1940–1949

January 8, 1940

The Department of State announced the establishment of an Advisory Committee on Problems of Foreign Relations to study wartime and postwar economic issues. Under Secretary Sumner Welles chaired it.

February 26, 1940

Departmental Order 841 renamed the Consular Commercial Office the Division of Commercial Affairs.

May 1940

A Representation Section was established in the Special Division. It was responsible for representation of the interests of belligerent countries.

May 20, 1940

President Roosevelt ordered that the chief of a U.S. diplomatic mission was to be in charge of coordinating the activities of all U.S. official representatives in that country. All activities should be reported to them and conducted under their advice and instructions.

June 28, 1940

Departmental Order 854 made the Trade Agreements Division into the Division of Commercial Treaties and Agreements, effective July 1.

July 9, 1940

Departmental Order 862 established a Central Translating Office tasked with translating official publications for distribution to other American Republics.

The Department of State also established a three-person courier service to Central and South America.

October 11, 1940

Departmental Order 888 required passport applicants to submit a list of countries to be visited (outside the Western Hemisphere) and the purpose of their travel.

October 24, 1940

Departmental Order 892 designated an Adviser on Political Relations to oversee the Division of Latin American Affairs. Laurence Duggan was the first to hold the position.

January 8, 1941

Departmental Order 914 transferred responsibility for keeping records of foreign officials in the United States from the Division of Personnel Supervision and Management to the Protocol Division.

February 3, 1941

The Division of Special Research was established to plan for the postwar world order. Leo Pasvolsky was its Chief.

February 10, 1941

The Department of State changed the covers of U.S. passports from red to green. After April 10, red passports would be no longer valid for travel outside the United States. The intent was to remove fraudulent and altered passports from circulation. The change was announced to the public on April 4 in Press Release No. 146.

March 4, 1941

Departmental Order 922 reallocated the duties of the Assistant Secretaries of State. Adolph A. Berle was primarily in charge of finance. Breckinridge Long was primarily in charge of political affairs and Congressional liaison. Dean G. Acheson was primarily in charge of commercial and economic policy. G. Howland Shaw was in charge of general administration of the Department. Departmental Order 923 gave Shaw the title of Fiscal and Budget Officer.

April 11, 1941

Departmental Order 934 changed the name of the Board of Appeals and Review to the Efficiency Rating Committee. The Committee’s duties were further defined by Departmental Order 1026 of February 3, 1942.

April 16, 1941

Departmental Order 935 made the Division of Commercial Treaties and Agreements responsible for assisting the purchases of foreign governments under the Lend-Lease Act of March 11. Charles P. Curtis, Jr. was appointed as Special Assistant to the Under Secretary to fill the position. He was replaced by a Special Assistant to the Secretary under Departmental Order 939 of April 30. Lynn R. Edminster held the new position.

June 20, 1941

Departmental Order 946 placed the Visa Division in charge of all activities relating to the admission of aliens. Aliens seeking to enter the United States had to submit a biographical statement and two affidavits of sponsorship to the Visa Division. An interdepartmental advisory committee would review the applications, after which the Visa Division would refer the application back to the issuing authority with recommendations.

June 21, 1941

An Act of Congress (55 Stat. 252) authorized the President to impose regulations governing entry into and exit from the United States in wartime or during a proclaimed national emergency. Under the law, merchant seamen were required for the first time to carry passports.

On November 25, 1941, Departmental Order 1003 outlined these travel regulations, which were to take effect January 15, 1942. All persons entering or leaving the United States and its territories were to have valid passports, except for: persons traveling between the continental United States and overseas territories, persons traveling to Canada, Mexico, or islands in the West Indies, and members of the armed forces.

July 21, 1941

The first members of the Foreign Service Auxiliary were assigned to posts in South America. The Auxiliary had been formed of specialists who were hired for the duration of the war and were not required to take the Foreign Service examinations. Specialists were given ranks equivalent to their age and experience. Most were economic analysts. Junior Auxiliary officers were usually assigned as vice consuls.

