710 Conference (W & PW)/3–545: Telegram
The American Delegation to the Acting Secretary of State
[Received March 6—9:28 p.m.]
322. From the Secretary. Transcending interest of Conference today focused on meeting of Committee II at 10:00 a.m., where Secretary of State announced United States Government transmitting invitation to United Nations Conference at San Francisco, April 25. Secretary’s statement,25 closely associating American Republics in movement toward establishing a World Organization, deeply impressed delegates who applauded vigorously when 12–minute address completed. Padilla and Belt promptly felicitated Secretary; thereafter, Mexican Foreign Minister made brief and eloquent address. Padilla said that words of Stettinius would warm hearts of all men of good will and expressed a fervent wish that representatives would lend full efforts to establish peace organization. Padilla hoped that representatives of American Republics at San Francisco would take to that meeting the high purpose of establishing justice, for which men are dying, that it may be given lasting reality.
Padilla congratulated Stettinius for splendid work in building the better world that is coming into being. Session of Commission II occurred in salon of Chapultepec Castle. Room 25 by 80 feet was crowded with delegates, 50 newspaper men and standing public, and offered very appropriate setting for historic announcement.
Committee later heard Parra-Pérez of Venezuela read long report of observation of American Republics concerning Dumbarton Oaks. These observations included drafts by Chile and Peru which are considered in nature of amendments to Dumbarton Oaks proposals. Committee approved resolution declaring purpose of American Republics to cooperate among themselves and with other peace-loving nations in establishment of General International Organization; and declaring that the Dumbarton Oaks proposals constitute basis for and a valuable contribution to setting up of a General Organization. This authorizes transmission to the United Nations and to San Francisco Conference of Commission’s report and annexed documents which fully expound the attitude of American Republics toward Dumbarton Oaks proposals. Signatories to this resolution reserve full freedom to present and to defend at San Francisco Conference their respective points of view as sovereign states.
The resolution concerning Dumbarton Oaks embraced eight principles whereon consensus exists among American Republics. Minor difficulty [Page 143] arose in connection point reading “advisability of solving controversies and questions of inter-American nature, preferably according to inter-American methods and systems”. Peruvian delegate raised question whether this implied priority of inter-American system over World Organization and Commission agreed reporter should reconcile language with terms of Act of Chapultepec already adopted.
Commission II also endorsed and sent to Commission III for approval Nicaraguan resolution whereby Conference endorses principles of Atlantic Charter. Commission II concluded its labors amid general sentiment of cordiality and apparent conviction that great service had been done toward World Security Organization. Correspondents commented Secretary’s presidency of Commission had been opportune as delegates realized their labors were on highest level of deliberation and many friendships established prior San Francisco. Events today shifted central attention of Conference back to World Organization in dramatic and timely manner, as central interest over weekend has concentrated on Act of Chapultepec.
Senator Connally made statement supporting San Francisco Conference and recalling that United States Senate in November 1943 approved creation of General International Organization by vote of 85 to 5. He said: “Accomplishment of a meeting of minds on Act of Chapultepec, which ensures that all signatories of the Act in Western Hemisphere and not one or two nations, guarantee the integrity and security of this hemisphere, serves as a great step forward in assuring success of world conference in San Francisco.” Senator Connally’s statement Saturday applauding Act of Chapultepec received extraordinary attention in Mexico press and caused widely favorable reaction among delegates.
Commission III adopted “Declaration of Mexico” which embraces seventeen “essential principles” as norms in relations among American Republics. This Declaration combines numerous accepted principles of international law with some broadly social precepts such as “education and material welfare are necessary for the unfoldment of democracy” and “the inter-American community serves the ideals of universal cooperation”. Declaration of Mexico aroused surprisingly little discussion. Delegates evidently regarded it as contributory to prestige of Mexico and therefore unexamined rigorously some broadly social and economic features which under other circumstances might have aroused extensive debate. Mexicans evidently regard Declaration of special value because coordinates economic and social principles with accepted ideals of international law. Declaration is regarded by some delegates as affording numerous precise points of reference in future situations and in some features reenforcing other acts of Conference.[Page 144]
Commission III also adopted resolution 172 urging incorporation of international law in national legislation of American States and resolution 182 reaffirming doctrine of continental solidarity.
Argentine question continues outstanding theme of press and delegates’ interest, but yet unarrived at stage of precise public discussion.
Informal conversations among delegates are continuing with general expectation some development before final adjournment of Conference.
Economic commissions continue labors. Resolutions for transitional period apparently were favorably received in all quarters and effort now is directed to drafting acceptable final terms of economic charter. Marginal differences of opinion indicated in press and elsewhere relate particularly to such specialized matters as cotton subsidies and tariff protection for infant industries.
Plenary session of Conference late today will hear eight addresses by Latin American delegates and revive formal atmosphere and public oratorical discussion.
Because news despatch from Washington erroneously interpreted Act of Chapultepec as conflicting with Dumbarton Oaks proposals, Secretary issued statement: “There is no conflict between the provisions of the Act of Chapultepec and the Dumbarton Oaks proposals. The act says specifically that arrangements, activities and procedures referred to therein ‘shall be consistent with the purposes and principles of the General International Organization, when established.’” [Stettinius.]
- For text, see Department of State Bulletin, March 11, 1945, p. 395.↩