 37
          • Feb. 10, 1978, 54
          • Feb. 21, 1978, 58
          • Mar. 2, 1978, 65
          • Mar. 10, 1978, 73
          • Mar. 16, 1978, 75
          • Mar. 27, 1978, 76
          • Apr. 7, 1978, 79
          • May 15, 1978, 82
          • Dec. 11, 1978, 92
          • Apr. 7, 1980, 103
      • message to Mengistu, 73, 74
      • Ogaden War, 58, 62
      • U.S. Horn of Africa policy, 55
      • visit to Ethiopia, 54, 58, 62, 87
    • Abate, Atnafu, 2
    • Abdi Duale, Brig. Gen. Adan, 101
    • Addou, Abdullahi Ahmed:
      • meetings:
      • message from Siad, 16
      • political situation in Somalia, 94
      • Soviet-Somali break, proposal for, 32
      • third-country arms transfers, 60
      • U.S. military aid to Somalia, 21, 62, 89, 105
    • Afar people, 10, 95
    • Afars and Issas (TFAI). See Djibouti.
    • Africa, 29, 43, 85, 86
    • African Liberation Committee (OAU), 84
    • Agency for International Development (AID):
      • aid to Djibouti, 30, 33
      • aid to Ethiopia, 82
      • aid to Somalia, 89, 90, 91
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from Ethiopia, 14, 16
      • Kennedy Library at Addis Ababa University as project of, 57
    • agreements, international:
      • Egyptian-Sudanese Mutual Defense Treaty (1976), 84
      • Kenyan-Ethiopian mutual defense treaty, 10
      • Soviet-Somali Friendship Treaty, 10
    • Air Force, U.S., 95
    • aircraft:
    • airlifts, 35, 36, 37, 53
    • Algeria, 39, 79, 84
    • Alireza, Ali Abdullah, 82, 83
    • Amin Dada, Idi, 20, 94
    • Andom, Lt. Gen. Anam Michael, 10
    • Angola:
      • Cuban military forces in, 52, 62, 65, 84
      • Ford Administration as impacted by, 54
      • French role in, 54
      • refugees from, 85
      • South African role in, 54
      • Soviet involvement in, 10, 59, 66
      • Tunney Amendment as affecting U.S. actions in, 54, 65
      • U.S. covert action in, 52
      • U.S. support for UNITA, 36
      • Zambian role in, 83
    • Ansar, 10, 29
    • apartheid, 65, 66
    • Arab League, 58, 77
    • Armacost, Michael, 55
    • arms embargo, 27
    • Arms Export Control Act (1976), 21
    • arms transfers:
      • Kenyan position, 62
      • Presidential Directive on, 64
      • third-country, 32, 55, 58, 60, 63
      • U.S. policy toward, 10, 62, 63
    • Army, U.S. Department of, 95
    • Army Corps of Engineers, 89, 90, 91, 92, 98, 99
    • Assab, 10, 26, 36, 59, 84, 87
    • Ayalew Mandefro, Ato, 41, 47
    • Bahrain, 95
    • balance of payments, 105
    • Bante, Teferi, 2, 10
    • Baron, Frederick D., 37
    • Barrows, W., 9
    • Bartholomew, Reginald, 55, 85, 87, 105
    • Bass, Kenneth, 37, 103
    • Berbera, 62, 96, 97, 100, 107, 109
    • Bergus, Donald C., 94
    • Berhane, Deressa, 57
    • Berhanu Bayeh, 57
    • Bessmertnykh, A.A., 85
    • Beyer, Gordon, 92, 94
    • Blechman, Barry, 89
    • Bongo, Albert-Bernard (Omar), 44, 60
    • border inviolability, 55
    • Bowie, Robert, 37, 92
    • Brement, Marshall, 102, 106
    • Brewton, U.S.S., 97
    • Brezhnev, Leonid I., 46, 66, 84, 85
    • Brown, Gen. George S., 4, 11, 37, 46, 54, 64
    • Brown, Harold:
      • Eritrean insurgency, 7
      • former Soviet military facilities in Somalia, 45
      • illegal transfer of Saudi arms to Somalia, 58
      • Kagnew Station, 5, 6
      • meetings:
        • Carter-Gromyko, 85
        • of the NSC, 62, 63
        • of the PRC, 11
        • of the SCC:
          • Jan. 21, 1977, 37
          • Jan. 26, 1978, 46, 50, 51
          • Feb. 10, 1978, 54
          • Feb. 21, 1978, 58
          • Mar. 2, 1978, 65
          • Mar. 10, 1978, 73
          • Mar. 16, 1978, 75
          • Mar. 27, 1978, 76
          • Apr. 7, 1978, 79
          • June 9, 1980, 107
      • naval task force planning for Red Sea area, 50, 51, 58
      • non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • Ogaden War, 58, 62
      • PD/NSC–32, 64
      • PRM/NSC 21, 4
      • U.S. Horn of African options, 36
      • U.S. military aid to Ethiopia, 12
      • U.S. military intervention in Somalia, 107
      • U.S. use of military facilities in Somalia, 96, 97
    • Brzezinski, Zbigniew:
      • analysis of developments in Horn of Africa, 87
      • Angola, 65
      • collection of intelligence on Horn of Africa issues, 37
      • covert actions, 43, 52, 103
      • Djibouti as assessed by CIA, 95
      • Eritrean insurgency, 78
      • Ethiopia, 12, 43, 49, 87, 102
      • Henze’s report on Horn of Africa trip, 29
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • Kagnew Station, 5, 6
      • meetings:
        • Aaron-Mengistu, 58
        • Addou-Carter, 20
        • with Ayalew, 41
        • Carter-Giscard, 39
        • Carter-Gromyko, 85
        • of the NSC, 62, 63
        • of the PRC, 11, 27, 28, 88, 89
        • of the SCC:
          • Jan. 21, 1977, 37
          • Jan. 26, 1978, 44, 50, 51, 52
          • Feb. 10, 1978, 54
          • Feb. 21, 1978, 58
          • Mar. 2, 1978, 65
          • Mar. 10, 1978, 73
          • Mar. 16, 1978, 75
          • Mar. 27, 1978, 78
          • Apr. 7, 1978, 79
          • May 15, 1978, 82
          • Apr. 7, 1980, 103, 104
      • naval task force planning for Red Sea area, 50, 51, 58
      • non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • Ogaden War, 26, 58, 62, 66, 68
      • Somalia:
        • Army Corps of Engineers study in, 90
        • illegal transfer of Saudi arms to, 58
        • increased involvement in Ogaden insurrection by, 106
        • Somali-Soviet relations, 93
        • U.S. military aid to, 19, 86, 99
        • U.S. military facilities in, 109
        • U.S. use of military facilities in, 96, 97
      • U.S. Horn of Africa policy, 55
      • U.S.-Soviet relations, 66
    • Bulgaria, 36
    • Bureau of Intelligence and Research, 59
    • Byrd, Robert C., 15
    • Cahill, Jacklyn, 17
    • Cameroon, 31
    • Carlucci, Frank, 76, 82, 103
    • Carrara-Cagni, Giancarlo, 44
    • Carter, James Earl:
      • Eritrean insurgency, 78
      • Ethiopia:
        • covert actions in, 104
        • Cuban troops in, 49
        • evacuation of U.S. personnel from, 14, 16
        • recall of U.S. ambassador to, 108
        • Soviet military aid to, 35
        • United States, relations with, 38
        • U.S. military aid to, 12, 13, 47
        • Yugoslav transfer of tanks to, 21
      • human rights, 20
      • meetings:
        • Aaron-Mengistu, 57
        • with Addou, 16, 17, 20, 106
        • Addou-Mondale, 18
        • Brzezinski-Ayalew, 41
        • with Fahd, 39
        • with Giscard, 39
        • with Gouled, 30
        • with Gromyko, 85
        • with Kenyan delegation, 65
        • of the NSC, 62, 63
        • with Obasanjo, 34
        • of the PRC, 28
        • of the SCC, 104
      • messages:
        • to Brezhnev, 46
        • to Desai, 46
        • to Giscard, 46
        • to Mengistu, 38, 41, 42, 46, 47
        • to Obasanjo, 46, 48, 58
        • to Pérez, 46
        • from Siad, 16, 32
        • to Siad, 34
        • to Tito, 46
        • from Vance to Siad, 71
      • naval task force planning for Red Sea area, 64
      • Ogaden War:
        • increase in possibility for conflict, 22
