710 Conference W and PW/2–1045
Draft Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State (Rockefeller) and the Deputy Director of the Office of American Republic Affairs (Lockwood) to the Secretary of State 73
Subject: Material covering Resolutions for the Guidance of the United States Delegation to the Mexico City Conference.
The following is an outline of our thinking thus far with respect to the position of the United States Delegation on the four main topics into which the agenda of the forthcoming conference in Mexico City is divided:
I. On Further Cooperative Measures for the Prosecution of the War to Complete Victory.
The United States Delegation should be prepared to offer resolutions pertaining to the following subjects:
(a) Control of subversive activities.
These resolutions are designed to prevent the recurrence of Axis subversive activities in this hemisphere after the war.
(b) Inter-American Defense Board.
It is desired to continue the Inter-American Defense Board until the Ninth International Conference of American States meets to decide the future of the Board.
II. On Consideration of Problems of International Organization for Peace and Security.
1. The Establishment of a General International Organization.
The United States Delegation recognizing that this Government, as one of the four participants in the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, is not in a position to agree to amendments to the proposals that issued from that conference, nevertheless desires that ample opportunity be afforded the delegates of the American Republics for a full and frank discussion of all matters involved in setting up a World Security Organization. To this end the United States Delegation will welcome a declaration signed by all principal delegates to the Mexico City Conference, which will include the following three points:
- That the American Republics desire to assist in the establishment of a general international organization which is based (1) on sovereign equality of states and (2) open to membership of all peace-loving states.
- That the Dumbarton Oaks proposals fulfill a desire expressed in (a) above, and
- That the American Republics desire to lend the support of the inter-American system to the general international organization, when established.
2. Improvement and Strengthening of the Inter-American System.
The United States Delegation maintains that the inter-American system can and should be improved and strengthened by
- Scheduling regular meetings of inter-American conferences every four years.
- Scheduling regular meetings of the Foreign Ministers of the American Republics every year. The meetings should be authorized to make major decisions in emergency matters and the deliberations restricted to urgent problems only. These regular meetings do not preclude the calling of special meetings of the Foreign Ministers whenever matters of an urgent and important nature so require.
- Empowering the Pan American Union to act in the interim between meetings of Foreign Ministers by implementing the authority of the Union so that it will be able to assume jurisdiction over political problems. It is intended that the Union will have direct supervision over all inter-American agencies and committees that now operate independently.
- Creating an Economic and Social Council subsidiary to the
Governing Board of the Pan American Union, similar in
structure and objectives to the body of that name set up
under the Dumbarton Oaks proposals. It should be empowered:
- to carry out recommendations of the Conferences of Inter-American States;
- to initiate recommendations on economic and social matters; and
- to collect and prepare reports on economic and social matters for the benefit of the American republics.
- Consolidating and simplifying the structure erected over the years for maintaining peace in the hemisphere.
3. Declaration of Principles Upheld by the American Republics. The United States Delegation maintains that
- It is opportune for the American Republics in conclave to
reaffirm the basic principles that govern inter-American
relations and to recommend that these principles be adopted
by the world at large. These principles include:
- The juridical equality of all peace-loving nations,
- The faithful observance of treaties, which can be revised only by agreement of the contracting parties,
- International law as the basis for relations between states,
- Non-intervention by any state in the internal or external affairs of another,
- Renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy, and non-recognition of territorial changes effected by aggression,
- The pacific settlement of all disputes which may arise between states,
- Consultation between states, particularly in connection with any act susceptible of disturbing the peace of any one of them,
- Solidarity against aggression,
- Liberal principles of international trade, conducted with peaceful motives and based on equality of treatment and fair and equitable practices,
- International cooperation for the betterment of the economic and social welfare of peoples, including adequate remuneration of labor, improvement of the standards of living, and protection and preservation of health,
- The advancement of education as essential to the realization of democracy and the development of civilization and culture.
- The American Republics at the conference go on record as proclaiming and reasserting their adherence to the objectives and principles of the Atlantic Charter.
