1960–1969

January 15, 1960

Responsibility for the Sudan was transferred from the Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs to the Bureau of African Affairs.

January 18, 1960

A Department Notice separated the responsibilities of the U.S. Representative to the Council of the Organization of American States from the Office of Inter-American Regional Political Affairs.

February 4, 1960

Responsibility for Antarctic affairs was transferred from the Bureau of European Affairs to the Bureau of International Organization Affairs.

April 17, 1960

The Bureau of International Cultural Relations was renamed the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, to be headed by an Assistant Secretary. The Bureau comprised the Office of Cultural Affairs, the Office of the Educational Exchange Coordination Staff, a Secretariat of the U.S. Advisory Commission on Educational Exchange, an Advisory Committee on the Arts, the Secretariat of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, a Plans and Development Staff, and an Executive and Reports Staff. The East-West Contacts Staff was transferred to the Bureau of European Affairs.

The Foreign Reporting Staff was transferred from the Bureau of Administration to the Bureau of Economic Affairs.

May 1960

A Data Processing Staff was established in the Bureau of Administration to study how the Department could use the latest data processing techniques.

May 1, 1960

A Deputy Assistant Secretary for Mutual Security Information was established in the Bureau of Public Affairs.

August 3, 1960

The Deputy Under Secretary for Administration approved a plan to open certain administrative positions held by low-level FSOs to FSS personnel, who would be called “Specialists.”

September 8, 1960

The Foreign Service Act Amendments of 1960 (74 Stat. 831) liberalized the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System and made a statement of policy about language and area qualifications for chiefs of mission and other FSOs.

September 9, 1960

Department of State Circular No. 370 established the U.S. Disarmament Administration.

September 15, 1960

Secretary of State Herter announced that the Passport Office would become the U.S. Passport Service.

November 8, 1960

Executive Order 10893 defined the role of Ambassadors in coordinating U.S. Government activities overseas.

November 9, 1960

A Department Notice established a Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic and Regional Affairs in the Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs.

November 27, 1960

The Office of Intelligence Resources and Coordination was abolished. The Geographer was transferred to the Office of Functional and Biographic Intelligence. Its other functions were transferred to the Office of the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

December 6, 1960

Executive Order 10897 authorized the Secretary of State to prescribe rules and regulations relating to the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability System.

December 23, 1960

Department Circular No. 386 established an Office of Special Projects in the Bureau of Public Affairs to handle requests for information from radio and television stations. The Mutual Security Information Staff was abolished and its members reassigned within the Bureau.

January 5, 1961

Secretary of State Herter dedicated the new Department of State Building.

January 8, 1961

In the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, an Office of Research and Analysis for Africa was formed from the Office of Research and Analysis for Mid-East and Africa.

February 6, 1961

President John F. Kennedy revived the position of Ambassador at Large with the appointment of W. Averell Harriman. Harriman served until December 3, 1961, after which he became Assistant Secretary for Far Eastern Affairs.

February 20, 1961

Under Department of State Circular No. 392, the Policy Planning Staff became the Policy Planning Council. The Counselor of the Department became its Chairman and the position of Assistant Secretary of Policy Planning was eliminated.

March 7, 1961

The Special Assistant for Coordination of International Educational and Cultural Relations became an Assistant Secretary of State.

March 13, 1961

The Director of the Executive Secretariat received the new title of Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and Executive Secretary, with rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State.

Assistant Secretary for Administration William J. Crockett formed a task force to increase the administrative authority of Ambassadors and principal officers and to decrease the number of administrative reports and reporting situations. The task force completed its work on April 14, after which 50 administrative reports and reporting situations were eliminated.

April 3, 1961

Department Circular 407 transferred the Department of State’s Library from the Bureau of Intelligence and Research to the Office of Operations.

April 10, 1961

The Department of State began issuing new employee identification cards with color photographs. The replacement of older ID cards was completed on April 15, 1962.

April 12, 1961

The Department of State instituted the use of Foreign Affairs Manual Circulars to document changes in the Foreign Affairs Manual. FAMCs replaced Department, Administrative, and Foreign Service Circulars.

April 30, 1961

Establishment of the Operations Center in the Office of the Secretary.

May 15, 1961

Publication of the first issue of the Department of State Newsletter. It replaced the Foreign Service News Letter and the Department of State Employee Bulletin. In January 1981 it became State Magazine.

May 17, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 6B eliminated 70 committees within the Department. On June 22, FAMC 10B eliminated nine more.

May 24, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 6D established Deputy Directors for Research and Coordination in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

May 25, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 62B established a Special Protocol Service Section in the Office of the Chief of Protocol. It was responsible for helping foreign diplomats establish themselves in Washington, as well as helping foreign missions to find suitable chancery sites. Another matter of concern was dealing with incidents of racial discrimination against African diplomats. Pedro Sanjuan was the first head of the section.

May 29, 1961

President John F. Kennedy sent a personal letter to each Ambassador, giving them full authority over all U.S. Government activities in the countries to which they were assigned.

Katie Louchheim was appointed as Consultant on Women’s Activities and Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs. She became a Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of Public Affairs on January 22, 1962.

June 25, 1961

A reorganization of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research replaced the Office of Functional and Biographic Intelligence with an Office of Functional and External Research. There were six geographic offices and an Office of Current Intelligence Indications.

June 28, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 11 terminated the Foreign Service Regulations series, which had been established in 1938.

July 7, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 11E announced that, effective June 12, the Executive Secretariat had begun providing support services to the Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs.

July 10, 1961

A Department Notice transferred the functions of the Biographic Information Division from the Bureau of Intelligence and Research to the CIA. The physical transfer of the facilities took place in November.

July 28, 1961

Secretary of State Dean Rusk gave the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs responsibility for coordination of foreign economic policy.

August 16, 1961

Secretary of State Rusk convened a conference at the Department to discuss means of recruiting more members of minority groups into the Foreign Service.

