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Section II.—Treaties (Art. 282 à 295)

Article 282.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty and subject to the provisions thereof the multilateral treaties, conventions and agreements of an economic or technical character enumerated below and in the subsequent Articles shall alone be applied as between Germany and those of the Allied and Associated Powers party thereto:

Note to X, 282

While unable to check the completeness of the list of multilateral treaties enumerated in the draft for becoming operative again, the German delegation believed it preferable in principle for all multilateral treaties in force at the outbreak of the war to come into force again at the peace, a later examination to determine which of them should be altered or terminated ( Foreign Relations, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, vi, 871). The provision whereby Germany must accept in advance all conventions concerning international postal, telegraphic, and wireless traffic was “incompatible with the dignity of an independent people”. Germany also protested emphatically against article 289 which gave the Allies the exclusive right to decide which bilateral treaties should be revised, and proposed that either party should be free to inform the other of provisions which had become inoperative, the settlement to be arrived at by special commissions. Germany’s treaties with Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay, which were not at war with Germany, would not be affected. The general abrogation of Germany’s treaties with Russia and Rumania could not be accepted because resumption and maintenance of relations with those countries would be affected. Finally Germany could not, without a more detailed examination, grant to the Allies certain advantages formerly accorded to its allies or to neutrals, and proposed special negotiations.

The Allies replied that they “could not permit the continuance of all the treaties which Germany imposed on her allies, or her temporarily defeated adversaries, and even in certain cases on neutral countries” in order to obtain particularly favorable conditions [Page 566]and special advantages incompatible with justice ( ibid., p. 974). Consequently there was no necessity for negotiation. Articles 283 and 284 had been misunderstood. Germany merely undertook not to refuse consent to the conclusion of special arrangements by the new states and would have the option of participating in the drawing up of the new radiotelegraphic convention, to which Germany need not be bound unless it was concluded within five years. Article 289 had also been misunderstood. The Allies gave assurances that the article would not be “arbitrarily used for the purpose of splitting up bilateral treaties in such a way that only the obligations should remain on one side and on the other side only the rights”, and they would, through the League of Nations, insure the loyal execution of the article. The language of the article was modified accordingly. The Allies declined to accept the German reservation concerning treaties with four South American states, and they maintained their position as regards articles 290, 291, 292, and 294.

(1) Conventions of March 14, 1884, December 1, 1886, and March 23, 1887, and Final Protocol of July 7, 1887, regarding the protection of submarine cables.

Note to X, 282 (1)

The 1884 convention is printed at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 1949, and at 75 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 356; the declaration of December 1, 1886 and March 23, 1887 is at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 1956, and the final protocol of 1887 at ibid., p. 1958.

(2) Convention of October 11, 1909, regarding the international circulation of motor-cars.

Note to X, 282 (2)

The convention is printed at 102 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 64.

(3) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the sealing of railway trucks subject to customs inspection, and Protocol of May 18, 1907.

Note to X, 282 (3)

The 1886 agreement is printed at Martens, Nouveau recueil général de Traités, 2e série, xxii, 42; the 1907 protocol, at ibid., 3e série, ii, 878.

See also article 366.

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(4) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the technical standardisation of railways.

Note to X, 282 (4)

This agreement between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland was signed at Bern and entered into force on April 1, 1887. Belgium, the Netherlands, and Rumania subsequently adhered. The text is in Italy, Ministro degli affari esteri, Trattati e convenzioni tra il regno d’Italia e gli altri stati, xi, 23.

See also article 366.

(5) Convention of July 5, 1890, regarding the publication of customs tariffs and the organisation of an International Union for the publication of customs tariffs.

Note to X, 282 (5)

The convention is printed in Treaty Series 384 and at 82 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 340.

(6) Convention of December 31, 1913, regarding the unification of commercial statistics.

Note to X, 282 (6)

The convention is printed at 116 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 58.

(7) Convention of April 25, 1907, regarding the raising of the Turkish customs tariff.

Note to X, 282 (7)

The convention is printed at 100 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 575.

(8) Convention of March 14, 1857, for the redemption of toll dues on the Sound and Belts.

Note to X, 282 (8)

The convention is printed at 47 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 24.

(9) Convention of June 22, 1861, for the redemption of the Stade Toll on the Elbe.

Note to X, 282 (9)

The convention is printed at 51 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 27.