Departmental Order 956 established the Division of World Trade Intelligence. Its tasks included enumerating firms trading with the Axis countries so that they could be included on the Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. It also prepared a List of Unsatisfactory Consignees (Confidential List). Departmental Order 979 of October 7, 1941, attached the Division of World Trade Intelligence to the Board of Economic Operations.

July 23, 1941

Departmental Order 957 introduced a system of identification passes for employees and visitors. Gold passes granted unlimited access to all Department buildings, second-level passes were valid only during regular business hours. Visitor’s passes were valid only for the duration of the visit. Issuance was completed on August 14. The requirement was lifted August 29, 1945.

October 7, 1941

Departmental Order 973 established the Board of Economic Operations, which was charged with implementing the Department’s role in the economic defense of the United States. The Board included the Division of Commercial Policy and Agreements (established by Departmental Order 975; formerly the Division of Commercial Treaties and Agreements), the Division of Exports and Defense Aid (established by Departmental Order 976), the Division of Defense Materials (established by Departmental Order 977), the Foreign Funds and Financial Division (established by Departmental Order 980), and the Division of Studies and Statistics (established by Departmental Order 978). The last organization was incorporated into Commercial Policy and Agreements on June 18, 1942. Departmental Order 981 abolished the Division of Controls and incorporated it into the Office of Foreign Activity Correlation.

October 9, 1941

Departmental Order 984 established the Office of Caribbean Affairs. It was abolished January 15, 1944.

October 29, 1941

Departmental Order 992 established four levels of security classification for outgoing telegrams: Clear, Restricted, Confidential, and Secret.

October 31, 1941

Departmental Order 994 established a three-member Board of Review in the Passport Division to review cases involving loss of nationality.

November 24, 1941

Departmental Order 1000 replaced the Foreign Funds and Financial Division with a Financial Division. Departmental Order 1001 established a Foreign Funds Control Division. Both were in the Board of Economic Operations.

December 13, 1941

Departmental Order 1012 gave the Special Division responsibility for representation by third countries of U.S. interests in hostile foreign countries, and for representation in the United States by third countries of the interests of governments with which the United States no longer had relations or was at war.

January 19, 1942

Departmental Order 1019 set wartime working hours at the Department from 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. on weekdays and 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. on Saturdays. The new hours took effect February 2.

February 2, 1942

The Department of State opened a new passport agency in Miami, Florida.

February 20, 1942

Departmental Order 1029 established an Office of American Hemisphere Exports under the Secretariat of the Board of Economic Operations.

March 13, 1942

Departmental Order 1035 appointed an Adviser on Political Relations to supervise the Division of Near Eastern Affairs. Wallace S. Murray held the new position.

June 18, 1942

Departmental Order 1061 abolished the Division of Exports and Defense Aid and of Studies and Statistics. Administration of various export control laws was transferred to the Division of Commercial Affairs or the Division of Defense Materials. Responsibility for all matters of foreign policy coming under the Lend-Lease Act, as well as the collection of economic statistics were transferred to the Division of Commercial Policy and Agreements.

July 2, 1942

Departmental Order 1069 introduced Airgrams as a way of reducing the number of encoded telegrams. Their classification system used the terms “Plain,” “Confidential,” and “Strictly Confidential.”

August 6, 1942

Departmental Order 1078 revived the position of Chief Clerk under the title of Chief Clerk and Administrative Assistant. Their duties included administration of contingent expenses, liaison with other departments and agencies, supervision of the Department’s telephone service, and signing contacts and certifying vouchers.

August 20, 1942

Departmental Order 1082 established a Claims Board to facilitate the preparation of claims by Foreign Service personnel for loss of personal property.

August 31, 1942

Departmental Order 1086 established the Division of Departmental Personnel to replace the Division of Personnel Supervision and Management. Its Chief was also Executive Officer of the Department.

November 2, 1942

Departmental Order 1105 established a Committee on Political Planning.

November 21, 1942

President Roosevelt announced the appointment of Governor Herbert H. Lehman as Director of a new Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations in the Department of State. This was the first branch of the Department to be concerned with foreign economic assistance. Lehman entered on duty on December 4.