August 23, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 17A established a Communist Counter-Strategy Group in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

September 4, 1961

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 445) established the Agency for International Development (AID), which replaced the International Cooperation Administration and the Development Loan Fund. On November 3, Executive Order 10973 and Department of State Delegation of Authority 104 established AID within the Department of State. The Administrator was appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, and held rank equivalent to the Under Secretary of an executive department. The Foreign Assistance Act also established the position of Inspector General for Foreign Assistance.

The Act also provided for travel expenses for rest and recuperation and for medical purposes (75 Stat. 424).

September 5, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 17B abolished the Special Assistant to the Secretary for East-West Exchanges. Its functions were transferred to the Soviet and Eastern European Exchanges Staff of the Bureau of European Affairs and to the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.

September 18, 1961

Acting Secretary of State Chester Bowles announced the appointment of a study group to analyze the organization of the Department. Former Deputy Under Secretary Carlisle H. Humelsine was its leader.

September 20, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 19B announced the establishment of a Systems Staff in the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget and Finance. The Systems Staff replaced the Financial Management Reports Staff.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 20 announced the establishment of the Automated Data Processing Program.

September 23, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 23A announced the abolition of the Executive Staff of the Office of Operations, effective July 1. Its functions were transferred to an Executive Assistant in the Office of Operations, the Assistant Director for Management Control, and the Office of the Executive Director for Administration.

September 26, 1961

The Arms Control and Disarmament Act (P.L. 87-297; 75 Stat. 631) established the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, which was charged with performing research, providing advice, and preparing for and participating in international negotiations in arms control and disarmament. The Director was appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. ACDA was incorporated into the Department of State in 1999.

September 29, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 24 provided for a more extensive briefing and orientation program for newly-appointed and returning Ambassadors.

October 25, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 35A redesignated the Division of Communications Service and the Telegraph Branch as the Diplomatic Communication Service and the Diplomatic Telegraph Branch respectively.

October 26, 1961

The Humelsine Study Group presented its report: It recommended that the senior Under Secretary should become the “general manager” of the Department and the “alter ego” of the Secretary. Another Under Secretary should oversee the regional bureaus, the Bureau of International organizations, the Directorate of Intelligence and Research, and the Politico-Military Staff. Another Under Secretary would be responsible for economic affairs and foreign assistance. The Department’s administrative structure would be simplified. There should only be a single “deputy” to each Assistant Secretary. The duties of most special assistants should be assigned to existing organizations.

November 4, 1961

The Office of Inspector General of Foreign Assistance was established. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 38 made the announcement on November 13.

November 15, 1961

A memorandum of understanding between the Departments of State and Commerce provided for the establishment of a Commercial Specialist Program in the Foreign Service.

December 1, 1961

A Departmental Security Branch was established in the Office of Security, with the mission of implementing security procedures in Department offices in Washington.

December 10, 1961

Following the establishment of the Agency for International Development, the Mutual Security Information program was transferred from the Bureau of Public Affairs to AID.

December 11, 1961

The Correspondence Review Staff of the Executive Secretariat was abolished. The Division of Records Management assumed charge of preparing new correspondence handbooks, while a Special Assistant to the Executive Secretary remained in charge of policies and procedures for diplomatic and ceremonial correspondence. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 42A had announced the changes on December 4.

December 15, 1961

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 44 declared the Under Secretary to be “the Secretary’s alter ego” and adviser in policy-making and management of the Department.

January 2, 1962

The Office of Security in the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs was reorganized. The Division of Physical Security was divided into three Divisions: Foreign Operations, Technical Services, and Domestic Operations. The Intelligence Reporting Branch was replaced by an Intelligence Processing Section within the Records and Services Branch.

January 25, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 46A created a Deputy Assistant Secretary for Political-Military Affairs in the office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs.

February 14, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 48 revised the administration of the Foreign Service Staff Corps. Promotion ceilings for FSS personnel were removed, as were restrictions on assignments of FSS personnel to FSO positions.

March 7, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 51C transferred direction of the Operations Center from the Office of the Secretary to the Executive Secretary of the Department. The Executive Secretariat’s Reports and Operations Staff was subdivided into a Reports Section, which became part of the Operations Center; and a Secretariat Staff (formerly the Operations Section).

March 16, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 51E announced a reorganization of economic development responsibilities. Most functions of the Office of International Financial and Development Affairs were transferred from the Bureau of Economic Affairs to AID. It retained responsibility for financial and monetary affairs, Lend-Lease, and treaty negotiations involving private investment in developed countries. The Bureau of European Affairs assumed responsibility for policy toward the OECD.

The Circular also abolished the Office of International Financial and Development Affairs. The Office of International Trade became the Office of International Trade and Finance, which included the International Finance Division and the External Property Affairs Division (formerly the Lend-Lease and Surplus Property Division). The Commercial Policy and Treaties Division of the Office of International Trade and Finance assumed responsibility for private investment treaty negotiations.

March 27, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 53A abolished the Coordinator of Emergency Plans and transferred its responsibilities for federal emergency planning and continuity of operations to the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Politico-Military Affairs, effective April 1.

March 28, 1962

An Office of Atlantic Affairs, headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary, was established in the Bureau of European Affairs. The first appointee, J. Robert Schaetzel, supervised one office responsible for NATO affairs and another for the OECD and European regional organizations.

April 2, 1962

The Departments of State and Commerce concluded an agreement to make commercial attachés career specialists in the Foreign Service, to recruit specialists from the Commerce Department and the business community, and to give a wider role to the Commerce Department in recruiting, assigning, and promoting commercial officers.

May 17, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 60C combined the Data Processing Systems Staff and the Division of Statistical Services into the Division of Automated Data Processing.

May 20, 1962

The Office of the Special Assistant for Atomic Energy and Outer Space was abolished and its functions transferred to the Office of the Science Advisor. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 60B announced the change on May 16.

May 25, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 62A established an Office of Inter-African Affairs in the Bureau of African Affairs. It also replaced the Office of Western African and Malagasy Affairs with the Office of African and Malagasy Union Affairs and the Office of West Coast and Malian Affairs.