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(10) Convention of July 16, 1863, for the redemption of the toll dues on the Scheldt.

Note to X, 282 (10)

The convention is printed at 53 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 8.

(11) Convention of October 29, 1888, regarding the establishment of a definite arrangement guaranteeing the free use of the Suez Canal.

Note to X, 282 (11)

The convention is printed at 79 British and Foreign Papers, p. 18. During the application of article 16 of the Covenant of the League of Nations to Italy in 1935–36 some discussion arose as to the collective closing of the Suez Canal. Italy and the United Kingdom in their protocol of April 16, 1938 declared that the 1888 convention “guarantees at all times and for all powers free use of the Suez Canal” (United Kingdom, Treaty Series 31 (1938), Cmd. 5726; 195 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 88).

(12) Conventions of September 23, 1910, respecting the unification of certain regulations regarding collisions and salvage at sea.

Note to X, 282 (12)

The conventions are printed at 103 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 434; the convention regarding assistance and salvage at sea is in Treaty Series 576, at 37 Stat. 1658, and at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1910–23, iii, 2953.

(13) Convention of December 21, 1904, regarding the exemption of hospital ships from dues and charges in ports.

Note to X, 282 (13)

The convention is printed at 98 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 624.

(14) Convention of February 4, 1898, regarding the tonnage measurement of vessels for inland navigation.

Note to X, 282 (14)

The convention is printed at 90 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 303.

(15) Convention of September 26, 1906, for the suppression of nightwork for women.

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Note to X, 282 (15)

The convention is printed at 100 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 794.

(16) Convention of September 26, 1906, for the suppression of the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.

Note to X, 282 (16)

The convention is printed at 99 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 986.

(17) Conventions of May 18, 1904, and May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of the White Slave Traffic.

Note to X, 282 (17)

The 1904 convention is printed in Treaty Series 496, at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 2131, at 1 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 83, and at 97 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 95; that of 1910, at 103 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 244.

(18) Convention of May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of obscene publications.

Note to X, 282 (18)

The convention is printed in Treaty Series 559, at 37 Stat. 1511, at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1910–23, iii, 2918, and at 103 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 251.

(19) Sanitary Conventions of January 30, 1892, April 15, 1893, April 3, 1894, March 19, 1897, and December 3, 1903.

Text of May 7:

Sanitary Conventions of Paris and Venice of the 3rd April, 1894, 19th March, 1897, and 3rd December, 1903.

Note to X, 282 (19)

The convention concerning the sanitary regime of the Suez Canal, Venice, January 30, 1892, is printed at 84 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 12; the international sanitary convention, Dresden, April 15, 1893, is at 85 ibid., p. 7; the international sanitary convention for the protection from disease of the pilgrimage to Mecca and for establishing sanitary inspection in the Persian Gulf, Paris, April 3, 1894, is at 87 ibid., p. 78; the international sanitary convention and regulations, Venice, March 19, 1897, is at 89 ibid., p. 159; the [Page 570]sanitary convention and regulations, Paris, December 3, 1903, is in Treaty Series 466 and at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 2066. The international sanitary convention, Paris, January 17, 1912 (Treaty Series 649; 42 Stat. 1823; Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1910–23, iii, 2972), which consolidated and modified the conventions of 1897 and 1903 which themselves consolidated earlier instruments, was not in force at the signing of the treaty of peace. The procès-verbal of ratification which brought it into force was deposited at Paris on October 7, 1920. Germany subsequently deposited its ratification. A convention revising the 1912 convention was signed at Paris on June 21, 1926 and entered into force by a first deposit of ratifications on March 10, 1928 (Treaty Series 792; 45 Stat. 2492; Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1923–37, iv, 4962).

A convention amending the 1926 convention was signed at Paris on October 31, 1938 and entered into force on July 24, 1939 (198 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 205).

(20) Convention of May 20, 1875, regarding the unification and improvement of the metric system.

Note to X, 282 (20)

The convention is printed in Treaty Series 378, at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 1924, and at 66 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 562.

(21) Convention of November 29, 1906, regarding the unification of pharmacopœial formulae for potent drugs.

Note to X, 282 (21)

The agreement is printed at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 2209 and at 99 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 179.

(22) Convention of November 16 and 19, 1885, regarding the establishment of a concert pitch.