4. Joint Guarantee of Boundaries.
The United States Delegation maintains that the disturbance of the peace is a matter of grave common concern and wishes to see the conference go on record as recommending
- That each American Republic endeavor, before the convening of the ninth inter-American conference of American states, to settle any outstanding territorial dispute,
- That territorial sovereignty of an American state is inviolable, and
- That an act of aggression by one American state against another American state is an act of aggression against all American states, and
- The American Republics will consult immediately in such a contingency to consider means for taking common action against the aggressor, and
- That a resolution in the above sense be placed on the agenda of the ninth inter-American conference of American states.
5. A resolution is in an advanced stage of preparation designed to secure common agreement among the American Republics for a uniform policy in the matter of recognition of new governments established in this hemisphere. Concerned with this general problem is the principle incorporated in the so-called “Estrada Doctrine” and the matter of the recognition of American governments in exile.
III. On Consideration of Economic and Social Problems of the Americas.
1. War and Transition Economic Cooperation.
At Mexico City, the following assurances should be given to the other American republics:
- Transition of the war procurement program will be orderly, gradual, and will follow the principle of consultation.
- Support to provide an orderly transition from war procurement to full peace-time trade will be by means of inter-American loans to be made on a joint basis to be agreed upon between the individual [Page 109] country concerned and the United States, for the purpose of providing minimum essential production of particular raw materials which would otherwise unbalance the economies of certain of the other American republics.
- All possible assistance will be given to sound economic development to increase the productivity of the American republics and therefore improve their standard of living and buying power.
- When a stock-pile policy has been agreed upon by the United States and when congressional authority has been secured for stockpile purchases, active consideration will be given to Latin American sources of supply in obtaining raw materials. In addition, procurement of raw materials for lend-lease operations in Europe or Asia, or for provision to UNRRA will be from Latin American sources to the fullest extent possible.
- Active assistance of an advisory character will be given those governments which require such advice in the orderly disposition of surplus raw materials.
- Strengthening and continuance of blacklist operations and special assistance in elimination of Axis spearheads and transfer of black-listed firms to efficient management will be actively supported.
- Implementation of Resolution V of Rio with respect to blacklist operations, control of looted assets, and protection against flight of enemy capital.
- Elimination of war-time trade controls consistent with successful prosecution of the war.
- Control of inflation.
2. Improvement of Economic and Social Conditions.
The following recommendations will be made at Mexico:
- Adoption of an Economic Charter of the Americas covering
the following points:
- Strengthened Inter-American Economic Cooperation
- Economic Collaboration
- Economy of Abundance
- Equality of Access
- Reduction of Trade Barriers
- Private Agreements which Restrict International Trade
- Elimination of Excessive Economic Nationalism
- Just and Equal Treatment for Foreign Enterprise and Capital
- Currency Stabilization; Endorsement of Bretton Woods Proposals
- Private Enterprise and Government Operations
- International Agreements to Facilitate Distribution of Production Surpluses
- Maintenance and Development of the Internal Economies of
the American Republics:
- Supply of essential materials for the war effort
- Supply of capital goods during hostilities and transition period
- Equality of access
- Establishment of new industries
- Means of encouraging industrial development through private enterprise
- Technical cooperation
- Equal treatment of foreign capital and skills
- Cooperation in Health, Sanitation, Nutrition, and Food Supply.
- Cooperation in Improvement of Transportation.
- Cooperation in the Development of Tourism.
IV. On Other Matters of General and Immediate Concern to Participating Governments.
1. Freedom of Information.
The United States Delegation believes that it is essential for common understanding, for economic stability, and as a basis of peaceful relations throughout the world, for the conference to go on record as favoring
- The maintenance of the free exchange of information on a world-wide basis, and therefore
- Upon the termination of hostilities the American Republics will undertake to terminate those measures of censorship and press control that were instituted for purposes of wartime security.
2. Cultural Interchange.
The United States Delegation believes that peace, security, and the maintenance of inter-American solidarity depends in large measure upon a mutual understanding of the cultural life in the American Republics and therefore is prepared to recommend
(a) That the Governments of the American Republics should be requested to intensify their efforts to increase cultural interchange in the fields of science, education, and the arts.
- Transmitted to the Secretary of State on February 16, 1945.↩