General United States Policies Toward Africa 1

1. For previous documentation on this subject, see Foreign Relations, 1952–1954, vol. xi, Part 1, pp. 1 ff.


1. Memorandum of a Conversation, Department of State, Washington, February 1, 1955

Source: Department of State, Central Files, 670.901/2–155. Secret. Drafted by Jones.


2. Letter From the Secretary of State to the Representative at the United Nations (Lodge)

Source: Department of State, Central Files, 350/2–955. Confidential. Drafted by Robbins, ODA, and cleared in draft with EUR and NEA, the Departments of the Interior, Defense, and Navy, and in final form with IO.


3. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs (Key) to the Deputy Under Secretary of State (Murphy)

Source: Department of State, IO/ODA Files: Lot 62 D 225, U.S. Representative in Trusteeship Council. Official Use Only. Drafted by Gerig.


6. Letter From the Consul at Nairobi (Barrow) to the Representative at the Trusteeship Council (Sears)

Source: Department of State, IO/ODA Files: Lot 62 D 225, U.S. Representative in Trusteeship Council. Official Use Only; Official–Informal. Enclosure to despatch 21 from Nairobi, July 28. (Ibid., Central Files, 350/7–2855) Barrow requested the Department to forward the letter to Sears. There is no indication whether the Department did so.


7. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs (Allen) to the Secretary of State

Source: Department of State, Central Files, 611.70/7–2055. Confidential. Drafted by Hadsel; sent through Robert G. Barnes, Robert Murphy, and Loy W. Henderson.


8. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs (Allen) to the Secretary of State

Source: Department of State, Central Files, 745C.5–MSP/12–2855. Confidential. The source text bears no indication of the Secretary’s approval or disapproval.


9. Memorandum by the Consul General at Leopoldville (McGregor)

Source: Department of State, Central Files, 611.70/12–2855. Confidential. Enclosure to despatch 220 from Leopoldville, December 28. It responded to circular instruction CA–1535, August 23, which forwarded Tab B of Document 7 and invited comments from Accra, Brussels, Dakar, Dar-es-Salaam, Elisabethville, Lagos, Leopoldville, Lisbon, London, Lourenco Marques, Luanda, Monrovia, Nairobi, Paris, Pretoria, Salisbury, and the Mission to the United Nations. (Department of State, Cental Files, 120.1470/8–2355)


10. Memorandum From the Representative at the Trusteeship Council (Sears) to the Secretary of State

Source: Department of State, IO/ODA Files: Lot 62 D 225, U.S. Representative in the Trusteeship Council. Confidential. Enclosure to a letter from Lodge to Dulles, February 15, in which Lodge wrote: “Mason Sears may have irritated a few of the hard-shelled colonialists (although he is on very good terms with the actual administrators), but he certainly has made a lot of friends for us with the natives, who have the future in front of them and where it means something to the United States for the long pull.”


14. National Intelligence Estimate

Source: Department of State, INRNIE Files. Secret. National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) were high-level interdepartmental reports presenting authoritative appraisals of vital foreign policy problems. NIEs were drafted by officers from those agencies represented on the Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC), discussed and revised by interdepartmental working groups coordinated by the Office of National Estimates of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), approved by the IAC, and circulated under the aegis of the CIA to the President, appropriate officers of cabinet level, and the National Security Council. The Department of State provided all political and some economic sections of NIEs. The files are retained by the Directorate for Regional Research, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

According to a note on the cover sheet, “The following intelligence organizations participated in the preparation of this estimate: the Central Intelligence Agency and the intelligence organizations of the Departments of State, the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Joint Staff. Concurred in by the Intelligence Advisory Committee on 14 August 1956. … The Atomic Energy Commission Representative to the IAC, and the Assistant Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, abstained, the subject being outside of their jurisdiction.”


16. Memorandum From the Officer in Charge of Southern Africa Economic Affairs (Longanecker) to the Director of the Office of Southern Africa Affairs (Hadsel)

Source: Department of State, AF/AFS Files: Lot 59 D 293, Regional Economic Reports 1956. Written in response to a memorandum from Hadsel of October 26 to Longanecker, Donald Dumont, and James J. Durnan. (Ibid.)


18. Memorandum of a Conversation, Mid-Ocean Club Conference Room, Bermuda, March 23, 1957, 10:30 a.m.

Source: Department of State, Conference Files: Lot 62 D 181, CF 861, Bermuda 1957 Memos of Con. (MP). Secret. Drafted by Wilkins on March 25.


19. Report by the Vice President

Source: Department of State, S/PNSC Files: Lot 62 D 1, North Africa (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, NSC 5614, 5614/1). Secret. Enclosure to a memorandum for the National Security Council by Acting Executive Secretary S. Everett Gleason, dated April 22. For an unclassified version of the Nixon Report, see Department of State Bulletin, April 22, 1957, pp. 635–640. The Vice President was in Africa to lead the U.S. Delegation to the ceremonies marking the independence of Ghana, to demonstrate U.S. interest in Africa, and to gain a better understanding of the continent. (Circular airgram 6945, February 27; ibid., Central Files, 511.00/2–2757)


20. Memorandum From the Director of the Office of Dependent Area Affairs (Gerig) to the Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs (Wilcox)

Source: Department of State, IO/ODA Files: Lot 62 D 225, Afro-Asian Bloc. Confidential.


21. Circular Instruction From the Department of State to Certain Diplomatic Missions and Consular Offices

Source: Department of State, Central Files, 770.00/7–1057. Confidential. Sent to Abidjan, Accra, Addis Ababa, Algiers, Brussels, Cairo, Capetown, Casablanca, Dakar, Dar Es Salaam, Durban, Elisabethville, Johannesburg, Kampala, Khartoum, Lagos, Leopoldville, Lisbon, London, Lourenco Marques, Luanda, Madrid, Monrovia, Nairobi, Paris, Port Elizabeth, Pretoria, Rabat, Salisbury, Tangier, Tripoli, Tunis, Yaounde, Mogadiscio, Asmara, and Rome.


22. Memorandum From the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs (Rountree) to the Secretary of State

Source: Department of State, AF/AFS Files: Lot 59 D 293, Regional CCTA. Confidential. Drafted by Longanecker.


23. Memorandum of Discussion at the 335th Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, August 22, 1957

Source: Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records. Top Secret; Eyes Only. Drafted by Gleason on August 23.


24. National Security Council Report

Source: Department of State, S/SNSC Files: Lot 63 D 351, NSC 5719 Series. Secret.