Note to X, 282 (22)

The declarations of the International Conference on Concert Pitch convened by the Austrian Ministerium des Kultus und Unterricht at Vienna, November 16-19, 1885 were published by that ministry and are also in Italy, Ministro degli affari esteri, Trattati e convenzioni tra il regno d’Italia e gli altri stati, xii, 727.

(23) Convention of June 7, 1905, regarding the creation of an International Agricultural Institute at Rome.

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Note to X, 282 (23)

The convention is printed in Treaty Series 489, at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 2140, and at 100 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 595.

(24) Conventions of November 3, 1881, and April 15, 1889, regarding precautionary measures against phylloxera.

Note to X, 282 (24)

The 1881 convention is printed at 73 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 323; the 1889 convention, at 81 ibid., p. 1311.

(25) Convention of March 19, 1902, regarding the protection of birds useful to agriculture.

Note to X, 282 (25)

The convention is printed at 102 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 969.

(26) Convention of June 12, 1902, as to the protection of minors.

Note to X, 282 (26)

The convention is printed at 95 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 421.

Article 283.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties shall apply the conventions and agreements hereinafter mentioned, in so far as concerns them, on condition that the special stipulations contained in this Article are fulfilled by Germany.

Postal Conventions:

Conventions and agreements of the Universal Postal Union concluded at Vienna, July 4, 1891.

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Washington, June 15, 1897.

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Rome, May 26, 1906.

Telegraphic Conventions:

International Telegraphic Conventions signed at St. Petersburg July 10/22, 1875.

Regulations and Tariffs drawn up by the International Telegraphic Conference, Lisbon, June 11, 1908.

[Page 572]

Germany undertakes not to refuse her assent to the conclusion by the new States of the special arrangements referred to in the conventions and agreements relating to the Universal Postal Union and to the International Telegraphic Union, to which the said new States have adhered or may adhere.

Note to X, 283

The main 1891 postal convention is printed at 83 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 513; that of 1897, at 89 ibid., p. 65; and that of 1906, at 99 ibid., p. 254. The latest universal postal convention supersedes the previous one for all parties when it enters into force; in 1919 the 1906 convention was in force.

The subsidiary postal conventions and arrangements, with their regulations, enter into force when accepted and revisions do not similarly supersede one another. The instruments of the three congresses mentioned dealt with parcel post, letters, etc., of declared value, money orders, postal subscriptions to newspapers, postal certificates of identity, and the Service des recouvrements.

Germany was a party to the convention and agreements of the Universal Postal Union signed at Madrid, November 30, 1920 (3 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 267) and to subsequent revisions up to that of Cairo, March 20, 1934.

The 1875 telegraphic convention is printed at 66 British and Foreign State Papers; p. 19; the 1908 regulations, at 102 ibid., p. 214. Both were replaced by the international telecommunication convention and regulations signed at Madrid, December 9, 1932 (Treaty Series 867; 49 Stat. 2391; Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1923–37, iv, 5379). The regulations were revised at Cairo, April 4 and 8, 1938 (Treaty Series 948; 54 Stat. 1417).

The international service regulations provided for by article 13 of the 1875 convention were revised at Paris on October 29, 1925 (57 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 201).

Article 284.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties shall apply, in so far as concerns them, the International Radio-Telegraphic Convention of July 5, 1912, on condition that Germany fulfils the provisional regulations which will be indicated to her by the Allied and Associated Powers.

If within five years after the coming into force of the present Treaty a new convention regulating international radio-telegraphic communications should have been concluded to take the place of [Page 573]the Convention of July 5, 1912, this new convention shall bind Germany, even if Germany should refuse either to take part in drawing up the convention, or to subscribe thereto.

Text of May 7:

When a new convention regulating international radio-telegraphic communications has been concluded to take the place of the Convention of the 5th July, 1912, this new Convention shall bind Germany even if Germany should refuse either to take part in drawing up the convention, or to subscribe thereto.

This new convention will likewise replace the provisional regulations in force.

Note to X, 284

The 1912 convention is in Treaty Series 581, at 38 Stat. 1707, and at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1910–23, iii, 3048. Germany was a party to the following: to the radiotelegraph convention and regulations signed at Washington, November 25, 1927 (Treaty Series 767; 45 Stat. 2760; Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1923–37, iv, 5031); to the telecommunication convention and regulations signed at Madrid, December 9, 1932, which abrogated and replaced the 1912 and 1927 conventions (Treaty Series 867; 49 Stat. 2391; Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1923–37, iv, 5379); and to the revised regulations signed at Cairo, April 4 and 8, 1938 (Treaty Series 948; 54 Stat. 1417).