May 28, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 64 announced Department of State regulations stating that its employment policies were to be implemented strictly on the basis of merit and without regard to race, color, creed, national origin, physical disability, or sex. An Employment Policy Officer with rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary was to be appointed. Assistant Secretary for African Affairs G. Mennen Williams assumed the position.

June 1, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 64A abolished the Office of Dependent Area Affairs in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs and transferred its functions to the Office of United Nations Political and Security Affairs, which changed its name to “Political, Security, and Dependent Area Affairs.”

June 5, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 64B abolished the Director of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and transferred their functions to the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau.

June 25, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 67D reorganized the Office of International Resources into four Divisions: Commodity Programming, Foodstuffs, Industrial and Strategic Materials, and Fuels and Energy.

June 28, 1962

The Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (76 Stat. 123) made the Administrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs a Presidential appointee. The Bureau also acquired jurisdiction over refugee and migration affairs.

July 1, 1962

The Foreign Economic Advisory Staff was transferred from the Office of the Under Secretary of State to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 71A announced the change on June 16.

The Division of Transportation Management and Division of Supply Management were consolidated into a Division of Supply and Transportation Management. The Division of Buildings Management became the Division of General Services. The Supply Branch of the Division of Supply Management became the Supply Services Branch and was transferred to the Division of General Services. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 73A announced the changes on July 6.

July 5, 1962

Substantive responsibility for Algeria was transferred from the Bureau of European Affairs to the Bureau of African Affairs. Administrative responsibility had already been transferred on April 1. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 78 announced the changes on July 19.

August 1, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 79A reorganized the Bureau of Public Affairs. There were now three Deputy Assistant Secretaries: Information, Policy Plans and Guidance, and Public Services. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information was eliminated in April 1963, when the Senior Deputy Assistant Secretary’s position became vacant.

August 3, 1962

A Department Notice announced that the Communications Center of the Executive Secretariat Staff was renamed the “Communications Control and Records Management Section.”

August 8, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 79B transferred the Office of Security from the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. John F. Reilly became Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security.

August 22, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 80B transferred responsibility for the Caribbean Organization from the Office of United Nations Political, Security, and Dependent Affairs in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs to the Office of Inter-American Regional Political Affairs in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.

August 29, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 80C renamed the Office of United Nations Political, Security and Dependent Area Affairs the Office of United Nations Political Affairs.

September 5, 1962

The Office of the Chief of Protocol was transferred to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration.

September 14, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 84 established the Office of International Scientific Affairs, which replaced the Office of the Science Adviser and gained bureau status. Dr. Ragnar Rollefson was the first Director of the Office.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 84A established a Regional Affairs Division in the Office of Research and Analysis for Western Europe.

September 17, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 84B transferred the Office of Munitions Control from the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs to the Bureau of Economic Affairs.

September 19, 1962

The Department of State inaugurated an Automatic Data Exchange (ADX) electronic communications system at the U.S. Embassy in Paris.

October 1, 1962

Responsibility for the South Pacific Commission was transferred from the Office of United Nations Political Affairs in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs to the Office of Southwest Pacific Affairs in the Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 86A announced the change on September 25.

October 3, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 87A established a Special Assistant for International Business in the Office of the Under Secretary. Allan Robbins was the first Special Assistant.

October 9, 1962

The Office of International Economic and Social Affairs in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs was reorganized into four units dealing with: International Scientific Organizations, Human Resources and Social Affairs, Development Policy and Finance, and Economic and Social Council and General Assembly Affairs.

December 8, 1962

The Committee on Foreign Affairs Personnel, chaired by former Secretary of State Christian Herter, published its report, Personnel for the New Diplomacy. Its recommendations included establishment of: an Executive Under Secretary of State as the third-ranking officer of the Department, A National Foreign Affairs College, a Foreign Information Service, and a Foreign Development Service. The Executive Under Secretary would be responsible for coordination of policy.

December 10, 1962

President Kennedy announced the formation of a committee to review U.S. military and economic assistance programs. The Committee to Strengthen the Security of the Free World was chaired by former Gen. Lucius D. Clay.

December 17, 1962

A Presidential Advisory Panel headed by James A. Perkins recommended the establishment of a National Academy of Foreign Affairs. President Kennedy asked Secretary of State Rusk to help draft legislation to establish it. Rusk in turn designated Deputy Under Secretary for Administration William H. Orrick, Jr. to lead an interdepartmental committee to study the proposal. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 100 listed the members of the Executive Committee, the Steering Committee, and five Task Forces on January 18, 1963.

December 18, 1962

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 97A announced the introduction of an official file system to replace the decimal files system in use since 1910. Introduction was to begin January 1, 1963.

January 1, 1963

An Office of International Finance and Economic Analysis was established in the Bureau of Economic Affairs. It replaced the International Finance Division of the Office of International Trade and Finance. The latter office became the Office of International Trade. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 96E announced the change on January 7.

January 8, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 98F announced the establishment of the Office of Coordinator of Cuban Affairs in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs. John H. Crimmins headed the new office. A regional branch office was opened in Miami on January 16.

January 18, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 100 announced the establishment of an Executive Committee, a Steering Committee, and task forces to study the Herter Committee’s report, Personnel for the New Diplomacy. Deputy Under Secretary for Administration William H. Orrick, Jr., chaired the Executive Committee. Deputy Assistant Secretary for Personnel Herman Pollack chaired the Steering Committee. The task forces dealt with legislation, personnel systems, personnel operations, recruiting, and personnel research.

January 21, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 100A established the office of the Special Assistant to the Secretary and Coordinator of International Labor Affairs.

January 22, 1963

Reorganizations took place in the geographic Offices of Research and Analysis in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. American Republics acquired Political and Regional Affairs Divisions. The Asian Communist Areas Division was transferred from Sino-Soviet Bloc to Far East. The former Office became “Research and Analysis for Soviet Bloc.”

January 30, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 102 outlined a joint instruction providing for automatic downgrading and declassification of documents in foreign affairs agencies in order to implement Executive Order 10964 of September 22, 1961. Levels of classification followed Defense Department practice: Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential; with Limited Official Use and Official Use Only referring to administrative controls.

