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Denunciation by Nicaragua of the treaty of December 20, 1907, instituting the Central American Court of Justice. Renewed attempt to form a Union of Central American Republics

Editorial note.—The five Central American States, Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, then known as Guatemala, declared their independence in 1821, and were for a time incorporated in the Mexican Empire during 1822. Upon the declaration of a Mexican Republic they broke away from Mexico, and in July 1823 formed the Republic of the United States of Central America, which lasted until 1840. In 1842 an attempt to reunite was made which resulted in the Union of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador and Nicaragua. This union was dissolved in 1845. In April 1845 Salvador and Guatemala proposed a conference for the purpose of forming another union. The conference did not take place. In October 1847 another attempt for union was made by Honduras, Salvador and Nicaragua; it also resulted in failure. In 1852 Honduras invited Salvador and Nicaragua to send delegates to a National Diet. Union was decreed under the name of the Republic of Central America. Nothing seems to have been accomplished. In 1862 Nicaragua invited Honduras, Salvador and Guatemala to form a union. Nothing came out of this attempt. In 1885 Guatemala and Honduras attempted to form a union by the use of force, but they were defeated by the combined forces of Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In 1886 Guatemala proposed a congress to formulate a union. The Congress met at San José, Costa Rica, in 1888, and made a pact for a provisional union under the name of the Republic of Central America. Revolutions and strife broke out in Salvador and Guatemala and the attempt for union again resulted in failure. In June 1895, a pact was signed at Amapala by representatives of Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador forming the Greater Republic of Central America. This Union was recognized by the United States on December 24, 1896. (For. Rel. 1896, p. 367.) The Department was advised of the dissolution of the Greater Republic of Central America on November 29, 1898. (For. Rel. 1898, p. 172.) In 1907 the five Central American Republics signed a number of treaties at the Conference of Washington. (For. Rel. 1907, p. 692 et seq.) The Central American Court of Justice was instituted in accordance with one of the above treaties. As Nicaragua refused to accept the decisions of the Court in the matter of the Bryan-Chamorro Canal Treaty between the United States and Nicaragua (For. Rel. 1916, p.888), the treaty instituting the Court of Justice was denounced in 1917 by Nicaragua, and an attempt was made in that year to reunite the five Central American States as shown by the following correspondence.

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[37] Minister Jefferson to the Secretary of State

File No. 713.001/57


[38] The Minister of Salvador to the Secretary of State

File No. 713.001/55


[39] Minister Jefferson to the Secretary of State

File No. 713.001/58


[40] The Nicaraguan Chargé d’Affaires to the Secretary of State

File No. 817.812/320


[41] Minister Jefferson to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/852


[42] Chargé Johnson to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/855


[43] The Salvadorean Minister to the Secretary of State

File No. 813. 00/858


[44] Minister Ewing to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/857


[45] Chargé Johnson to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/865


[46] Minister Ewing to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/862


[47] Minister Long to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/861


[48] The Salvadorean Minister to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/866


[49] The Secretary of State to the Salvadorean Minister

File No. 813.00/858


[50] The Secretary of State to Ambassador Fletcher

File No. 813.00/883a


[51] The Secretary of State to the Salvadorean Minister

File No. 813.00/866


[52] Ambassador Fletcher to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/876


[53] Minister Leavell to the Secretary of State

File No. 813.00/878


[54] [Untitled]

File No. 813.00/896