396.1 GE/5–254: Telegram

The United States Delegation to the Embassy in Korea


32. Repeated information priority Department Secto 72. For Briggs and Dean. Re: Secto 48 (Seoul 20)1 and Secto 59 (Seoul 24).2 In view [Page 179] preliminary discussion among 16 and in working committee on counter plans, we have drafted tentative proposals along lines plan B. Text draft paper below. Have not shown to ROK or any other delegation.

Appreciate your views soonest on draft paper. Also if your discussions with Rhee on plan B warrant, suggest you inform him tentative contents draft paper for his comments and general approval if possible for developing plan with 16 and using in conference as situation develops.

Would give USDel strong hand and help us direct and control negotiating situation if US and ROK together take initiative among 16 on draft papers. Appropriate time and auspices for use such proposals in conference not yet discussed with ROK or other delegates. Draft paper contains essential principles on UN observation, elections, and troop withdrawal, but leaves room for changes on formulation of specifics if negotiations should develop at this stage, we have advantage UK and French views apparently similar to our plan B. They include specific reference UNCURK, elections within ROK constitutional structure, and permissive provision for assembly amend ROK constitution. Provision for UNCURK not unalterable if other satisfactory form UN auspices developed. But, UK and French delegates agree proposals should begin with UNCURK.

Bracketed phrases in part II A3 of draft paper designed to get ROK reaction in first instance to questions scope and purpose of elections. If brackets deleted, believe proposals certain get general allied backing. USDel as yet still reserve position on these two points pending discussions with ROK.

Text draft paper follows:

Draft proposals for the establishment of a united and independent Korea.

In conformity with the United Nations resolutions of peaceful settlement of Korean question, establishment of united and independent Korea should be achieved in following manner:

I. Responsibilities for supervision and observation

Establishment of united and independent Korea through holding of free elections and withdrawal of all foreign forces from Korea, within time schedule set forth below, should be observed and certified, in manner set forth below, by United Nations Commission for Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea (UNCURK), established by resolution of United Nations General Assembly of October 7, 1950.

[Page 180]

II. Free elections in Korea

Within period of blank months from adoption of these proposals, during which necessary conditions for free elections should be assured, there should be held (throughout Korea) elections for (the president and) National Assembly of unified Korea.
Representation in National Assembly should be in direct proportion to population (of citizenry of Korea).
Elections should be based on universal adult suffrage (by all citizens of Korea).
Elections should be in secret and held in conditions of genuine freedom (throughout Korea) in Korea.

Elections should be supervised and observed and results certified by United Nations Commission for Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea. This Commission should insure that safeguards for free elections are observed and that elections are properly conducted.

Commission should propose, and appropriate authorities in Korea should put into effect, any changes in applicable election laws which Commission considers necessary to assure free elections in accordance with these proposals. Commission should certify that such elections are valid expression of free will of people of Korea.

Conditions of genuine freedom and applicable election laws should include following guarantees:
  • Freedom of movement in Korea;
  • Freedom of presentation of candidates;
  • Immunity of candidates;
  • Freedom from arbitrary arrest or victimization;
  • Freedom of association and political meetings;
  • Freedom of expression for all;
  • Freedom of press, radio and free circulation of newspapers, periodicals, etc;
  • Secrecy of vote;
  • Security of polling stations and ballot boxes;
All authorities within Korea should cooperate fully in ensuring that elections are properly conducted under necessary safeguards and to that end should provide UNCURK with all necessary assistance and facilities and freedom to move, observe and consult in Korea.

III. Formation of an All-Korean Government

Immediately after elections, National Assembly should be convened and government formed for the whole of Korea in accordance with the constitution. Government so formed would then become sole legitimate government of Korea.
Constitution of Republic of Korea should remain in force except as it may be superseded or amended by National Assembly acting in constituent session when convened following elections.
[Page 181]

IV. Withdrawal of foreign forces

As integral part of reunification of Korea, mutually-phased withdrawal of foreign forces should be completed within twelve months after all-Korean government has assumed authority. Withdrawal will be coordinated with both sides by UNCURK. Withdrawals should begin during a 90–day period immediately prior to holding of elections on date to be announced by UNCURK. Withdrawals, observed and verified by UNCURK, will proceed in accordance with prearranged schedules and will be effected through ports of entry prescribed in armistice agreement.

V. International provision for security unified Korea

At time of formation of all-Korean government countries concerned in this agreement, and countries neighboring Korea, should pledge their respect for territorial integrity and political independence of unified Korea in conjunction with declaration by unified government of Korea to undertake to abide by purposes and principles of United Nations Charter in its international relations. Countries bordering on Korea should work out with government of unified Korea arrangements for guaranteeing security of those borders. Unified Korea should have authority to assume such existing rights and obligations and to conclude such agreements as it may wish.

VI. Rehabilitation of Korea

After formation of all-Korean government in accordance with above provisions, there should be developed and carried out international program of relief and rehabilitation for all Korea to which all countries so desiring may contribute. Such program should be developed in consultation with all-Korean government.

VII. Concluding stages

Armistice agreement should be modified as appropriate to implement the above provisions for establishing united and independent Korea. Armistice agreement should be considered superseded in accordance with paragraph 62 of that agreement when UNCURK certifies that (a) an all-Korean government has been established with effective control over all of Korea as result of free and secret elections expressing valid will of people and (b) all foreign forces have been withdrawn from Korea in accordance with an agreement thereon.

UNCURK should submit final report to General Assembly of United Nations on completion of above stages. Thereafter, UNCURK should confine its activities to such responsibilities in connection with observation of independence and security of unified Korea as may be determined by General Assembly.

  1. Dated Apr. 30, p. 172.
  2. Not printed, but see footnote 3, p. 173.
  3. Printed as parentheses in the source text which is the copy repeated to the Department.