February 11, 1963

Two bills: H.R. 510 and S. 15, were introduced in Congress to establish a National Academy of Foreign Affairs. Congress took no action on either. A third bill, S. 865, was introduced on February 20. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee held hearings on it April 4, 5, 29, and May 1, but took no action after a July 19 executive session.

February 26, 1963

Executive Order 11087 called upon the Secretary of State to devise plans to carry out the Department’s foreign policy functions during a condition of national emergency.

March 1, 1963

The Division of Records Management published a Records Classification Handbook that outlined a system to replace the decimal files. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 158A later set a deadline of June 30, 1964, for completing the transition between the two systems.

March 21, 1963

The Department of State’s Office of Communications was established. It was headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary and included a Division of Communications Security.

April 1, 1963

Delegation of Authority No. 107 delegated to the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs the responsibilities assigned to the Secretary of State by the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (76 Stat. 121) and Executive Order 11007 of January 22, 1963.

April 4, 1963

In the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, an External Research Staff in the Office of the Deputy Director for Research replaced the External Research Division. An Office of Research in Economics and Science replaced the Office of Functional and External Research and the Division of Functional Research.

April 9, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 117 announced to all foreign affairs agencies that the administrative control designation “Official Use Only” would be discontinued on May 1. “Limited Official Use” replaced it.

June 25, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 127A announced the abolition of the Office of Transport and Communications in the Bureau of Economic Affairs. It was replaced by the Office of International Aviation and the Office of Telecommunications and Maritime Affairs.

July 1, 1963

The Bureau of International Organization Affairs was to provide administrative support for the U.S. Mission to the European Office of the UN and Other International Organizations. The Bureau of European Affairs had previously provided it. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 127D announced the change on June 28.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 127G transferred the Office of Munitions Control from the Bureau of Economic Affairs to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Politico-Military Affairs.

September 5, 1963

The Protocol Office was transferred from the Office of the Under Secretary of State to that of the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 138B announced that the Office for Special Representational Services, under the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration, would replace the Special Protocol Services Division in providing special services to foreign diplomats in the United States. Pedro A. Sanjuan became the Director of the new Office.

October 29, 1963

President Kennedy suggested the creation of an Under Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs. No action was taken on his recommendation.

October 30, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 148 established the Office of Community Advisory Services under the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. It was responsible for developing a program to increase community contacts with the Foreign Service and to serve as a focal point for matters involving women and women’s organizations in international activities. Deputy Assistant Secretary Katie Louchheim was its first Director.

November 25, 1963

Two new offices were established in the Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs. These were the Office of Regional Affairs and the Office of Asian Communist Affairs. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 152A announced the changes on November 22.

December 5, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 155B established a Budget Review Committee, chaired by the Under Secretary, and including the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration, the Assistant Secretary for Administration, and the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget and Finance.

December 13, 1963

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 158A announced a June 30, 1964, deadline for completing the transition to a new official file system. Clerical and secretarial personnel were to be trained in it by January 31.

December 15, 1963

After nominating Ambassador Thomas C. Mann as Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs, President Lyndon B. Johnson informed him that he was to coordinate all aspects of U.S. policy toward Latin America. On December 18, President Johnson announced that Mann would serve as Special Assistant to the President. On December 27, Mann was appointed U.S. Coordinator for the Alliance for Progress.

December 16, 1963

An Act of Congress (77 Stat. 379) authorized the Secretary of State to provide schools for children of U.S. citizens employed in government activities outside the United States. On December 30, Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 161 established an Overseas Schools Policy Committee, comprising the Assistant Secretary for Administration, Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, and AID’s Assistant Administrator for Administration.

January 6, 1964

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 163 and 163A announced that it would be the policy of the Department of State, AID, and USIA to devise uniform regulations and procedures for overseas administrative operations.

February 14, 1964

A reorganization merged the geographic offices of the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs with those of the Agency for International Development’s (AID) Bureau for Latin America. There would be nine combined geographical offices under “Country Directors” when the reorganization process was completed on January 27, 1965.

February 28, 1964

The Department of State began publishing Key Officers of the Foreign Service—Guide for Businessmen. This publication has been continued as Key Officers of Foreign Service Posts.

March 12, 1964

Secretary of State Rusk told a conference on equal employment opportunity that the Department of State intended to expand its efforts to recruit more minorities and women for the Foreign Service.

June 16, 1964

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 218A transferred the Emergency and Evacuation Staff from the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs to the Office of Operations in the Bureau of Administration.

July 22, 1964

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 224A transferred the Office of Protocol from the Under Secretary of State to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. The Office for Special Representational Services was replaced by an Office for Chancery Affairs, which also reported to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration.

August 16, 1964

A Presidential Memorandum established the Office of International Organization Recruitment in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs. Its mission was to oversee personnel administration in international organizations, as well as the recruitment of U.S. citizens to serve in them.

September 24, 1964

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 237 announced the establishment of the Overseas Schools Staff in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration to consolidate assistance to educational programs for the children of employees of the foreign affairs agencies.

October 3, 1964

An agreement between the Department of State and the U.S. Information Agency conferred Foreign Service status on USIA Career Reserve officers. Foreign Service Officers serving in USIA would be designated Foreign Information Officers.

October 12, 1964

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 243-A shifted administration of the office of the U.S. Representative to UNESCO from the Bureau of European Affairs to the Bureau of International Organization Affairs.

November 17, 1964

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 253A announced the establishment of a Special Projects Staff in the Office of Operations to establish and operate commissary and recreation facilities abroad and to expand the provision of government-owned household furnishings at foreign posts.

December 28, 1964

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 263 announced the separation of the U.S. Mission to the OECD from the U.S. Mission to NATO.

December 31, 1964

Secretary of State Rusk announced plans to eliminate the Bureau of Administration, which would assign responsibility for general supervision of the Department to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. Dwight J. Porter concluded his assignment as Assistant Secretary for Administration on March 28, 1965.

January 8, 1965

The Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs acquired a third Deputy Assistant Secretary, who also served as chairman of the Vietnam Coordinating Committee.

