Briefing Book Prepared in the Treasury Department1
Program To Prevent Germany From Starting a World War III2
1. Demilitarization of Germany
[This paragraph is identical with paragraph 1 of Morgenthau’s memorandum of September 5, 1944, ante, p. 101.]
2. New Boundaries of Germany
- Poland should get that part of East Prussia which doesn’t go to the U.S.S.R. and the southern portion of Silesia. (See map in 12 Appendix.3)
- France should get the Saar and the adjacent territories bounded by the Rhine and the Moselle Rivers.
- As indicated in 4 below an International Zone should be created containing the Ruhr and the surrounding industrial areas.
3. Partitioning of New Germany
[This paragraph is identical with subparagraph 2 (d) of Morgenthau’s memorandum of September 5, 1944, ante, p. 101.]
4. The Ruhr Area
(The Ruhr, surrounding industrial areas, as shown on the map, including the Rhineland, the Kiel Canal, and all German territory north of the Kiel Canal.)
Here lies the heart of German industrial power. This area should not only be stripped of all presently existing industries but so weakened and controlled that it can not in the foreseeable future become an industrial area. The following steps will accomplish this:
- Within a short period, if possible not longer than 6 months after the cessation of hostilities, all industrial plants and equipment not destroyed by military action shall be completely dismantled and transported to Allied Nations as restitution. All equipment shall be removed from the mines and the mines closed.
- The area should be made an international zone to be governed by an international security organization to be established by the United Nations. In governing the area the international organization should be guided by policies designed to further the above stated objective.
5. Restitution and Reparation
Reparations, in the form of future payments and deliveries, should not be demanded. Restitution and reparation shall be effected by the transfer of existing German resources and territories, e.g.,
- by restitution of property looted by the Germans in territories occupied by them;
- by transfer of German territory and German private rights in industrial property situated in such territory to invaded countries and the international organization under the program of partition;
- by the removal and distribution among devastated countries of industrial plants and equipment situated within the International Zone and the North and South German states delimited in the section on partition;
- by forced German labor outside Germany; and
- by confiscation of all German assets of any character whatsoever outside of Germany.
6. Education and Propaganda
[This paragraph is identical with paragraph 5 of Morgenthau’s memorandum of September 5, 1944, ante, p. 103.]
7. Political Decentralization
The military administration in Germany in the initial period should be carried out with a view toward the eventual partitioning of Germany. [Page 130] To facilitate partitioning and to assure its permanence the military authorities should be guided by the following principles:
- Dismiss all policy-making officials of the Reich government and deal primarily with local governments.
- Encourage the reestablishment of state governments in each of the states (Länder) corresponding to 18 states into which Germany is presently divided and in addition make the Prussian provinces separate states.
- Upon the partition of Germany, the various state governments should be encouraged to organize a federal government for each of the newly partitioned areas. Such new governments should be in the form of a confederation of states, with emphasis on states’ rights and a large degree of local autonomy.
8. Responsibility of Military for Local German Economy
The sole purpose of the military in control of the German economy shall be to facilitate military operations and military occupation. The Allied Military Government shall not assume responsibility for such economic problems as price controls, rationing, unemployment, production, reconstruction, distribution, consumption, housing, or transportation, or take any measures designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy, except those which are essential to military operations. The responsibility for sustaining the German economy and people rests with the German people with such facilities as may be available under the circumstances.
9. Controls Over Development of German Economy
[This paragraph is identical with paragraph 8 of Morgenthau’s memorandum of September 5, 1944, ante, p. 104.]
10. Agrarian Program
All large estates should be broken up and divided among the peas ants and the system of primogeniture and entail should be abolished.
11. Punishment of War Crimes and Treatment of Special Groups
A program for the punishment of certain war crimes and for the treatment of Nazi organizations and other special groups is contained in section 11.4
12. Uniforms and Parades
- No German shall be permitted to wear, after an appropriate period of time following the cessation of hostilities, any military uniform or any uniform of any quasi military organizations.
- No military parades shall be permitted anywhere in Germany and all military bands shall be disbanded.
[This paragraph is identical with paragraph 12 of Morgenthau’s memorandum of September 5, 1944, ante, p. 104.]
14. United States Responsibility
Although the United States would have full military and civilian representation on whatever international commission or commissions may be established for the execution of the whole German program, the primary responsibility for the policing of Germany and for civil administration in Germany should be assumed by the military forces of Germany’s continental neighbors. Specifically, these should include Russian, French, Polish, Czech, Greek, Yugoslav, Norwegian, Dutch and Belgian soldiers.
Under this program United States troops could be withdrawn within a relatively short time.
This briefing book was before Roosevelt during his meeting with the Cabinet Committee on Germany on September 9, 1944. See Morgenthau Diary (Germany), vol. i, pp. 608–609. Concerning the preparation of these briefing materials, see ibid., pp. 591–596.
In the Roosevelt Papers these briefing papers are attached to and preceded by: (1) A typed memorandum reading, “This was done by Henry Morgenthau, Jr. and his people. In the conversations [at Quebec] with the Prof (Lord Cherwell) we used it in discussing the financial problems, but not the recommendations on the allocations of zones in Germany. F.D.R.” (2) A table of contents listing serially (from 1 to 11) the titles of the individual sections of the briefing book and identifying the two maps and three charts which were included in the briefing materials. The table of contents indicates, however, that the third appended chart is entitled “Trade Pattern of Europe”, whereas the final chart filed in the Roosevelt Papers is entitled “Coal Production in United Kingdom and Ruhr”. Cf. ibid., pp. 594–595.↩
- In Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Germany Is Our Problem (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1945), a facsimile of this section of the Treasury briefing book is reproduced before p. ix, and identified as “a photographic copy of the memorandum summarizing ‘The Morgenthau Plan’ which President Roosevelt took with him to the historic conference at Quebec in September of 1944.” The briefing book taken as a whole is the fullest exposition of the “Morgenthau Plan” which has been found.↩
- The maps and charts contained in the briefing book were appended in section 12, following the first 11 sections of the book. See post, p. 140.↩
- Post, p. 140.↩
- The plans referred to were drawn up by two committees of experts headed, respectively, by Charles G. Dawes and Owen D. Young. For the text of the “Dawes Plan” (i.e., the report of the First Committee of Experts submitted April 9, 1924), see Federal Reserve Bulletin, vol. 10, May 1924, pp. 351–411; Reports of the Expert Committees Appointed by the Reparation Commission (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1924; Cmd. 2105), pp. 2–125; or The Experts’ Plan for Reparation Payments (Paris: The Reparation Commission, 1926), pp. 2–116, also printed with the same pagination in the series Reparation Commission: Official Documents, vol. xiv (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1927). For the text of the “Young Plan” (i.e., the report of the Committee of Experts submitted June 7, 1929), see Federal Reserve Bulletin, vol. 15, July 1929, pp. 465–494, or Report of the Committee of Experts on Reparations (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1929; Cmd. 3343). Concerning the preparation and implementation of the Dawes and Young Plans, see, respectively, Foreign Relations, 1924, vol. ii, pp. 1 ff., and ibid., 1929, vol. ii, pp. 1025 ff.↩
- See Social Insurance and Allied Services: Report by Sir William Beveridge (London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1942; Cmd. 6404).↩