        • NSC discussion of, 62
        • OAU as mediator in, 48
        • quadripartite consultations on, 34
        • Somali advances in, 35
        • Somali seizure of territory, 24
        • Somali withdrawal, 74
        • U.S.-Soviet relations as affected by, 66
      • press conferences, 42
      • PRM/NSC 21, 4
      • Somalia:
        • as aided by Arab states, 54
        • statement on, 73
        • U.S. economic aid to, 17, 73
        • U.S. military aid to:
          • decisions against, 32, 34, 42
          • for defense weapons only, 76, 98, 99
          • options for, 88
          • posting of defense attaché, 19
          • request for, 17
        • U.S. use of military facilities in, 97, 108
      • Soviet role in Horn of Africa, 40
      • Soviet-Somali break, proposal for, 32
      • U.S. economic aid to Sudan, 94
      • visits, Europe (May 1977), 17
    • Castro, Fidel:
      • Eritrean insurgency, 84, 85
      • Horn of Africa diplomatic efforts by, 7
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on, 77
      • Poniatowski’s meeting with, 39
      • Socialist federation in Horn of Africa, proposal for, 21
      • visits to Somalia and Ethiopia, 10
    • Castro, Raúl, 56, 100
    • Central Intelligence Agency:
      • attempted coup in Somalia, 81
      • covert actions by, 52, 79, 103, 110
      • Cuban troop levels in Ethiopia, 100
      • Cuban troops in Ethiopia, 49
      • Djibouti as assessed by, 95
      • Eritrean insurgency, 78, 84
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from Ethiopia, 14
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • Intelligence Memoranda, 8, 67, 68, 81, 84
      • Ogaden update by, 88
      • PDRY proposal of, 75
      • “Proposed Covert Action Regarding Ethiopia” (paper), 37
      • Siad’s pledge to support Ogaden rebels, 101
      • Soviet airlift, 37
    • Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), 54
    • Chapin, Frederic Lincoln, 82, 92, 94, 103, 104, 108
    • China, People’s Republic of:
      • Cuba, relations with, 77
      • economic aid to Ethiopia and Somalia, 10
      • Horn of Africa interests of, 10, 29
      • military and economic aid to Sudan, 10, 65
      • Sudan, relations with, 10
      • United States, relations with, 54, 66
      • U.S. consultation on Ogaden War with, 65
      • U.S. technology transfer to, 58
    • Christopher, Warren M.:
      • covert actions in Ethiopia, 104
      • meetings:
        • Addou-Schaufele, 7
        • with Gouled, 30
        • of the NSC, 62
        • of the PRC, 27
        • of the SCC, 37, 73
      • Ogaden War, 24, 62
      • recall of U.S. ambassador to Ethiopia, 108
      • U.S. use of military facilities in Somalia, 108
      • Vance’s message to Siad, 70
    • Clark, Richard C., 54
    • Clift, A. Denis, 30, 33
    • coffee, 102
    • collectivization, 102
    • colonialism, 85
    • communications, 79, 82, 89
    • Comprehensive Test Ban (CTB), 36
    • Congress, Acts of:
      • Arms Export Control Act (1976), 21
      • Foreign Assistance Act (1961), 52, 104
      • Gonzalez Amendment, 82, 92
      • Hickenlooper Amendment, 82, 92
      • Hughes-Ryan Amendment (1974), 52
      • P. L. 480, 30, 33, 73, 75
      • Tunney Amendment (1976), 54, 65
    • Congress, U.S.:
      • consultations on U.S. Ogaden War options, 36, 64
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from Ethiopia, 14
      • illegal transfer of Saudi arms to Somalia, 58, 63
      • report on Yugoslav tank transfers to Ethiopia to, 21
      • U.S military and economic aid to Somalia, 54, 62, 75
    • Constellation, U.S.S., 95, 96
    • covert actions:
      • against the Soviet airlift, 36
      • in Angola, 52
      • in Ethiopia:
        • Carter’s approval of, 104
        • ideas for study on, 43
        • Memorandum of Notification, 110
        • SCC discussion of, 37, 43, 46, 79, 82, 103
      • Henze-Chapin discussion of, 94
      • outside Ethiopia, 46
      • Saudi financing of, 110
      • status report on, 52
    • Crawford, William, 83
    • Cuba:
      • African role of, 85
      • Algeria, relations with, 84
      • Chinese People’s Republic, relations with, 77
      • combat troops in Angola, 52, 62, 65, 84
      • combat troops in Ethiopia:
        • against Eritrea, 73, 78, 82, 84
        • increase in numbers of, 62, 65
        • maintenance of levels of, 100
        • prospect of, 10
        • SCC discussion of, 58
        • U.S. position, 49
      • covert actions against Ethiopian intervention by, 43
      • Eritrean insurgency, 73, 78, 82, 84
      • Ethiopian government as supported by, 4
      • Horn of Africa, 83
      • Iraq, relations with, 84
      • Libya, relations with, 84
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on, 77, 82
      • Ogaden War, 36, 87
      • Rhodesian role for, 65, 66
      • Somalia, relations with, 7
      • Soviet Union, relations with, 84
      • Syria, relations with, 84
      • U.S. economic pressures on, 66, 73
      • U.S. naval bases in Djibouti, 95
      • U.S. reconnaisance flights over, 75
    • Cutter, Bowman, 75
    • Dahlak Islands, 87
    • Daoud Khan, Mohammed, 77
    • Davis, U.S.S., 96, 97
    • Dawit Wolde Georgis, 57
    • Defense, U.S. Department of (DOD):
      • Djibouti, 95
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from Ethiopia, 14
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • Ogaden War papers by, 36, 61
      • U.S. military aid to Kenya, 79
      • U.S. military aid to Somalia, 76, 82, 89
      • U.S. military facilities in Somalia, 109
    • Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), 97, 100
    • Denend, Leslie, 87, 88, 91
    • Deng, Francis M., 29, 94
    • Deressa, Berhane, 29
    • Desai, Morarji, 46, 66
    • détente, 66
    • Detinov, N. N., 85
    • Diego Garcia, 62, 64
    • Diredawa, 26, 87, 94
    • Dirg, 2, 10, 23, 43, 102
    • disinformation, 65
    • Djibouti (see also Horn of Africa):
      • CIA assessment of, 95
      • economic crisis from cutoff of transit trade, 26
      • Ethiopian-Somali conflict over, possible, 8, 10
      • France, relations with, 30
      • French military forces in, 10, 11, 39, 95
      • independence for, 4, 20
      • Israeli interests in, 10
      • lessening of tensions in, 29
      • OAU membership for, 10
      • Ogaden War as seen by, 30
      • refugees in, 30, 33
      • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 10, 95
      • territorial integrity as OAU principle, 75
      • terrorism in, possible, 10
      • U.S. courses of action in, 87
      • U.S. economic aid to, 27, 28, 30, 33
      • U.S. use of military facilities in, 94, 95, 96
    • Dobrynin, Anatoliy F.:
      • Carter-Gromyko meeting, 85
      • Laboulaye’s meeting with, 44
      • Ogaden War, 56, 62, 65, 73
      • Vance’s meetings with, 56, 58, 73, 75
    • Dobrynin initiative, 44
    • document not declassified, 25
    • drought relief, 3
    • Duale, Brig. Gen. Adan Abdi, 101
    • Duncan, Charles W., Jr., 27, 58, 75, 76, 79
    • Duncan, William, 11
    • Eastern Europe, 4
    • Egypt:
      • blockade of Suez Canal, possible, 36
      • Eritrean insurgency as supported by, 79
      • Libyan conflict with, 53