January 22, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 273A established an Educational Projects Staff in the Bureau of Public Affairs’ Office of Public Services. It was intended to promote wider high school instruction on international affairs.

February 8, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 281B renamed the Commodity Programming Division in the Bureau of Economic Affairs the General Commodity Policy Division.

March 15, 1965

H.R. 6277 proposed a unified personnel system for all foreign-affairs agencies. The House of Representatives passed it on September 9, 1965. It was referred to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which took no further action on it. On April 13, President Johnson submitted to the Senate a list of 760 USIA officers for appointment to the Foreign Service. No action was taken on the list.

March 25, 1965

President Johnson instructed the Secretary of State and the Director of the Bureau of the Budget to review U.S. overseas operations in 10 to 15 countries to ensure that personnel and funds were being used for maximum support of foreign policy objectives.

April 23, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 302A announced the appointment of a Director of the Bureau of International Scientific and Technological Affairs, with rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary. The new Bureau replaced the Office of International Scientific Affairs.

May 4, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 306B established an Office of International Organization Recruitment in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs.

May 6, 1965

Executive Order 11219 provided for the appointment of Foreign Service personnel to Civil Service positions without further examinations.

May 10, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 307A established an Office of Operations, whose director served as a Special Assistant to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration.

May 12, 1965

The Office of Security issued a guidance document entitled “The Protection of U.S. Personnel and Installations Against Acts of Terrorism in Latin America” to all Chiefs of Mission in the region. Missions were urged to set up Security Watch Committees to evaluate the local state of security and to devise appropriate measures to improve post security. The following year, an expanded version was sent to all U.S. missions.

May 17, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 311A established a Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget under the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. The incumbent also served as Special Assistant for Compliance.

May 21, 1965

Airgram CA-12444 outlined the Executive Review of Overseas Programs (EROP), a review of U.S. programs in 13 countries according to the Department of State’s Comprehensive Country Programming System. The Department of State’s Office of Management Planning reported on EROP in October, which recommended the establishment of “a foreign affairs programming system” and that planning and programming procedures should be based on country rather than agency programs. On December 3, Secretary Rusk and Bureau of the Budget Director Charles L. Schultze reported that savings of about $7.8 million were identified for Fiscal Year 1967.

May 27, 1965

President Johnson submitted a reorganization plan to Congress that targeted 9 statutory committees for elimination, including the Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service.

June 15, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 319 established the Employees Service Center in the Main Department of State Building to consolidate service facilities for personnel with foreign assignments.

June 18, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 320A announced the reorganization of the Bureau of Economic Affairs. It had six Deputy Assistant Secretaries. In addition to the principal Deputy Assistant Secretaries, the others were responsible for: International Trade Policy and Economic Defense, Transportation and Telecommunications, International Monetary Affairs, International Resources, and Commercial Affairs and Business Activities.

June 20, 1965

The position of Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for Population Matters was established.

June 29, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 326 placed the Director General of the Foreign Service under the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. The Director-General was to develop an integrated foreign affairs personnel system and oversee the assignments of senior and junior FSOs. A Special Assistant to the Under Secretary for Administration would coordinate assignments for mid-level FSOs and FSSOs through a Mid-Career Personnel Division.

July 1965

Deputy Under Secretary for Administration William J. Crockett inaugurated the Management by Objectives and Programs (MOP) reorganization plan.

July 1, 1965

The Bureau of Administration and its Assistant Secretary were eliminated and their responsibilities transferred to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 327 announced the change on June 30.

The Office of Security established a Protective Research Section in the Division of Protective Security. Its mission was to collect intelligence relating to possible threats to visiting foreign dignitaries.

July 2, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 335 divided foreign buildings activities among the Office of Foreign Buildings, the Buildings Design and Construction Staff, and the Interior Design and Furnishings Staff.

July 12, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 337 transferred the Protocol Office from the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration to the Office of the Secretary of State.

July 15, 1965

An Executive Group was established in the office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration.

July 27, 1965

Reorganization Plan No. 4 abolished the Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners and transferred their functions to the President. Executive Order 11240 re-established the Board of the Foreign Service on August 4.

August 25, 1965

President Johnson directed federal agencies to introduce a Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS) to determine their most urgent programs and how to achieve them at the least cost. The Bureau of the Budget issued instructions and set deadlines for instituting PPBS on October 12.

September 1, 1965

The Department of State, AID, and USIA adopted uniform security regulations.

September 6, 1965

The Department of State signed an agreement with the Navy by which Seabees were assigned to embassies in Soviet-bloc countries to detect and remove listening devices and to repair the resulting damage.

September 10, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 354 established a Center for Overseas Program Analysis under the Deputy Under Secretary for Management and affiliated with the Foreign Service Institute.

September 14, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 357 established the Office of Management Planning under the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration.

September 24, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 359 announced an agreement between the Department of State and the Civil Service Commission that allowed present and former FSOs to be appointed to Civil Service positions in Federal agencies under non-competitive appointment procedures. The agreement also eased lateral entry into the Foreign Service and Foreign Service Staff by Civil Service personnel.

Press Release 230 announced the signing of a $3 million contract with the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation’s Data and Information Systems Division for a computer-based terminal system to handle its communications.

October 19, 1965

A Deputy Assistant Secretary for Management was established in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs to coordinate operations of the Bureau and those of the AID’s Bureau for Latin America.

October 20, 1965

Executive Order 11252 transferred responsibility for the Food for Peace program to the Department of State.

October 29, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 368 established the position of Special Assistant to the Secretary for the Food for Peace Program, with rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary.

November 5, 1965

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 370 outlined the organization of the Office of Operations. It was divided into the Administrative Support, Audio-Visual Services, and Automated Data Processing Divisions; the Employee Services Center; the Evacuation and Relocation Staff; the Financial Services, General Services, and Language Services Divisions; the Library; the Supply and Transportation Services, Publishing and Reproduction Services, Records Services, and Regional Finance and Data Processing Divisions. The Special Assistant for Employee Services oversaw the Office of Overseas Schools and the Commissary and Recreation, Processional Placement, Allowances, Art in Embassies, and Window America Staffs; the Office of Foreign Buildings; and the Buildings Design and Construction, and Interior Design and Furnishings Staffs.