Article 285.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty, the High Contracting Parties shall apply in so far as concerns them and under the conditions stipulated in Article 272, the conventions hereinafter mentioned:

(1)
The Conventions of May 6, 1882, and February 1, 1889, regulating the fisheries in the North Sea outside territorial waters.
(2)
The Conventions and Protocols of November 16, 1887, February 14, 1893, and April 11, 1894, regarding the North Sea liquor traffic.

Note to X, 285

The convention for regulating the police of the North Sea fisheries signed at The Hague, May 6, 1882, is printed at 73 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 39; the declaration modifying the convention signed at The Hague, February 1, 1889, is at 81 ibid., p. 9.

[Page 574]

The convention respecting the liquor traffic in the North Sea, The Hague, November 16, 1887, the protocol of February 14, 1893 regarding its entry into force, and the procès-verbal of April 11, 1894 are printed at 79 ibid., p. 894.

Article 286.

The International Convention of Paris of March 20, 1883, for the protection of industrial property, revised at Washington on June 2, 1911; and the International Convention of Berne of September 9, 1886, for the protection of literary and artistic works, revised at Berlin on November 13, 1908, and completed by the additional Protocol signed at Berne on March 20, 1914, will again come into effect as from the coming into force of the present Treaty, in so far as they are not affected or modified by the exceptions and restrictions resulting therefrom.

Text of May 7:

The International Convention of Paris of the 20th March, 1883, for the protection of industrial property, revised at Washington on the 2nd June, 1911; the agreement of the 14th April, 1891, regarding the suppression of false indications of origin of goods; the agreement of the 14th April, 1891, concerning the international registration of trade marks; and the International Convention of Berne of the 9th September, 1886, for the protection of literary and artistic works, revised at Berlin on the 13th November, 1908, and completed by the additional Protocol signed at Berne on the 20th March, 1914, will again come into effect as from the coming into force of the present Treaty, in so far as they are not affected or modified by the exceptions and restrictions resulting therefrom.

Note to X, 286

The Paris convention of 1883 is in Treaty Series 379 and at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 1935. The 1911 revision is in Treaty Series 579 and at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1910–23, iii, 2953. A revisionary convention was signed at The Hague, November 6, 1925 (Treaty Series 834; 47 Stat. 1789; Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1923–37, iv, 4945).

For a special provision with respect to German trade marks, see part X, section 12, annex, paragraph 5. See further, articles 306 and 308, for reference to industrial and literary property.

The Berlin convention of 1908 is printed at 102 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 619; the additional protocol is at 107 ibid., p. 353. A revision was effected by a convention concluded at Rome on June 2, 1928 (123 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 233).

[Page 575]

An agreement concluded by Germany, France, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, and Tunis on June 30, 1920 concerned the preservation or the reestablishment of the rights of industrial property affected by the war.

With respect to article 4 of the Paris convention as revised, periods for registration, deposit, payment of fees, and other formalities which were interrupted as of August 1, 1914 were extended from six months to a year from the coming into force of the agreement, which for Germany was September 30, 1920 (1 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 59).

Article 287.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties shall apply, in so far as concerns them, the Convention of the Hague of July 17, 1905, relating to civil procedure. This renewal, however, will not apply to France, Portugal and Roumania.

Note to X, 287

The convention is printed at 99 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 990.

Article 288.

The special rights and privileges granted to Germany by Article 3 of the Convention of December 2, 1899, relating to Samoa shall be considered to have terminated on August 4, 1914.

Note to X, 288

The 1899 convention was concluded between Germany, Great Britain, and the United States and provided for a division of Samoan Islands between Germany and the United States (Treaty Series 314; Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1776–1909, ii, 1595). Germany renounced its title thereto under article 119. The termination of rights and privileges dates from the British declaration of war against Germany.

Article 289.

Each of the Allied or Associated Powers, being guided by the general principles or special provisions of the present Treaty, shall notify to Germany the bilateral treaties or conventions which such Allied or Associated Power wishes to revive with Germany.