      • military aid to Somalia:
        • air-defense weapons, 76
        • capabilities for, 53
        • illegal transfer of arms, 58, 64
        • intentions for provision of, 46, 50
        • Presidential Directive on, 64
        • receipt of, 21
        • SCC discussion of, 46, 54
        • sending of troops, 39, 46, 54, 58, 62
        • transport of Sudanese troops, 40
        • unlikelyhood of, 65
        • as used in Ogaden, 93
      • Ogaden War as seen by, 31, 65, 67
      • overflight rights, 36
      • Soviet Horn of Africa role, 10, 40
      • United States, relations with, 58
      • U.S. economic aid for, 94
      • U.S. military intervention in Somalia, 107
      • U.S. naval bases in Djibouti, 95
    • Egyptian-Sudanese Mutual Defense Treaty (1976), 84
    • Elliott, Randall T., 53
    • “USS Enterprise” (aircraft carrier), 58
    • Equatorial Guinea, 97
    • Erb, Guy, 55
    • Eritrea:
      • as affected by Soviet Bloc military aid to Ethiopia, 48
      • Arab states support for independence of, 2
      • black African support for Ethiopian control of, 2
      • hope for internal autonomy by, 10
      • as part of proposed Socialist federation, 21
      • refugees from, 83, 92
      • religion in, 83
      • Sudanese position, 29
      • U.S. neutrality toward independence of, 10
      • U.S. policy on, 76, 78
    • Eritrean insurgency (see also Ethiopia):
      • Algerian position, 84
      • Arab desire for negotiated settlement, 84
      • Arab support for, 5, 10, 62
      • attacks near Kagnew by, 5
      • CIA views on, 78, 84
      • Cuba’s training of rebels of, 84
      • Cuban position, 84
      • Cubans in combat roles against, 73, 78, 82, 84
      • Egyptian support for, 79
      • Ethiopian successes against, 87
      • indefinite continuation of, 102
      • independence as objective of, 110
      • insurgent perspectives on, 84
      • Iraqi position, 10, 62, 84
      • Italy as potential mediator with, 87
      • Libyan position, 84
      • lull in Ethiopian military efforts against, 2
      • military assessment of, 9
      • OAU role in, 83
      • Ogaden War as affected by, 44
      • PDRY position, 84
      • regaining of territory by, 102
      • Saudi support for, 10, 62, 78, 79
      • SCC discussion of, 76, 78
      • seizure of Nacfa by, 6
      • Soviet opposition to, 10
      • Soviet position, 78, 84, 85
      • Sudanese desire for negotiated settlement, 29
      • Sudanese support for, 5, 62, 78, 79, 84
      • Syrian position, 84
      • U.S. approach to, 76, 82
    • Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), 2, 84
    • Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF), 29, 84, 86
    • Ermarth, Fritz, 94, 102, 106
    • Ethiopia (see also Eritrean insurgency; Horn of Africa; Ogaden War):
      • air raids over Somalia by, 44
      • army morale in, 22
      • CIA memorandum on implications of revolution in, 8
      • covert actions in:
        • Carter’s approval of, 104
        • ideas for study on, 43
        • Memorandum of Notification, 110
        • SCC discussion of, 37, 43, 46, 79, 82, 103
      • CPR economic aid to, 10
      • Cuban combat troops in:
        • against Eritrea, 73, 78, 82, 84
        • increase in numbers of, 62, 65
        • maintenance of levels of, 100
        • prospect of, 10
        • SCC discussion of, 58
        • U.S. position, 49
      • Djibouti as possible cause of conflict with Somalia, 8, 10
      • economic situation in, 102
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from, 14, 15, 16
      • Horn Working Group assessment of conditions in, 94
      • human rights violations by, 10
      • internal security in, 94
      • Iran, relations with, 26
      • Israel, relations with, 8, 10, 36
      • Jijiga as recaptured by, 69
      • Kenyan mission to, 65
      • Libya, relations with, 4, 8
      • Mengistu’s solidifying of power in, 2, 10, 94, 102
      • military situation in, 102
      • Ogaden as autonomous part of, proposed, 44
      • Ogaden War as seen by, 31, 57, 58, 61
      • PDRY, relations with, 2, 8
      • political situation in, 102
      • political violence in, 41
      • radicalization of, 1
      • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 26
      • Somali invasion as announced by, 23
      • Somalia, relations with, 2
      • Soviet Generals’ role in, 59
      • Soviet impact on relations with Somalia, 2
      • Soviet influence in:
        • airlift, 35, 36, 37
        • CIA discussion of, 8
        • Five-power failure to discuss, 44
        • impact on U.S.-Soviet relations, 66
        • U.S. covert actions for disruption of, 37, 43, 46, 79, 82, 103
        • U.S. policy review on, 4
      • Soviet military aid to, 10, 17, 35, 36, 37, 48
      • Soviet military facilities in, 95
      • territorial integrity as OAU principle, 75
      • United States, relations with, 10, 38, 66, 74, 79
      • U.S. economic aid to, 10, 11, 27, 28, 82, 92
      • U.S. military aid to, 1, 10, 11, 12, 13, 47
      • U.S. reconnaisance flights over, 73
      • U.S. support for opposition leaders in, 110
      • USIS role in, 10
      • Yugoslavian transfer of tanks to, 21
    • Ethiopia Working Group, 14, 15
    • Ethiopian Provisional Military Government (EPMG), 10, 15, 23
    • Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, 11, 39
    • Fahmy, Ismail, 31
    • Felleke Gedle-Giorgis, 23, 29, 57, 82
    • Fida, Haile, 2
    • Food For Peace, 30, 33
    • Forbes, John D., 83
    • Ford, Gerald R., 1, 54
    • Foreign Assistance Act (1961), 52, 104
    • France:
      • Angolan role for, 54
      • Djibouti, relations with, 30
      • military aid to Somalia by, 21
      • military intervention in Zaire, 39
      • Ogaden War, 39, 44, 58
      • Soviet Union, relations with, 95
      • U.S.-French Horn of Africa discussions, 11
    • François-Poncet, Jean, 39
    • Funk, Gerald P., 94, 102, 106
    • Gabon, 31, 54, 56, 58
    • Galla (people), 26, 102
    • Garba, Joseph Nanven, 31, 44, 58
    • Gates, Robert, 58, 62, 94
    • Gebre Kidan, Tesfaye, 100, 102
    • Gedle-Ghiorgis, Felleke, 23, 29, 57, 82
    • genocide, 43
    • Georgy, Guy, 44
    • Germany, Democratic Republic of (GDR), 84, 85
    • Gilligan, John J., 30
    • Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry, 11, 39, 46
    • Giscard initiative, 54
    • Glassman, Jon D., 3
    • Gondar Province (Ethiopia), 84, 102
    • Gonzalez Amendment, 82, 92
    • Gouled, Hassan, 30, 33, 95, 96
    • Greater Somalia as Somali goal, 10
    • Greece, 36
    • Gromyko, Andrei, 31, 39, 65, 85
    • Guiringaud, Louis de, 39
    • Habib, Philip C., 29, 32
    • Halane Political Indoctrination Institute, 101
    • Hannifin, Patrick J., 27
    • Hanson, Carl Thor, 61
    • Harar, 26, 87, 94
    • Harrop, William C.:
      • Army Corps of Engineers study in Somalia, 90, 91
      • PRC meetings, 27, 89
      • SCC meetings, 75, 79, 92
      • Vance’s message to Siad, 70
    • Health, Education and Welfare, U.S. Department of, 33
    • Helman, Gerald B., 3
    • Henze, Paul B.:
      • Addou-Carter meeting, 20
      • analysis of developments in Horn of Africa, 87