December 1, 1965

Work began on a new communications center in the Department of State’s main building. It included an Automated Terminal Station (ATS) for the electronic preparation and transmission of messages. ATS began operations on July 22, 1967, and the new Communications Center officially opened on September 1.

December 31, 1965

Executive Order 11264 re-established the Board of the Foreign Service and the Board of Examiners of the Foreign Service.

March 1, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 384 renamed the Center for Overseas Program Analysis the Center for International Systems Research.

March 2, 1966

In National Security Action Memorandum 341, President Johnson announced that the Secretary of State would assume full responsibility for directing, coordinating, and supervising all interdepartmental civilian U.S. Government activities overseas. A Senior Interdepartmental Group (SIG) was formed with the Under Secretary as its executive chairman. The SIG also included the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Administrator of AID, the Director of the CIA, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Director of USIA, and the Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. The first SIG meeting took place on March 8.

March 4, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 385 authorized the formation of the (SIG). Interdepartmental Regional Groups (IRGs) were established to coordinate U.S. activities in the jurisdiction of each geographic bureau.

FAMC-385 also instituted the replacement of Office Directors within the geographical bureaus with Country Directors. The reorganization was expected to provide for better coordination of departmental and interdepartmental activities in a given country or groups of countries.

March 10, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 387 announced that the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget would be in charge of implementing the PPBS (planning, programming, budgeting system) in the Department of State.

April 15, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 397 made the Office of the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs the focal point for population matters in the Department. Responsibilities would be allocated to AID, the Bureaus of International Organization Affairs and Intelligence and Research, and the Office of International Scientific and Technological Affairs, as well as to the geographic bureaus. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 422 of June 20 announced the appointment of Philander P. Claxton, Jr., as Special Assistant to the Secretary for Population Matters.

April 21, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 400 established ten Country Directors in the Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs. Their responsibilities were: Republic of China, Korea, Japan, Burma-Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Australia-New Zealand, Indonesia, Malaysia-Singapore, and Philippines. The Bureau retained its Directors for Regional Affairs, Asian Communist Affairs, and Public Affairs, as well as its Executive Director.

April 25, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 401 established nine Country Directors in the Bureau of European Affairs, effective July 1. Their responsibilities were: Eastern Europe, Soviet Union, Germany, France-Benelux, Italy-Austria-Switzerland, Spain-Portugal, Canada, United Kingdom-Ireland-Malta, and Scandinavia-Iceland-Finland. The Bureau retained its Directors for NATO and Atlantic Political-Military Affairs and OECD, EEC and Atlantic Political-Economic Affairs, as well as its Executive Director and Soviet and Eastern European Exchanges Staff.

April 29, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 403 established ten Country Directors in the Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, effective July 1. Their responsibilities were: Greece, Turkey, Iran, Cyprus, India-Nepal-Ceylon-Maldives, Pakistan-Afghanistan, Lebanon-Jordan-Syria-Iraq, Saudi Arabia-Kuwait-Yemen-Aden, Israel, and the United Arab Republic. The Office of Regional Affairs was continued. The system was phased out during 1972.

May 3, 1966

An Office for Relations with Canada was established in the Bureau of European Affairs. Prior to this date, Canadian relations were the responsibility of the Office of British Commonwealth and Northern European Affairs in the Bureau of European Affairs.

May 13, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 406 established nine Country Directors in the Bureau of African Affairs, effective July 1. Their responsibilities were: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Spanish Sahara, and Tunisia; Ethiopia, Somali Republic, and Sudan; Congo Leopoldville, Congo Brazzaville, Rwanda, Burundi, Malagasy Republic, and Mauritius; Kenya, Tanzania, Seychelles, and Uganda; Southern Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Angola, and Mozambique; South Africa, South West Africa, Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland; Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Portuguese Guinea, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone; and Ivory Coast, Niger, Upper Volta, Dahomey, Togo, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Chad, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea. There was also an office of Inter-African Affairs. The system was terminated in July 1969.

May 26, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 417 announced that, following Guyana’s independence, responsibility for U.S. relations with it was transferred from the Bureau of European Affairs to the Country Director for Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Surinam in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.

June 1, 1966

The Foreign Service Institute moved from a former garage in the Arlington Towers apartment complex to a 12-story building in 1400 Key Boulevard in Rosslyn, Virginia.

June 7, 1966

The Department of State established an Advisory Group on Foreign Affairs Planning, Programming, and Budgeting, chaired by Dr. Charles Hitch. The Hitch Committee held its first meeting on June 13 and submitted its report to Secretary Rusk on October 13.

June 17, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 421 established a Financial Management Systems Staff that reported to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget.

June 19, 1966

The offices of Counselor and Chairman of the Policy Planning Council were separated. The Chairman still held rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 427 announced the change on July 15.

July 1, 1966

The new Country Directors system took effect in the Bureaus of European, Near Eastern and South Asian, and African Affairs.

July 25, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 430 announced the establishment of an Executive Group in the “O” Area that would oversee the Department’s administration. Members included the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration, the Director General of the Foreign Service, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, the Directors of the Offices of Management Planning and Operations, and the Assistant for Special Programs.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 431 announced the replacement of the Office of the Budget with the Budget Planning and Presentation and Funds Management Programs.

August 1966

Deputy Under Secretary for Administration Crockett issued A Management Program for the Department of State. Part I described “Leadership in Foreign Affairs,” Part II outlined sixteen programs for management improvement, and Part III dealt with seven programs within the Office of the Under Secretary for Administration. A revised version was published in September.

September 23, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 445 created the position of Special Assistant to the Secretary for Refugee and Migration Affairs, with administrative rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary. Ambassador James Wine became Special Assistant. On September 19, the Office of Refugee and Migration Affairs was transferred from the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs to the office of the Secretary.

October 17, 1966

Delegation of Authority No. 107-1 established the Office of Refugee and Migration Affairs headed by the Special Assistant for Refugee and Migration Affairs.

