Staff Committee Files
Staff Committee Paper
Agenda for the Meeting of the Three Chiefs of State
The Acting Secretary has advised the President2 that we are preparing for him a suggested list of matters which he may wish to bring up at the meeting, together with pertinent memoranda. The Secretary has urgently requested that a proposed Agenda of these matters be sent to him for consideration. Below is a tentative list of such questions, together with a summary statement of the proposals to be made under each main item. It should be noted that these items include only those matters on which the United States Government desires to take the initiative and make affirmative proposals. Items which the British or the Soviets will or may raise are not included in this list, although memoranda of the United States position on such matters are being prepared in case of need.
(There is attached as Annex I3 a copy of a telegram from the Secretary setting forth in general terms the proposal covered in item I below. There is attached as Annex II a copy of a memorandum sent by the Acting Secretary to the President on June 14,4 setting forth the proposed British Agenda, together with the Department’s comments on the various items.)
I. Procedure and Machinery for Peace Negotiations and Territorial Settlements
Annex I describes the tentative proposal in general terms.
II. Territorial Settlements and Transfers of Populations Arising Out of the War in Europe, and Peace Treaties With Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary
It is recommended that the United States Government propose the discussion of the general lines of settlements of these matters with a view to reaching general agreement on the more important issue[s] and their reference to the proposed Council of Foreign Ministers for detailed negotiation and final settlement.[Page 187]
III. Policy Toward Germany
1. Establishment of Control Council
It is recommended that this Government propose that the agreement on control machinery in Germany5 be implemented as soon as possible. This means the immediate establishment of the Control Council in all its divisions in Berlin, or in some other city if Berlin is not suitable. The American and British groups are prepared to start at once. The French group is being formed, but we have no information respecting the Soviet counterpart in spite of repeated promises that their representatives would join with us in preliminary discussions. It is assumed that withdrawal into the respective zones will be completed before the Big Three Meeting takes place.
2. Establishment of German Local Administrations
- It is recommended that this Government propose the restoration throughout Germany of local self-government through elective councils and proceed forthwith to put this proposal into effect in the United States zone.
- It is recommended that this Government propose the authorization for the whole of Germany of non-Nazi political parties with rights of assembly and of public discussion and proceed forthwith to put this proposal into effect in the United States zone.
- It is recommended that this Government propose the introduction of the representative and elective principles into regional, provincial, and state (Land) administration as rapidly as results of local self-government seem to warrant this further step.
- It is recommended that this Government oppose the creation of separate integrated German administrative and political entities coinciding with the four zones of occupation and favor, on the contrary, the use of central German administrative machinery, in so far as possible, for the despatch of business above the provincial or state level. It is in consequence further recommended that this Government oppose the partition of Germany, either de facto or de jure, along the lines of the zones of occupation.
- It is recommended that this Government oppose the establishment for the time being of a central German Government in contradistinction to the restoration of such central administrative agencies as would serve the interests of the Control Council.
3. Treatment of Germany as an Economic Unit
It is recommended that the Government propose that uniform economic policies be adopted in all occupation zones in Germany, and to that end agreement should be reached in respect to the following matters:
- Uniform ration scales and allocations.
- Equitable distribution and unrestricted interzonal movement of essential goods and services.
- Uniform policies for industry and agriculture.
- Unified control of German exports and imports.
- Centralized issuance and control of currency.
- Arrangements for financing of an approved minimum of imports required for all of Germany.
- Adoption of a centralized transportation system under the Control Council.
- Agreement on immediate exports for purposes of relief and rehabilitation of countries devastated by Germany, prior to reparations settlement.
4. Settlement of the Status and Membership of the Reparations Commission
It is recommended that the Government propose that the Control Council should have responsibility pursuant to directives from the four occupying powers for determining the supplies available for reparations deliveries from Germany and that the reparations body should determine the allocation of such supplies among the claimant countries; and that the membership of the Commission should be enlarged.
IV. Unconditional Surrender of Japan and Policy Toward Liberated Areas in the Far East
It is recommended that this Government propose:
- That the principal United Nations at war with Japan issue a joint statement outlining the program for the treatment of a defeated Japan in the hope that Japan will be more inclined to accept unconditional surrender if the Japanese people know what their future is to be;
- That the Soviet Government be invited to announce at an appropriate time its adherence to the Cairo Declaration6 and that there be agreement among the Three Powers that there shall be advance consultation among themselves and with China on all matters relating to the implementation of the territorial dispositions provided under that Declaration;
- That in relation to the areas restored to China, as in
relation to China as a whole, the Three Powers agree that they
will be governed [Page 189] by
the principles set forth in Article I of the Nine Power Treaty
of Washington of 19227 in relation to China, as follows:
“The Contracting Powers, other than China, agree:
- To respect the sovereignty, the independence, and the territorial and administrative integrity of China;
- To provide the fullest and most unembarrassed opportunity to China to develop and maintain for herself an effective and stable government;
- To use their influence for the purpose of effectually establishing and maintaining the principle of equal opportunity for the commerce and industry of all nations throughout the territory of China;
- To refrain from taking advantage of conditions in China in order to seek special rights or privileges which would abridge the rights of subjects or citizens of friendly States, and from countenancing action inimical to the security of such States.”