      • Army Corps of Engineers study in Somalia, 91
      • covert actions, 43, 94
      • Djibouti as assessed by CIA, 95
      • Ethiopia, 43, 49, 87, 94, 102
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • meetings:
        • with Ayalew, 41
        • with Chapin, 94
        • of the PRC, 11, 27, 88
        • of the SCC:
          • Jan. 21, 1977, 37
          • Jan. 26, 1978, 46
          • Mar. 2, 1978, 65
          • Mar. 10, 1978, 73
          • Mar. 16, 1978, 75
          • Mar. 27, 1978, 76
          • Apr. 7, 1978, 79
          • Dec. 11, 1978, 92
          • Apr. 7, 1980, 103
        • With Gedle-Ghiorgis, 29
      • Ogaden War, 26, 68
      • political situation in Somalia, 26
      • report on Horn of Africa trip by, 29
      • Somalia’s increased involvement in Ogaden insurrection, 106
      • U.S. Horn of Africa policy, 55
      • U.S. military aid to Somalia, 86
    • Hickenlooper Amendment, 82, 92
    • Hitler, Adolf, 68
    • Holloway, Anne Forrester, 11
    • Holloway, Adm. James L., III, 75
    • Horn of Africa (see also Djibouti; Ethiopia; Somalia):
      • Arab states’ concern with Soviet role in, 10
      • arms embargo in, 27
      • Bureau of Intelligence and Research report on, 59
      • Castro’s diplomatic efforts in, 7
      • Chinese People’s Republic interests of, 10, 29
      • Cuban role in, 83
      • five-power meetings on, 44
      • French-U.S. discussions on, 11
      • geographical significance of, 87
      • Henze’s report on trip to, 29
      • Israeli interests in, 10
      • Italian-U.S. discussions on, 11
      • PDRY role in, 83
      • Saudi perspective on, 83
      • Socialist federation in, proposed, 17, 18, 20, 21
      • Soviet influence in, 10, 40
      • Soviet-U.S discussions on, 56
      • strategic importance lacking in, 10
      • UN initiatives on, 54, 56
      • U.S. analysis of developments in, 87
      • U.S. collection of intelligence on issues in, 37
      • U.S.-Kenyan relations as affected by issues in, 4
      • U.S. options in, 36
      • U.S. policy toward, 1, 4, 10, 27, 55
      • U.S.-Saudi cooperation over, 20
      • Working Group for, 94
    • Houphouët-Boigny, Félix, 39
    • House of Representatives, U.S., 21
    • Hughes-Ryan Amendment (1974), 52
    • human rights, 10, 20, 79, 93
    • Humera, 2, 10
    • Humphrey, Hubert H., 48
    • Humphrey, Muriel, 48
    • Hunter, Robert, 55, 106
    • Huntington, Samuel, 87
    • Ibrahim, Ahmed, 30
    • Inderfurth, Karl F. “Rick,” 75
    • India, 39, 79
    • Indian Ocean, 36, 58, 95
    • Indo-Pakistani War (1971), 58
    • Indonesia, 77, 79
    • intelligence:
      • collection of, 37, 46, 54
      • military, 50, 51
      • military attaché’s role in, 89
      • signals (SIGINT), 46
    • Intelligence Memorandum - “The Ethiopian Revolution and Its Implications,” 8
    • International Labor Organization (ILO), 102
    • International Military Education and Training (IMET), 89, 92
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 82, 87
    • International Women’s Day, 69
    • Iran:
      • establishment of MYSTIC STAR facility in, 5
      • Ethiopia, relations with, 26
      • finlandization of, 66
      • military aid to Somalia:
        • capabilities for, 53
        • NSC discussion of, 62
        • Presidential Directive on, 64
        • SCC discussion of, 46, 50, 54, 75
        • Somali desire for, 32
      • military and economic aid to Zaire, 86
      • Ogaden War as seen by, 31, 39, 40, 65, 67
      • overflight rights, 36
    • Iraq:
      • Cuba, relations with, 84
      • Eritrean insurrection as supported by, 10, 62, 84
      • military aid to Somalia, 26
      • as oil supplier to Somalia, 105
      • overflight rights, 36
      • U.S. naval bases in Djibouti, 95
    • Israel, 8, 10, 29, 36, 58
    • Issa clan, 10, 95
    • Italy, 11, 65, 87
    • Ivory Coast, 31, 39
    • Jama Barre, Abdul Rahman, 17
    • Janka, Leslie A., 11
    • Jayne, Randy, 82
    • Jesse L. Brown, U.S.S., 97
    • Jijiga, 26, 62, 68, 69, 87
    • Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 5, 46, 62, 76, 100
    • Jones, Gen. David C., 58, 62, 65, 73, 76, 79
    • Jordan, 67, 76
    • Jordan, Hamilton, 85
    • Justice, U.S. Department of, 52, 110
    • Kagnew Station:
      • danger to U.S. personnel at, 5
      • decision for closing of, 5, 6, 10
      • decreased importance of, 1
      • destruction of sensitive equipment in, 14, 15
      • Ethiopian deadline for closing of, 13, 14
      • occupation by Ethiopia of, 15
      • review of possible termination of, 4
    • Kamil, Abdallah, 30
    • Kara Mara Pass, 69
    • Katanga, 85
    • Kaunda, Kenneth, 65, 86
    • Kennedy Library (Addis Ababa University), 57
    • Kenya:
      • arms transfers to Somalia, 62
      • British military aid to, 10
      • Carter’s meeting with delegation from, 65
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from Ethiopia, 14
      • Horn Working Group assessment of conditions in, 94
      • human rights violations in, 93
      • Israel, relations with, 29
      • military situation in, 83
      • Ogaden War as seen by, 31, 67
      • overflight rights, 36
      • Saudi Arabia, relations with, 29
      • Somali irredentism as issue in, 7, 10, 34
      • Somalia, relations with, 92
      • territorial integrity as OAU principle, 75
      • United Kingdom, relations with, 29
      • United States, relations with, 1, 4, 27, 28, 86
      • U.S. economic aid to, 11
      • U.S. military aid to, 10, 76, 79, 82
      • U.S. naval bases in Djibouti, 95
      • U.S. policy review on, 4
    • Kenyan-Ethiopian mutual defense treaty, 10
    • Kenyatta, Jomo, 4, 10, 44, 87
    • Khalatbary, Abbas Ali, 31
    • Kikuyu (people), 87
    • Kimmitt, Robert, 94
    • Kissinger, Henry A., 5
    • “USS Kitty Hawk” (aircraft carrier), 62
    • Komer, Robert W., 103
    • Komplektov, V. G., 85
    • Korea, People’s Democratic Republic of, 55
    • Korniyenko, G. M., 85
    • Kramer, Frank, 61
    • Krimer, William D., 85
    • Kulmiye Afrah, Hussein, 3
    • Kuwait, 95
    • Laboulaye, François Lefebvre de, 39, 44
    • Lawson, Gen. Richard, 92
    • Lebanon, 67
    • Leggett, Robert L., 89, 91, 92
    • LeMelle, Wilbert John, 83
    • Leonard, James, 27, 73
    • Liberia, 77
    • Libya, 4, 8, 10, 53, 79, 84
    • Likke, Senaye, 2
    • Loughran, John L.:
      • attempted coup in Somalia, 80
      • meetings with Siad, 11
      • Siad messages to Carter, 34
      • Somali decision to withdraw from Ethiopia, 72
      • U.S. economic aid to Somalia, 17
      • U.S. military aid to Somalia, 82
      • Vance’s message to Siad, 70, 71
    • Lufthansa hijacking incident, 32
    • MacFarlane, L., 17
    • McGiffert, David E.:
      • Army Corps of Engineers study in Somalia, 90, 91
      • DOD papers on Ogaden War, 36, 61
      • meetings:
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • U.S. military intervention in Somalia, 107
    • McHenry, Donald, 76
    • McMahon, John N., 43, 110
    • Madagascar, 44
    • Madani, Nizar, 82
    • Makarov, V., 85
    • Mansfield, Philip, 44
    • Mansouri, al-, Abd al-Rahman ,58, 76, 83
    • Marehan (Merrehan) clan, 10, 81
    • Marine Amphibious Units, 36
