File No. 812.00/17250.

Manifesto by Eulalio Gutierrez, deposed Provisional President. 2


The Constitutionalist Revolution thought that its victory had been consummated when General Alvaro Obregon entered the City of Mexico after Huerta, the usurper, had fled from the country. Nevertheless it was soon observed that a victory of purely military character did not mark the end of the struggle and all the troubles that have ensued grew principally out of the fact that Señor Venustiano Carranza, First Chief of the Revolution, declined to condense in a definite program the aspirations of the country, refused to define the time of his incumbency as First Chief and fix the date for elections; and he also refused to give guaranties and freedom for holding in the capital a really national convention for deciding all problems of an urgent character for the welfare of the country.

[Review of political affairs from the inception of the Aguascalientes Convention to date.]

The moment has now therefore arrived when the civic standard of all Mexicans should be put to the test. They are at liberty to choose between a dictatorship offered them by the leaders from the North and South and even by Señor Carranza, and a democratic organization undertaken by the Government proposed by the Aguascalientes Convention which I am sworn to maintain.

I have hesitated to assume this attitude because material force is on the side of those who have not respected the Government which they themselves formed. But, acting in accord with the members of the Cabinet and with the feelings of many honest patriots whom I have consulted, I have decided to take a road which, although it may not be that of victory, is the one that honesty points out, asking all Mexicans to do their duty.

Supported by this decision, adopted by the nation’s Government, I have seen fit to resolve the following:

  • First. General Francisco Villa shall cease from his command of the Northern Division and of all the forces that may have been under him; and with him shall also cease Generals Tomás Urbina and Rodolfo Fierro.
  • Second. General Emiliano Zapata shall cease from his command of the forces loyal to the Convention which may be under his command.

And it is hereby made known to all military chiefs and armed forces loyal to the Government emanating from the Aguascalientes Convention that they shall obey the orders brought to their attention directly or indirectly by the War Department.

Commissions shall at once proceed to bring the above decisions to the attention of such forces as have declined to recognize the Government because they demanded the retirement of General Villa, and to request their assistance should it be necessary to enforce the above decisions.

Eulalio Gutierrez.
  1. This undated manifesto was received at the Department of State at a date not recorded, but not later than January 23. The date of the manifesto is probably January 19, as suggested by Mr. Silliman’s telegram of January 20. And see note of March 24 from Mr. Vasconcelos.