[Page 576]

The notification referred to in the present Article shall be made either directly or through the intermediary of another Power. Receipt thereof shall be acknowledged in writing by Germany. The date of the revival shall be that of the notification.

The Allied and Associated Powers undertake among themselves not to revive with Germany any conventions or treaties which are not in accordance with the terms of the present Treaty.

Text of May 7:

The Allied and Associated Powers undertake among themselves not to revive with Germany any conventions or treaties which are not in accordance with the terms of the present Treaty. In case of any difference of opinion, the League of Nations will be called on to decide.

The notification shall mention any provisions of the said conventions and treaties which, not being in accordance with the terms of the present Treaty, shall not be considered as revived.

Text of May 7:

The notification referred to in the present Article shall be made either directly or through the intermediary of another Power. Receipt thereof shall be acknowledged in writing by Germany. The date of the revival shall be that of the notification.

In case of any difference of opinion, the League of Nations will be called on to decide.

A period of six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty is allowed to the Allied and Associated Powers within which to make the notification.

Only those bilateral treaties and conventions which have been the subject of such a notification shall be revived between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany; all the others are and shall remain abrogated.

The above regulations apply to all bilateral treaties or conventions existing between all the Allied and Associated Powers signatories to the present Treaty and Germany, even if the said Allied and Associated Powers have not been in a state of war with Germany.

Note to X, 289

A considerable network of bilateral engagements was cleared away by the provision of this article that all treaties not specifically revived by any Allied and Associated Power were abrogated as of January 10, 1920. By the last paragraph, states which had broken off relations [Page 577]with Germany and were signatories to the treaty of peace were entitled to abrogate their treaties.

A note from the British Government to the German Government gave notice of the revival of certain bilateral treaties between the British Empire and Germany as from the date of the note, June 25, 1920 (5 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 303). The note stated that, with respect to an agreement for the exchange of money orders, the words “German protectorate” and “German postal agencies in foreign countries” must be regarded as excised from the revived agreement, being contrary to the stipulations of the treaty of peace.

Comparatively few bilateral treaties were revived under these provisions. The action of five states is recorded as follows: for Belgium, see Reichsgesetzblatt, 1920, ii, 1397; France, ibid., i, 946; Great Britain, ibid., ii, 1543; Greece, ibid., p. 1544; Italy, ibid., p. 1577.

Article 290.

Germany recognises that all the treaties, conventions or agreements which she has concluded with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria or Turkey since August 1, 1914, until the coming into force of the present Treaty are and remain abrogated by the present Treaty.

Note to X, 290

The principal German political treaties abrogated by this article were:

  • Austria-Hungary, military treaty, May 12, 1918.
  • Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, treaty of alliance, Sofia, July 17, 1915.
  • Turkey, notice extending most-favored-nation treatment to Turkish subjects for duration of the war, June 24, 1915 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1915, p. 347).
  • Turkey, treaty of alliance, Constantinople, August 2, 1914.
  • Turkey, settlement treaty and nine other treaties, Berlin, January 11, 1917 (ibid., 1918, pp. 192–357).

Article 291.

Germany undertakes to secure to the Allied and Associated Powers, and to the officials and nationals of the said Powers, the enjoyment of all the rights and advantages of any kind which she may have granted to Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria or Turkey, or to the officials and nationals of these States by treaties, conventions or [Page 578]arrangements concluded before August 1, 1914, so long as those treaties, conventions or arrangements remain in force.

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to accept or not the enjoyment of these rights and advantages.

Article 292.

Germany recognises that all treaties, conventions or arrangements which she concluded with Russia, or with any State or Government of which the territory previously formed a part of Russia, or with Roumania, before August 1, 1914, or after that date until the coming into force of the present Treaty, are and remain abrogated.

Note to X, 292

The principal treaties abrogated by this article, which reads with articles 116 and 117 and with equivalent provisions in the treaties of peace with Austria, Bulgaria, and Hungary, were:

Treaty of peace between Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey of the one part and the Ukrainian People’s Republic, Brest-Litovsk, February 9, 1918 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1918, p. 1010; Department of State, Texts of the Ukraine “Peace”, p. 9).

Supplementary legal-political treaty between Germany and the Ukrainian People’s Republic, Brest-Litovsk, February 9, 1918 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1918, p. 1030; Department of State, Texts of the Ukraine “Peace”, p. 29).