    • Massawa, 10, 59, 84, 87
    • Mathews, Jessica Tuchman, 55, 87
    • Mauritania, 39
    • Mekane Yesus (religion), 102
    • Mengistu, Haile Mariam:
      • Aaron’s meeting with, 57, 58, 65
      • Aaron’s messages to, 73, 74
      • Carter’s messages to, 38, 41, 42, 46, 47
      • DIRG’s purge and reconstitution by, 2, 102
      • Eritrean insurgency, 84
      • Ethiopia’s crossing into Somalia, 60, 62
      • Ethiopian recapture of Jijiga, 69
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from Ethiopia, 14
      • Israeli views of, 10
      • overthrow of, possible, 26
      • Siad’s meeting with (proposed), 44
      • solidifying of power in Ethiopia by, 2, 10, 94, 102
      • Somali support for Ogaden rebels, 86, 92
      • Soviet military aid to Ethiopia, 17
      • Sudanese views of, 29
      • United States as seen by, 8
      • U.S. covert actions in Ethiopia, 43, 79, 103, 110
    • Merrehan (Marehan) clan, 10, 81
    • Midway, U.S.S., 95, 96
    • Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG), 6, 10, 13, 14, 51
    • Military Assistance Program (MAP), 10
    • military attachés, 19, 21, 65, 89
    • military intelligence, 50, 51
    • Minić, Miloš, 21
    • missiles, 40, 53
    • Mkapa, Benjamin W., 31
    • Mobutu Sese Seko, 85
    • Mombasa, 95
    • Mondale, Walter F.:
      • meetings:
        • with Addou, 17, 18
        • Carter-Gouled, 30
        • with Gouled, 30, 33
        • of the NSC, 62
        • of the PRC, 11
        • of the SCC, 65
      • Ogaden War, 62
      • PD/NSC–32, 64
      • PRM/NSC 21, 4
      • Somali-Soviet relations, 93
      • U.S. economic and military aid to Somalia, 18, 19
    • Moose, Richard M.:
      • Djibouti, 30
      • meetings:
        • Five-power, 44
        • of the SCC, 37, 73, 75, 76, 82
        • Vance-Saud bin Faisal, 83
      • military and economic aid to Somalia, 98
      • military situation in Kenya, 83
      • Siad’s meetings with, 74, 75, 76
      • Siad’s messages from, 75, 76
      • Vance’s message to Siad, 70
      • visit to Somalia, 74, 75, 76
    • Moose, Robert, 58
    • Morocco, 39
    • Mozambique, 31
    • Mueller, Helmut, 44
    • Mugabe, Robert, 66
    • Murphy, Daniel J., 45, 103
    • Murray, Robert, 75, 92
    • MYSTIC STAR facilities, 5
    • Nacfa, 6
    • Namibia, 85
    • National Foreign Assessment Center, 95
    • National Security Agency (NSA), 95, 100
    • National Security Council (NSC):
      • covert actions in Ethiopia, 110
      • Cuban troop levels in Ethiopia, 100
      • evacuation of U.S. personnel from Ethiopia, 14
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • meeting (Feb. 23, 1978), 62, 63, 64
      • Ogaden War, 62, 67
    • National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), 36, 54
    • nationalization, 102
    • Naval Communications Unit (NAVCOMMU), 5
    • Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU), 14
    • naval task forces, 46, 50, 64
    • Navy, U.S. Department of, 95
    • Neto, Agostinho, 65
    • Newsom, David D., 82, 89, 91, 103
    • Nigeria:
      • Giscard initiative, 54
      • Ogaden War:
        • Nigerian mediation at Lagos meetings, 58
        • Nigerian views on, 31, 34, 39, 44, 56
        • as UNSC initiative, 56
    • Nimeiry, Gaafar, 10, 40, 67, 87
    • Non-Aligned Coordinating Committee (NACC), 77
    • Non-aligned movement (NAM), 77, 82
    • Nur, Brig Gen Adan Abdullahi, 101
    • Obasanjo, Olusegun, 34, 46, 48, 58, 60
    • Oberdorfer, Dan, 86
    • Ochoa Sánchez, Gen. Arnaldo T., 100
    • Odom, William E., 94, 102, 106
    • Office of Intelligence and Policy Review, 110
    • Office of Legal Council (OLC), 110
    • Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 76, 94
    • Ogaden:
      • as autonomous part of Ethiopia, proposals for, 44
      • CIA update on, 88
      • Cuban involvement in, 36, 87
      • depopulation of, 102
      • as part of proposed Socialist federation, 21
      • refugees from, 106
      • reprisals against population of, possible, 44, 68
      • Siad’s pledge to support rebels in, 101
      • Somalia’s aid to insurgents in, 75, 84, 86, 92, 93, 94
      • UNHCR access to, 74
      • U.S. opposition to Somali occupation of, 62, 63
    • Ogaden War (see also Ethiopia; Organization of African Unity; Somalia):
      • Aaron-Mengistu discussion of, 58
      • Chinese People’s Republic-U.S. consultations on, 65
      • diplomatic initiatives, 39
      • Djibouti’s position, 30
      • DOD paper on, 36, 61
      • Egyptian position, 31, 65, 67
      • Eritrean insurgency’s effect on, 44
      • Ethiopian air raids over Somalia, 44
      • Ethiopian announcement of Somali invasion, 23
      • Ethiopian counter-offensive in, 44, 58, 60, 62
      • Ethiopian position, 31, 57, 58, 61
      • Five-power discussion of, 44
      • French position, 39, 58
      • French-Soviet discussions of, 44
      • increase in possibility for conflict, 22
      • Iranian position, 31, 39, 40, 65, 67
      • Italian discussions with Somalia on, 65
      • JCS position, 62
      • Jijiga as recaptured by Ethiopia, 69
      • Jordanian position, 67
      • Kenyan mission to Ethiopia over, 65
      • Kenyan position, 31, 67
      • Lebanese position, 67
      • Nigerian mediation in Lagos meetings, 58
      • Nigerian position, 31, 34, 39, 44, 65
      • NSC discussion of, 62, 67
      • Owen-Gromyko discussion of, 31
      • political settlement in, 66
      • possible outcomes to, 61
      • quadripartite consultations on, 34
      • Saudi position, 39, 65, 67
      • SCC discussion of, 73
      • Siad’s denial of Somali involvement in, 62
      • Somali advances in, 35
      • Somali counterattack in, 65
      • Somali determination for continuation of, 34, 65
      • Somali military officers’ dispute with Siad over, 60
      • Somali position, 61, 62
      • Somali withdrawal, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74
      • Soviet military role in, 59, 67
      • Soviet position, 31, 33, 61
      • Soviet-U.S. discussions on, 56
      • Soviet-U.S. relations as affected by, 36, 66
      • Soviet win in, possible repercussions of, 67
      • Sudanese position, 29, 58, 65, 67
      • Tanzanian position, 31
      • UN initiatives, possible:
        • deferral of U.S. calls for, 63, 64
        • Ethiopian position, 61
        • five-power discussion of, 44
        • French position, 58
        • Nigerian position, 58
        • SCC discussion of, 54
        • Somali position, 61
        • Soviet position, 31, 61
        • Soviet-U.S. discussion of, 56
        • Sudanese position, 58
        • U.S. position, 55, 58
      • U.S. consultations with foreign ministers over, 31
      • U.S. options in, 26, 36
      • U.S. policy and options for, 26, 55, 65
      • U.S. preferred outcomes in, 61
      • Vance’s messages to Siad on, 70
      • Yugoslavia as possible mediator in, 31
    • oil, 54, 102, 105
    • Oman, 95, 96
    • Organization of African Unity (OAU) (see also Ogaden War):
      • charter of, 75
      • Djibouti as member of, 10
      • Eritrean insurgency, 83, 84
      • Ethiopian announcement of Somali invasion, 23
      • as mediator in Ogaden War:
        • Ethiopian position, 31