October 24, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 450 made the Special Assistant for Fisheries and Wildlife a Special Assistant to the Secretary. Despite the change in title, the office reported to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs.

November 1, 1966

The Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs was renamed “East Asian and Pacific Affairs.” Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 454 announced the change on November 8. On November 15, Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 455 announced that the Office of Far Eastern Programs in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and the Office of Research and Analysis in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research were renamed accordingly.

November 3, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 452 announced the establishment of the Office of National Disclosure Policy under the Special Assistant to the Deputy Under Secretary for Political Affairs.

November 25, 1966

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 457 transferred labor officers assigned to U.S. diplomatic missions to the political sections.

November 28, 1966

The last U.S. Legations, in Budapest, Hungary and Sofia, Bulgaria, were elevated to Embassy status. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 458 announced the change on December 2.

January 1967

Professor Chris Argyris, a former member of the Hitch Committee, wrote a report called Some Causes of Organizational Ineffectiveness Within the Department of State. The January 1967 issue of the Foreign Service Journal published a shorter version under the title, “Do You Recognize Yourself?” According to Argyris, there was a Foreign Service culture that discouraged initiative and risk-taking and encouraged those who “did not make waves” in their behavior or writing.

February 1, 1967

A new passport agency was opened in Philadelphia.

February 6, 1967

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 467 announced the establishment of the Management Reports and Interagency Liaison Program to assume responsibility for Interdepartmental Relations, GAO Liaison, and Management Reports.

February 10, 1967

The parent unit for the Marine Security Guards was upgraded from a company to a battalion. The four regional commands, based in Frankfurt, Beirut, Manila, and Panama, became Companies A through D. At this time, 950 Marines were serving at 100 posts in 89 countries.

March 1, 1967

The Overseas Schools Advisory Council was established to assess the effectiveness of overseas schools assisted by the Department of State. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 476 announced it on April 13.

March 15, 1967

A newly-formed Interagency Committee on Population Matters held its first meeting, with Secretary of State Rusk presiding. A Working Group on Population Matters, representing the Department of State, AID, USIA, and the Peace Corps, held its first meeting on March 28.

April 17, 1967

The Foreign Service Institute opened a Viet-Nam Training Center to meet the special personnel needs of the foreign affairs community resulting from the Vietnam War.

April 21, 1967

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 477 announced the separation of the U.S. Mission to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) from the U.S. Mission to NATO and European Regional Organizations, effective July 1.

May 15, 1967

A Special Assistant to the Secretary for Liaison with the Governors was appointed. Ambassador Winthrop G. Brown held the position.

June 5, 1967

In response to the Six-Day War in the Middle East and the interruption of diplomatic relations with several Arab countries, the Department of State declared U.S. passports to be invalid for travel to Algeria, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Republic (Egypt), and Yemen without special endorsements. Travel restrictions were lifted for Israel, Kuwait, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia on June 21; for Lebanon on July 10; for Algeria, Libyan, and the Sudan on August 1; for Iraq, Jordan, and Yemen on September 12; and for the United Arab Republic (Egypt) on November 20. Restrictions on travel to Syria were lifted on February 28, 1968.

June 15, 1967

Secretary of State Rusk designated Deputy Under Secretary for Administration Idar Rimestad as the Department’s Equal Employment Opportunity Officer. Deputy Equal Employment Opportunity Officers were to be designated in major bureaus and overseas posts.

July 28, 1967

The Office of Water for Peace was established in the Under Secretary for Political Affairs. Robert R. Woodward was appointed as Interim Director.

August 1967

The Open Forum Panel was formed as a voluntary group of junior and mid-level FSOs that was intended to solicit new policy ideas from the rank and file of the Foreign Service.

October 1, 1967

The President’s Task Force on Foreign Affairs Organization, chaired by Ben H. Heineman, issued its final report. Among its recommendations was that the second-ranking officer in the Department should be a “Deputy Secretary,” who would free the Secretary from “social and ceremonial functions and participation in overseas conferences,” as well as from frequent appearances on Capitol Hill. Thus, the Secretary would be better able to serve as “the director and coordinator, for and on behalf of the President, of all U.S. foreign and national security policy. A senior staff would combine the functions of policy planning, the Executive Secretariat, and the Inspector General. Various functional bureaus would be grouped under two Under Secretaries, for economics and for security affairs. No action was taken on the report before President Johnson left office.

November 17, 1967

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 490 announced the establishment of the Office of Personnel within the Office of the Director General of the Foreign Service, effective December 1. Howard P. Mace was appointed as the first Deputy Assistant Secretary for Personnel.

March 30, 1968

President Johnson approved a plan to reduce the number of U.S. officials serving overseas by 12%. “Operation BALPA” planned to eliminate 200 Foreign Service positions by the end of June, 2 to 300 by the end of the year, and 200 more by July 1, 1969. An interagency task force headed by Ambassador J. Graham Parsons was established to propose reductions in reports. Eight senior FSOs toured embassies in 28 countries during April and May to review operations and staffing patterns. The Foreign Service Examinations were postponed from December 1968 to May 3, 1969.

July 1, 1968

Foreign Service Manual Circular 507 established a new Division of Career Management and Assignment in the Office of Personnel (it replaced the Divisions of Officer Assignment and Staff Support Assignment), and a Domestic Career Management Branch. Two new offices: the Retirement Counseling Staff and the External Placement Division dealt with personnel leaving the Department, the Foreign Service, and USIA.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 508 announced that responsibility for relations with the Bahamas, the Netherlands Antilles, and Surinam would be transferred from the Bureau of European Affairs to the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs.

The Bureau of European Affairs received a third Deputy Assistant Secretary.

August 13, 1968

President Johnson approved further reductions in U.S. official personnel overseas under Phase Two of Operation BALPA. The new goal was to reduce the number of U.S. personnel overseas by 18% and foreign national employees by 16% by September 30, 1969.

August 28, 1968

The Open Forum Panel was established on a permanent basis.