Agreements on grain and oil seeds and economic matters between Germany and Austria-Hungary and the Ukraine, Kiev, April 9 and 23, 1918 (Department of State, Texts of the Ukraine “Peace”, pp. 143, 146).

Financial treaty between Germany and Austria-Hungary and the Ukraine, Kiev, May 15, 1918 (ibid., p. 153).

Treaty of peace between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey of the one part and Russia, Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1918, p. 479; Department of State, Texts of the Russian “Peace”, p. 13).

Supplementary legal-political treaty between Germany and Russia, Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1918, p. 2622; Department of State, Texts of the Russian “Peace”, p. 115).

Supplementary financial and civil-law agreements between Germany and Russia, Berlin, August 27, 1918 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1918, pp. 1154, 1172, 1190; Department of State, Texts of the Russian “Peace”, pp. 177, 191, 203).

[Page 579]

Treaty of peace between Germany and Finland, Berlin, March 7, 1918 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1918, p. 701; Department of State, Texts of the Finland “Peace”, p. 13).

Convention concerning commerce and navigation between Germany and Finland, Berlin, March 7, 1918 (Reichsgesetzblatt, 1918, p. 712; Department of State, Texts of the Finland “Peace”, p. 27).

Additional protocol to the treaty of peace and convention concerning commerce and navigation between Germany and Finland, Brest-Litovsk, March 7, 1918 (Reichstagsdrucksachen, ii. Session 1914/1918, No. 1396; Department of State, Texts of the Finland “Peace”, p. 39).

Treaty of peace between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey of the one part and Rumania, Bucharest, May 7, 1918 (Germany, Auswärtiges Amt, Der Friedensvertrag mit Rumänien nebst den deutschen Zusatzverträgen; Department of State, Texts of the Roumanian “Peace”, p. 7).

Treaty concerning economic policy supplementary to the treaty of peace with Rumania, Bucharest, May 7, 1918 (Department of State, Texts of the Roumanian “Peace”, p. 57).

Treaty concerning legal matters supplementary to the treaty of peace with Rumania between Germany and Rumania, Bucharest, May 7, 1918 (ibid., p. 113).

Article 293.

Should an Allied or Associated Power, Russia, or a State or Government of which the territory formerly constituted a part of Russia, have been forced since August 1, 1914, by reason of military occupation or by any other means or for any other cause, to grant or to allow to be granted by the act of any public authority, concessions, privileges and favours of any kind to Germany or to a German national, such concessions, privileges and favours are ipso facto annulled by the present Treaty.

No claims or indemnities which may result from this annulment shall be charged against the Allied or Associated Powers or the Powers, States, Governments or public authorities which are released from their engagements by the present Article.

Article 294.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty Germany undertakes to give the Allied and Associated Powers and their [Page 580]nationals the benefit ipso facto of the rights and advantages of any kind which she has granted by treaties, conventions, or arrangements to non-belligerent States or their nationals since August 1, 1914, until the coming into force of the present Treaty, so long as those treaties, conventions or arrangements remain in force.

Article 295.

Those of the High Contracting Parties who have not yet signed, or who have signed but not yet ratified, the Opium Convention signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912, agree to bring the said Convention into force, and for this purpose to enact the necessary legislation without delay and in any case within a period of twelve months from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Furthermore, they agree that ratification of the present Treaty should in the case of Powers which have not yet ratified the Opium Convention be deemed in all respects equivalent to the ratification of that Convention and to the signature of the Special Protocol which was opened at The Hague in accordance with the resolutions adopted by the Third Opium Conference in 1914 for bringing the said Convention into force.

For this purpose the Government of the French Republic will communicate to the Government of the Netherlands a certified copy of the protocol of the deposit of ratifications of the present Treaty, and will invite the Government of the Netherlands to accept and deposit the said certified copy as if it were a deposit of ratifications of the Opium Convention and a signature of the Additional Protocol of 1914.

Note to X, 295

This article had an important effect in establishing a broad basis of agreement for the development of the program for combating the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs under article 23 (c) of the Covenant of the League of Nations. This article resulted in 34 additional ratifications to the 1912 convention, which increase made it possible for the League to proceed steadily with its program.

The convention is in Treaty Series 612, at Treaties, Conventions, etc., 1910–23, iii, 3025, and at 8 League of Nations Treaty Series, p. 187. For the subsequent instruments see p. 120.