        • Giscard initiative, 54
        • Nigerian position, 34
        • Somali position, 60
        • Soviet position, 31
        • U.S. position:
          • in Carter’s letter to Obasanjo, 48
          • DOD perspectives on, 36
          • during Somali withdrawal, 73
          • NSC discussion of, 62, 63
          • Presidential Directive on, 64
          • SCC discussion of, 58, 75
          • UNSC vs. OAU action, 55
          • U.S.-Somali discussion of, 32
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • summit meeting (Khartoum, 1978), 87
      • territorial integrity as principle of, 44, 75
    • Oromo (people), 26, 110
    • overflight rights, 36
    • Owen, David, 31, 44
    • P. L. 480, 30, 33, 73, 75
    • Pahlavi, Shah Reza, 40, 54, 62, 65, 95
    • Pakistan, 58, 64
    • Palestinians, 84
    • Parmenter, William K., 11, 27, 37, 73, 75, 92
    • Pastor, Robert A., 55
    • Peace Corps, 10
    • perception management, 65
    • Pérez, Carlos Andrés, 46
    • Perspectives procedure, 52
    • Petrov, Gen. Vasily I., 58, 59, 62, 64, 84
    • Petterson, Donald K., 98, 105
    • Podgorny, Nikolai V., 17, 21
    • Policy Review Committee (PRC):
      • decisions on Horn of Africa issues, 27
      • meetings:
        • Apr. 11, 1977, 11, 12
        • Aug. 25, 1977, 27, 28
        • July 31, 1978, 88, 89, 91
      • review of U.S. Horn of Africa policy by, 4, 10
    • political parties and revolutionary groups:
      • Communist (Sudan), 10
      • Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), 10
      • Ethiopian Democratic Union (EDU), 2, 4, 10, 102
      • Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Party (EPRP), 2, 10, 29, 102
      • National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), 36, 54
      • Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, 101
      • Tigre People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), 102
      • Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF), 44, 101
      • Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU), 65
    • Poniatowski, Michel, 39
    • Post, Richard St. Francis:
      • Christopher-Gouled meeting, 30
      • PRC meeting, 27
      • PRN/NSC–21, 10
      • U.S. military and economic aid to Somalia, 17
      • Vance-Saud bin Faisal meeting, 83
      • Vance’s messages to Siad, 70
      • Young-Siad correspondence, 3
    • Powell, Jody, 85
    • Presidential Directive PD/NSC–32, 64
    • Presidential Findings, 43, 52, 104, 110
    • Presidential Review Memoranda (PRMs):
    • Press, Frank, 65, 66
    • Provisional Military Administration Council (PMAC). See Dirg.
    • Provisional Military Government of Ethiopia (PMGE), 43
    • Provisional Office for Mass Organizational Affairs (POMOA), 2
    • Qabus bin Said al Busaidi, Sultan of Oman, 95
    • Qadafi, Muammar al-, 10, 84
    • Qatar, 95
    • Quandt, William B., 87, 91, 94
    • racism, 85
    • Ratsirika, Didier, 44
    • Raymond, Walter, 103
    • Red Sea, 46, 50, 51, 58, 64
    • Red Terror, 102
    • Redican, Col. Edward, 92
    • refugees, 30, 33, 83, 85, 92, 106
    • Rhodesia, 58, 65, 66, 68, 85
    • Richardson, Henry, 55
    • Rosling, Peter, 29
    • Rural Development Association, 57
    • SA–7 missiles, 53
    • Sadat, Anwar:
      • Egyptian military aid to Somalia, 65
      • Egyptian transport of Sudanese troops, 40
      • Egyptian troops in Somalia, possibility of, 39, 46, 54, 58, 62
      • Sudanese economic situation, 82
      • UNSC initiative, possible, 31
      • U.S. military intervention in Somalia, 107
    • Salim, Omar, 80
    • Salyut (space mission), 65
    • SAM II missiles, 40
    • Samatar, Mohamad Ali, 93, 105
    • Sanders, Edward, 89
    • Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, 82, 83
    • Saudi Arabia:
      • covert action as financed by, 110
      • Djibouti, relations with, 10, 95
      • economic aid to Somalia by, 7
      • Eritrean insurrection as supported by, 10, 62, 78, 79
      • Ethiopia, relations with, 26
      • financing of U.S. economic aid to Somalia by, 98
      • finlandization of, 66
      • Kenya, relations with, 29
      • military aid to Somalia:
        • amount of, 21
        • capabilities for, 53
        • illegal transfer of arms, 58, 63, 64
        • NSC discussion of, 62
        • Presidential Directive on, 64
        • Saudi financing of U.S. aid, 75, 82, 98, 99
        • SCC discussion of, 11, 46, 50, 54
        • Somali desire for, 32
      • military and economic aid to Zaire, 86
      • military intervention in PDRY, possible, 39
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • Ogaden War, 39, 65, 67
      • overflight rights, 36
      • Soviet Horn of Africa role, 10, 40
      • United States, relations with, 58
      • U.S. Horn of Africa cooperation with, 20
      • U.S. military aid to Somalia, 83, 89, 90
    • Saunders, Harold H., 53, 83
    • Savimbi, Jonas, 62, 65, 66, 73, 75, 86
    • Schaufele, William E., Jr., 3, 7, 11, 14, 15
    • Sebastian, Peter, 3
    • Seelye, Talcott Williams, 3, 7, 17, 20
    • Selassie, Haile, 10, 83, 84, 102
    • Sellers, U.S.S., 97
    • Senate, U.S., 21
    • Senegal, 31
    • Sharif, Mohamed, 72
    • Shawel, Teferra, 2
    • Shoemaker, Chris, 109
    • Shulman, Marshall D., 56
    • Siad Barre, Mohammed:
      • attempted coup against, 80, 81
      • invitation for U.S. visit, request for, 60, 62, 73, 105
      • meetings:
        • with Loughran, 11
        • with Mengistu (proposed), 44
        • with Moose, 74, 75, 76
        • with Petterson, 105
        • with Seelye, 7
        • with Young (Zanzibar, Feb. 1977), 3
      • messages:
        • to Addou, 16
        • from Carter, 34
        • to Carter, 16, 32
        • from Moose, 75, 76
        • from Vance, 70
        • from Young, 3
      • Ogaden rebels as supported by, 86, 94, 101
      • Ogaden War, 34, 60, 62, 65, 68
      • overthrow of, possible, 54
      • political weaknesses of, 91, 94
      • Soviet impact on Ethiopian-Somali relations, 2
      • Soviet-Somali relations, 92, 93
      • as Soviet supporter, 10
      • third-country arms transfers, 60
      • U.S. economic aid to Somalia, 17, 75, 98
      • U.S. military aid to Somalia:
        • military survey team, 91, 106
        • Petterson’s discussion of, 105
        • request for, 17, 21, 96
        • SCC discussion of, 75, 79
      • visits:
        • to Chinese People’s Republic, 81
        • to Egypt, 81
        • to Moscow, 85
        • to Saudi Arabia, 39
        • to United States (requested), 60, 62, 73, 105
    • Sick, Gary G.:
      • analysis of developments in Horn of Africa, 87
      • Army Corps of Engineers study in Somalia, 91
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • political assessment of Ethiopia, 102
      • SCC meetings, 82
      • Somalia’s increased involvement in Ogaden insurrection, 106
      • U.S. policy toward the Horn of Africa, 55
    • Signals intelligence (SIGINT), 46
    • Singapore, 65
    • Slocombe, Walter, 27, 61
    • Smith, Lt. Gen. William Y., 11, 37, 73, 75, 76, 82
    • Somali (people), 18
    • Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party, 101
    • Somali Salvation Front, 106