August 29, 1968

Public Law 90-494 (82 Stat. 810) created a Foreign Service Information Officer (FSIO) Corps in the U.S. Information Agency that was modeled on the Foreign Service. The Act created a class of Foreign Service Reserve Officers with unlimited tenure (FSRUs) and also provided for lateral entry into the Foreign Service by Foreign Service Reserve Officers within five years of their original appointments. It also established eight functional categories for Foreign Service personnel: political, political/economic, political/military, economic, economic/commercial, consular, and general administrative. These categories were later known as “tracks” or “cones.” The three political and the two economic categories were consolidated into one of each.

The Bureau of the Budget limited the Department of State’s hiring of new full-time employees to 70% of those who were separated, starting on September 1.

August 30, 1968

The Department of State’s BALPA Task Force concluded its operations and set new personnel ceilings for each region. In Africa, American personnel were to be reduced 19% and foreign nationals 13%. In Latin America, the reductions were 17% and 15%. In East Asia, the reductions were 17% and 16%. Europe and International Organizations lost 18% and 19%. The Near East and South Asia lost 18% and 16%. Overall reductions would be 18% in American personnel and 16% in foreign nationals.

The Committee on Career Principles of the American Foreign Service Association, headed by Ambassador Graham Martin, presented its report on reorganization of the Department of State. It was later published in the November 1968 issue of the Foreign Service Journal under the title “Toward a Modern Diplomacy.” It recommended the establishment of a “Foreign Secretary” as the second-ranking officer of the Department. As an alter ego of the Secretary, the Foreign Secretary would attend Cabinet meetings. A Permanent Under Secretary would be the third-ranking officer.

November 8, 1968

Executive Order 11434 authorized the Secretary of State and the Director of USIA to promulgate regulations concerning the Foreign Service personnel and retirement systems.

March 7, 1969

In response to a February 17 message from President Richard M. Nixon that urged all federal agencies to reduce their personnel to a necessary minimum, Secretary of State William P. Rogers directed the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration to work with bureau chiefs to achieve the necessary reductions. Although there were no plans for lower BALPA ceilings, only essential vacancies were to be filled and employment reductions were likely to continue at least through Fiscal Year 1970.

April 25, 1969

The entire 86th Class of Foreign Service Officers was assigned to duty in Vietnam. All 14 members were to serve with the CORDS (Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support) program.

May 22, 1969

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 525 announced the appointment of a Special Coordinator on Relief to the Civilian Victims of the Nigerian Civil War. Prof. C. Clyde Ferguson, Jr. was in the Office of the Under Secretary and held the personal rank of Ambassador during his official travels overseas.

May 28, 1969

During a message to Congress about increasing the effectiveness of U.S. foreign aid programs, President Nixon established a Task Force on Foreign Aid, chaired by Randolph A. Peterson.

July 1, 1969

The Medical Division became the Office of Medical Services, headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary under the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 530 announced the change on July 17.

July 3, 1969

Secretary of State Rogers announced the formation of a Planning and Coordination Staff that would incorporate the functions of the Policy Planning Council. William I. Cargo became its Staff Director.

July 10, 1969

In response to President Nixon’s call for a 10% reduction in U.S. civilian personnel serving abroad, Under Secretary of State Elliot L. Richardson announced that the Department of State would eliminate 550 positions by June 30, 1970. Reductions would be by attrition and most would be among domestic positions.

July 18, 1969

Secretary of State Rogers announced the establishment of an Office of Press Relations that would be under the Office of the Secretary. Deputy Assistant Secretary Robert J. McCloskey became Deputy Assistant Secretary for Press Relations and Special Assistant to the Secretary. On July 24, 1969, Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 531 made the transfer of the Office of Press Relations (formerly the Office of News in the Bureau of Public Affairs) official.

August 4, 1969

The Policy Planning Council became the Planning and Coordinating Staff, which incorporated the Under Secretaries Committee Staff. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 535 announced the change on September 18.

August 30, 1969

The Rockefeller Report, Quality of Life in the Americas, recommended the establishment of a Cabinet-level Secretary of Western Hemisphere Affairs.

September 18, 1969

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular No. 536 announced the establishment of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs to enhance the Department’s role in the formulation of international security policy, to supervise security assistance and foreign military sales programs, and to direct the issuance of arms export licenses. Some of these functions had been under the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs since 1960. The Director held rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State. It initially comprised six offices: International Security Operations, International Security Policy and Planning, Military Assistance and Sales, Atomic Energy and Aerospace, Munitions Control, and Disarmament and Communist Political-Military Affairs.

September 29, 1969

Secretary of State Rogers reaffirmed the mandate of the Open Forum Panel and endorsed plans to establish similar panels in the Bureaus.

October 1969

Regulations concerning marriage of employees to aliens were revised so that letters of resignation were no longer required. Previously, under Executive Order 7497 of November 17, 1936, Foreign Service Officers were required to submit their resignation along with their request for permission to marry an alien.

October 7, 1969

The Bureau of Administration was re-established.

October 13, 1969

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular No. 539 changed the title of the Chairman of the Policy Planning Council to the Director of Planning and Coordination. He retained rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State.

October 31, 1969

In a policy statement on Latin America, President Nixon proposed that the Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs be made an Under Secretary, with authority to coordinate all U.S. Government activities in the hemisphere. On December 20, Secretary of State Rogers sent a bill to Congress to establish the position of Under Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs. Congress took no action on S.3347.

November 24, 1969

President Nixon approved the OPRED (Operation Reduction) plan, which meant to eliminate 5,100 overseas civilian jobs by June 30, 1970, including 540 at State, 530 in AID, and 140 in USIA. One Consulate General, nine Consulates, and nine Consular Agencies would be closed.

December 9, 1969

President Nixon sent a letter to all U.S. Ambassadors that reiterated their authority over all civilian U.S. Government activities in their countries.

December 29, 1969

The Office of International Scientific and Technological Affairs became a Bureau.

December 30, 1969

Foreign Service Manual Circular 543 changed the title of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Personnel to “Deputy Director General of the Foreign Service and Director of Personnel”.