V. Implementation of the Yalta Declaration on Liberated Europe 8 in the Treatment of Rumania, Bulgaria, and Hungary During the Armistice Control Period
- It is recommended that the agreement of the Soviet and British Governments should be sought on the reorganization of the Allied Control Commissions on a genuinely tripartite basis.
- It is recommended that the principles of the Declaration should be reaffirmed and agreement of the British and Soviet Governments should be sought on procedures for its application, including the supervision of elections.
- It is recommended that a program for the withdrawal of Soviet troops should be agreed upon in accordance with the Four-Nation Declaration of Moscow (October 30, 1943).9
- It is recommended that this Government should express its willingness to proceed with the reestablishment of normal diplomatic relations and with the conclusion of peace treaties as soon as the question of the character of the governments in these countries, in the light of the Crimea Declaration, has been satisfactorily settled.
- It is recommended that assurance should be sought that the Soviet Government does not pursue the aim of making exclusive economic arrangements with these countries and cutting them off from economic relations, on a basis of equal opportunity with the rest of the world.
- It is recommended that the agreement of the Soviet Government should be sought on the admission of American and other press [Page 190] correspondents into these countries and the provision of reporting facilities to them.
VI. Policy Towards Italy
It is recommended that this Government propose:
- A review of tripartite policy, the United States objectives being the early political independence and economic recovery of Italy.
- Italy’s admission to the ranks of the United Nations.
- Immediate revision of the surrender terms, keeping only controls essential: (1) to cover allied military requirements as long as Allied forces remain in or operate from Italy; (2) to implement the pledge that the people will have an untrammeled choice of their form of government; (3) to safeguard disputed territories within the 1939 frontiers against settlements forced either by the Italians or rival claimants pending the final peace negotiations.
- Negotiations in the near future of a definitive peace treaty, permitting the Italians to take part in discussions at an early stage rather than being forced to sign a treaty already negotiated in all details by the victorious powers. (Negotiations to be conducted by machinery proposed in paragraph I above.)
VII. Soviet Participation in Solving European Economic Problems
It is recommended that this Government press the Russians to join the Emergency Economic Committee of Europe, the European Coal Organization, and the European Inland Transport Organization, and to associate themselves in such planning of the use of European food and other resources as properly comes within the scope of these organizations; and also press for Russian participation in the United Maritime Agency.
1. Comparison With British Agenda 10
It will be noted that a number of the items on the British Agenda have not been included:
- The main Polish question has been left off pending further developments in the talks now going on in Moscow for the establishment of the Polish Government of National Unity.
- It is considered likely that the matter of withdrawal of United States and British forces into their own occupation zones, which is on the British Agenda, will be settled before the meeting.
- There is no objection to placing the question of disposal of the German fleet and merchant ships upon the final Agenda, as suggested by the British, but it is considered that this is primarily a military problem.
- There is no objection to a discussion of the Austrian problems, or the maintenance of the status quo in Venezia Giulia and Carinthia, pending peace settlements, as suggested by the British, but it is considered likely that these matters will be settled satisfactorily before the meeting.
- There is no objection to the discussion of the question of mutual withdrawal of troops from Persia, as suggested by the British, but it is recommended that the initiative be left to the British in this matter.
- There is no objection to discussion of our policy and interests in Greece and Turkey as suggested by the British, but it is recommended that the initiative be left to the British in this matter.
Except for the above items, it is felt that the proposed United States Agenda effectively covers all matters on the proposed British Agenda.
2. Comparison With Memorandum to the President, Attached as Annex I 11
The proposed United States Agenda is entirely consistent with the comments contained in the memorandum to the President, with the following exceptions:
- Austria. Developments in Austria indicate that it may not be necessary to place this matter upon the Agenda.
- Albania. It is considered that the proposed agreement on parallel action regarding recognition of an Albanian Government mentioned in the memorandum to the President is a matter at most for discussion between the Foreign ministers at the Big Three Meeting.
- The Yalta Declaration on Liberated Europe in Respect to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Austria. On further consideration, it is recommended that these matters not be placed upon the Agenda at the present time.
3. Proposal for a Twenty-five-Year Treaty for the Demilitarization of Germany
The President has requested the State Department’s views regarding the advisability of proposing at the Big Three Meeting that the Big Three and France, and possibly other European countries, should enter into a twenty-five year treaty committing the parties to use force to effect and maintain the demilitarization of Germany. This matter is being carefully considered. Pending final decision as to the Department’s position, it has been left off the Agenda.
- This symbol is the number assigned to the memorandum as a document presented to the Secretary’s Staff Committee.↩
- See document No. 152.↩
- Document No. 227.↩
- Document No. 152.↩
- Signed at London, November 14, 1944, as amended by a further agreement signed at London, May 1, 1945. For texts, see Treaties and Other International Acts Series No. 3070; United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 2062. Text of the agreement of November 14, 1944, also in Foreign Relations, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945, p. 124.↩
- Text in Department of State Bulletin, vol. ix, p. 393.↩
- Treaty Series No. 723; 44 Stat. (3) 2113.↩
- See vol. ii, document No. 1417, section v .↩
- Text in Department of State Bulletin, vol. ix, p. 308.↩
- See the enclosure to document No. 145, and document No. 148.↩
- Actually attached as annex ii; printed as document No. 152.↩