    • Somalia (see also Horn of Africa; Ogaden War):
      • aid to Ogaden insurgents by, 75, 84, 86, 93, 94
      • attempted coup in, 80, 81
      • balance of payments issues in, 105
      • British military aid to, 21
      • Carter’s statement on, 73
      • clans of, 10, 81, 95
      • CPR economic aid to, 10
      • Cuba, relations with, 7
      • Djibouti as possible cause of conflict with Ethiopia, 8, 10
      • Egyptian military aid to:
        • air-defense weapons, 76
        • capabilities for, 53
        • illegal transfer of arms, 58, 64
        • intentions for provision of, 46, 50
        • Presidential Directive on, 64
        • receipt of, 21
        • SCC discussion of, 46, 54
        • sending of troops, 39, 46, 54, 58, 62
        • transport of Sudanese troops, 40
        • unlikelyhood of, 65
        • as used in Ogaden, 93
      • Ethiopia, relations with, 2
      • European military aid to, 75
      • former Soviet military facilities in, 45
      • French military aid to, 21
      • Horn Working Group assessment of conditions in, 94
      • human rights, 20
      • human rights violations in, 93
      • Iranian military aid to:
        • capabilities for, 53
        • illegal transfer of arms, 58, 64
        • NSC discussion of, 62
        • Presidential Directive on, 64
        • SCC discussion of, 46, 50, 54, 75
        • Somali desire for, 32
      • Iraq as oil supplier to, 105
      • Iraqi military aid to, 26
      • Italian discussion with, 65
      • Jordanian military aid to, 76
      • Kenya, relations with, 92
      • Kenyan view of arms transfers to, 62
      • Lufthansa hijacking incident, 32
      • as militarily dependent on Soviet Union, 10
      • Ogaden War’s preferred outcome as seen by, 61
      • political situation, 26, 94
      • refugees from Ogaden in, 106
      • Saudi Arabian economic aid to, 7
      • Saudi military aid to:
        • amount of, 21
        • capabilities for, 53
        • illegal transfers of arms, 58, 63, 64
        • NSC discussion of, 62
        • Presidential Directive on, 64
        • SCC discussion of, 11, 46, 50, 54
        • Somali desire for, 32
      • seizure of territory in Ogaden, 24
      • Siad’s support for Ogaden rebels, 86, 94, 101
      • Socialist federation proposal, 17, 18, 20, 21
      • Somali irredentism as issue in Kenya, 7, 10, 34
      • Somali military officers dispute with Siad, 60
      • South Africa, relations with, 87
      • Soviet impact on relations with Ethiopia, 2
      • Soviet influence in, 1, 17, 32
      • Soviet Union, relations with, 92, 93
      • Sudanese military aid to, 46, 50, 53, 54
      • Sudanese troops in, 40
      • territorial integrity as OAU principle, 75
      • United States, relations with:
        • military officer as assigned to Mogadiscio, 19, 21, 65, 89
        • ship visit, 88, 89
        • U.S. efforts for improvement in, 7
        • U.S. guarantee of Somalian territorial integrity, possible, 58
        • U.S. opposition to Somali occupation of Ogaden, 62, 63
        • U.S. restraint in improvement of, 10
      • U.S. economic aid to:
        • AID projects, 89, 90, 91
        • drought relief, 3
        • possibility of, 7, 11
        • request for, 17
        • review of, 73
        • Saudi financing of, 98
        • SCC discussion of, 75, 82
        • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers study for, 89, 90, 91, 92, 98, 99
      • U.S. military aid to:
        • argument against resumption of, 86
        • communications support, 79, 82, 89
        • Congressional notification of, 54
        • Congressional response, possible, 62, 75
        • decisions against, 27, 32, 34, 42
        • for defensive weapons only, 76, 98, 99
        • options for, 10, 82, 88
        • Petterson-Siad discussion of, 105
        • posting of defense attaché, 19, 21, 89
        • request for, 17, 18, 21, 96
        • Saudi financing of, 75, 82, 98, 99
        • Saudi position, 83, 89, 90
        • SCC discussion of, 75, 79, 82
        • sending of survey team, 88, 89, 90, 91, 106
      • U.S. military intervention in, 107
      • U.S. military presence in, proposed, 66
      • U.S. policy in, 55, 75
      • U.S. reconnaisance flights over, 73
      • U.S. use of military facilities in, 96, 97, 105, 106, 108, 109
      • visit to U.S. of delegation from, 108
      • YAR military sales to, 18
    • South Africa, Republic of, 54, 87
    • Southern Africa, 58, 67
    • Soviet-Somali Friendship Treaty, 10
    • Soviet Union:
      • African role of, 43, 85
      • Africans’ view of, 29
      • aid to Tanzania and Uganda, 11
      • Angolan role of, 10, 59, 66
      • as colonial power, 43
      • covert actions against airlift to Ethiopia, 36
      • Cuba, relations with, 84
      • Eritrean insurgency, 78, 84
      • Ethiopia’s crossing of Somalia borders, 60
      • Ethiopian government as supported by:
        • airlift, 35, 36, 37
        • CIA discussion of, 8
        • Five-power failure to discuss, 44
        • impact on U.S.-Soviet relations, 66
        • military aid, 10, 17, 35, 36, 37
        • Soviet military aid, 10, 17, 35, 36, 37, 48
        • U.S. covert actions for disruption of, 37, 43, 46, 79, 82, 103
        • U.S. policy review on, 4
      • Ethiopian-Somali relations, Soviet impact on, 2
      • former military facilities in Somalia, 45
      • France, relations with, 95
      • French discussion of Ogaden War with, 44
      • military aid to Ethiopia, 10, 17, 35, 36, 37
      • military facilities in Ethiopia, 95
      • military facilities in PDRY, 95
      • Ogaden War:
        • as factor in U.S.-Soviet relations, 36, 66
        • as seen by, 31, 33, 61
        • Soviet role in, 59, 67
        • U.S. discussions on, 56
      • Rhodesian involvement of, 65
      • Socialist federation in Horn of Africa, proposal for, 17, 18, 20, 21
      • Somalia, relations with, 92, 93
      • Somalia as influenced by, 1, 17, 32
      • Somalia as militarily dependent on, 10
      • Southern Africa intervention by, 58
      • United States, relations with, 36, 65, 66
      • U.S. naval bases in Djibouti, 95
    • space shuttle, 58
    • Sparkman, John J., 58
    • Special Coordinating Committee (SCC):
      • covert actions in Ethiopia, 37, 43, 46, 79, 82, 103
      • Cuban combat troops in Ethiopia, 58
      • economic aid to Somalia, 75, 82
      • Egyptian military aid to Somalia, 46, 54
      • Eritrean insurgency, 76, 78
      • Horn of Africa Working Group, 94
      • Iranian military aid to Somalia, 46, 50, 54, 75
      • meetings:
        • Jan. 21, 1977, 37
        • Jan. 26, 1978, 43, 44, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52
        • Feb. 10, 1978, 54
        • Feb. 21, 1978, 58
        • Mar. 2, 1978, 65, 66
        • Mar. 10, 1978, 73
        • Mar. 16, 1978, 75
        • Mar. 27, 1978, 76, 78
        • Apr. 7, 1978, 79
        • May 15, 1978, 82, 88
        • Dec. 11, 1978, 92
        • May 9, 1979, 94
        • Apr. 7, 1980, 103, 104
        • June 9, 1980, 107
      • military aid to Somalia, 75, 79, 82
      • OAU as mediator in, 58, 75
      • recommendations of, 62
      • Saudi military aid to Somalia, 11, 46, 50, 54
      • U.S. economic aid to Somalia, 75, 82
      • U.S. military aid to Somalia, 75, 79, 82
    • Spiegel, Daniel L., 70
    • Spiers, Ronald I., 103
    • Stein, U.S.S., 97
    • Steiner, Steven E., 15
    • Strategic Arms Control Talks (SALT II), 36, 58, 65, 66
    • Subic Bay, 54
    • Sudan:
      • British military aid to, 10
      • Chinese People’s Republic, relations with, 10
      • CPR military and economic aid to, 10, 65
      • economic situation, 29, 82, 87
      • Eritrean insurgency, 5, 10, 62, 78, 79, 84
      • Horn Working Group assessment of conditions in, 94
      • Libya, relations with, 4, 10
      • Mengistu as seen in, 29
      • military aid to Somalia, 46, 50, 53, 54
      • north-south divisions in, 10
      • Ogaden War, 29, 58, 65, 67
      • Soviet Horn of Africa role, 10
      • troops in Somalia from, 40
      • United States, relations with, 1, 4, 27, 28, 86
      • U.S. economic aid to, 10, 94
      • U.S. military aid to, 10, 11, 82, 92, 99
      • U.S. naval bases in Djibouti, 95
    • Suez Canal, 36
    • Sukhodrev, V. M., 85
    • Suleiman Abdulle, Gen. Ahmed, 17
    • Syria, 10, 36, 84
    • Tadessa, Tesfaye, 2
    • tanks, M–47, 21
    • Tanzania, 11, 14, 31, 36
    • territorial integrity, 10, 44, 61, 75, 83, 84
    • terrorism, 10
    • Thornton, Thomas P., 11, 55, 79, 87, 106
    • Tienken, Arthur T., 2, 15, 23
    • Tighe, Lt. Gen. Eugene, 103
    • Tigre People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), 102
    • Tigre Province (Ethiopia), 84, 102, 110
    • Tito, Josip Broz, 46, 65, 66, 77
    • Toon, Malcolm, 85
    • Toumayan, Alec, 30
    • transhumance, 10
    • Troyanovsky, Oleg A., 56, 65
    • Tshombe, Moise K., 85
    • Tuchman, Jessica, 55, 87
    • Tunney Amendment (1976), 54, 65
    • Turkey, 36
    • Turner, Stansfield M.:
      • Angola, 65
      • covert actions, 52, 110
      • meetings:
        • of the NSC, 62
        • of the PRC, 11, 27, 89
        • of the SCC:
          • Jan. 26, 1978, 46
          • Jan. 26, 1978, 52
          • Feb. 10, 1978, 54
          • Feb. 21, 1978, 58
          • Mar. 2, 1978, 65
          • Mar. 10, 1978, 73
          • Mar. 16, 1978, 75
          • Apr. 7, 1978, 79
          • Apr. 7, 1980, 103
      • Ogaden War, 58, 62, 68
      • PD/NSC–32, 64
      • PRM/NSC 21, 4
      • U.S. reconnaisance flights, 73
    • Uganda, 11
    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 95
    • United Kingdom (UK), 10, 21, 29, 73
    • United Nations Charter, 44, 61
    • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), 102
    • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 33, 74
    • United Nations Security Council (UNSC):
      • Ethiopian announcement of Somali invasion, 23
      • Ogaden initiative, possible:
        • deferral of U.S. calls for, 63, 64
        • Ethiopian position, 61
        • five-power discussion of, 44
        • French position, 58
        • Nigerian position, 58
        • SCC discussion of, 54
        • Somali position, 61
        • Soviet position, 31, 61
        • Soviet-U.S. discussion of, 56
        • Sudanese position, 58
        • U.S. position, 55, 58
    • United States Information Agency (USIA), 14
    • United States Information Service (USIS), 10, 14
    • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 89, 90, 91, 92, 98, 99
    • Vance, Cyrus R.:
      • Angola, 65
      • Carter-Siad message exchange, 16
      • Carter’s message to Mengistu, 47
      • Eritrean insurgency, 78, 82
      • Ethiopia:
        • covert actions in, 104
        • evacuation of U.S. personnel from, 14, 16
        • Soviet military aid to, 35, 37
        • United States, relations with, 38
        • U.S. military aid to, 12, 13
        • Yugoslav transfer of tanks to, 21
      • foreign military assistance to Somalia, 18, 53, 76, 98, 99
      • French military forces in Djibouti, 11
      • Kagnew Station, decision for closing of, 6
      • meetings:
        • with Addou, 16, 17, 18, 60, 62
        • Carter-Giscard, 39
        • Carter-Gromyko, 85
        • with Dobrynin, 56, 58, 73, 75
        • with Felleke, 82
        • Five-power, 44
        • of the NSC, 62, 63
        • of the PRC, 11, 88, 89
        • with Saud bin Faisal, 83
        • of the SCC:
          • Jan. 21, 1977, 37
          • Jan. 26, 1978, 44, 46
          • Feb. 10, 1978, 54
          • Feb. 21, 1978, 58
          • Mar. 2, 1978, 65
          • Mar. 10, 1978, 73
          • Mar. 16, 1978, 75
          • Mar. 27, 1978, 76
          • Apr. 7, 1978, 79
          • May 15, 1978, 82
      • naval task force planning for Red Sea area, 58
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • Ogaden War:
        • increase in possibility for conflict, 22
        • NSC discussion of, 62
        • quadripartite consultations on, 34
        • Somali advances in, 35
        • Somali withdrawal, 70, 71, 73, 74
        • Soviet-U.S. discussions on, 56
        • as UNSC initiative, 56, 58
      • PD/NSC–32, 64
      • PRM/NSC 21, 4
      • Siad’s message from, 70, 71
      • Soviet-Somali break, proposal for, 32
      • U.S. use of military facilities in Somalia, 97
    • Vest, George, 65
    • Vietnam, Republic of, 15
    • Voge, U.S.S., 97
    • Vorokhov, Gen., 59
    • Waiyaki, Munyua, 14, 31, 83
    • Warnke, Paul C., 85
    • Welch, Jasper, 106
    • Wells, William W., 37, 52
    • West, John C., 58, 82, 89
    • Western Europe, 20, 23, 75
    • Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF), 44, 101
    • White, John, 103
    • Wickham, Lt. Gen. John A. Jr., 90
    • Weisner, Adm. Maurice, 54
    • Wisner, Frank G., 83
    • Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of (PDRY):
      • CIA proposal on, 75
      • Eritrean insurgency, 84
      • Ethiopia, relations with, 2, 8
      • Horn of Africa role of, 83
      • Saudi military intervention in, possible, 39
      • Soviet military facilities in, 95
      • U.S. influence in, 37
      • U.S. naval bases in Djibouti, 95
    • Yemen Arab Republic (YAR), 10, 18, 92, 95
    • Young, Andrew J., Jr.:
      • Eritrean insurgency, 82
      • PRC meetings, 11
      • PRM/NSC 21, 4
      • SCC meetings, 75, 82
      • Siad’s meeting with (Zanzibar, Feb. 1977), 3
      • Siad’s message from, 3
      • Troyanovsky’s meeting with, 65
      • UN initiatives on Horn of Africa, 54, 56
    • Yugoslavia:
      • Eritrean insurgency, 79
      • as mediator in Ogaden War, possible, 31
      • Non-aligned movement pressure on Cuba, 77
      • Ogaden War diplomatic initiatives, 39
      • overflight rights, 36
      • transfer of tanks to Ethiopia by, 21
      • United States, relations with, 21
      • U.S.-Ethiopian relations, 74
    • Zablocki, Clement J., 58
    • Zaire:
      • French intervention in, 39
      • Iranian military and economic aid to, 86
      • Katangan invasion of, 85
      • military weakness of, 82
      • Ogaden War, 31
      • overflight rights, 36
      • Saudi military and economic aid to, 86
    • Zambia, 31, 65, 83, 86
    • Zanzibar, 3
    • Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU), 65
    • ZSU–23/4 radar-controlled gun, 53
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