November 25, 1942

Departmental Order 1110 established the Office of Foreign Territories in the Division of European Affairs to deal with political issues in territories occupied by U.S. armed forces.

January 14, 1943

Departmental Order 1124 subdivided the Division of Special Research into the Divisions of Political Studies and Economic Studies. It also established a Committee on Special Studies.

February 1, 1943

Departmental Order 1128 established a Division of Exports and Requirements under the Board of Economic Operations to oversee matters relating to the Export Control Act of 1940 and the Lend-Lease Act of 1941. It also abolished the Office of American Hemisphere Exports.

June 24, 1943

Departmental Order 1166 established the Office of Foreign Economic Coordination to oversee the economic activities of U.S. agencies in liberated territories. It incorporated the Divisions of Defense Materials, Exports and Requirements, Foreign Funds Control, and World Trade Intelligence. The Office of Foreign Territories and the Board of Economic Operations were abolished. Assistant Secretary Dean Acheson was appointed Director of the new Office.

July 3, 1943

A Chiefs of Bureaus notice from Assistant Secretary G. Howland Shaw established three levels of classification: Secret, Confidential, and Restricted. These categories were in line with security regulations issued by the Office of War Information on September 28, 1942.

August 4, 1943

Departmental Order 1178 appointed David A. Salmon as Special Consultant to the Assistant Secretary and Assistant Security Officer. Assistant Secretary G. Howland Shaw appears to have served as Security Officer of the Department.

The Department of State and the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs opened an office in Miami, Florida to deal with arrangements for visits by officials from Latin American countries.

August 7, 1943

Departmental Order 1180 combined the Division of Communications and Records and the Division of Commercial Affairs. Raymond H. Geist, formerly Chief of the Division of Commercial Affairs, became Chief of Communications and Records and began a program of modernizing the Division’s facilities, equipment, and pay scale.

August 9, 1943

Departmental Order 1182 appointed a General Consultant to the Secretary of State. Carlton Savage held the new position.

August 27, 1943

A consolidation of offices dealing with economic affairs took place in the Office of Foreign Economic Cooperation when Departmental Orders 1190 and 1191 abolished the Divisions of Defense Materials and Foreign Funds Control. Departmental Order 1190 and 1191 established two new Divisions: War Commodities, and Blockade and Supply.

September 25, 1943

Executive Order No. 9380 established a Foreign Economic Administration that incorporated all U.S. agencies dealing with economic activities abroad. The remaining Department of State offices dealing with economic affairs were the Divisions of Commercial Policy and Agreements, World Trade Intelligence, and the Financial Division.

November 6, 1943

A further consolidation of offices dealing with economic affairs took place when Departmental Order 1210 eliminated most of the Office of Foreign Economic Cooperation, including the Financial Division and the Divisions of War Commodities, Exports and Requirements, and Blockade and Supply. Four Special Advisers were appointed to deal with Supplies and Resources, Liberated Areas, American Republics, and the Eastern Hemisphere.

November 29, 1943

Under Secretary of State Edward R. Stettinius began work on a reorganization plan.

January 15, 1944

Department Order 1218 set forth a reorganization plan that attempted to organize the Department on more functional lines. One Assistant Secretary assumed charge of international economic and financial affairs, replacing the Office of the Adviser on International Economic Affairs. Another assumed charge of administration and public information. A third assumed charge of controls, transportation, and communications. The fourth was responsible for Congressional liaison. An Office of Foreign Service Administration was established under direction of the Assistant Secretary for Administration. The four geographical Divisions became Offices, with the former Advisors on Political Relations becoming Office Directors. An Executive Assistant to the Secretary was established to administer the Secretary’s immediate office while another reviewed correspondence for the Secretary’s signature. The Special Division became the Special War Problems Division. This, along with the Passport, Visa, and Foreign Activity Correlation Divisions, comprised the Office of Controls.

Twelve Offices were established to oversee the various Divisions. The Directors of the four geographical offices and a new Office of Special Political Affairs reported to the Under Secretary. The latter organization was charged with preparations for a postwar international organization and included a Division of International Organization Affairs. The Protocol Division was under the Office of Departmental Administration.

An Office of Public Information was established, containing Divisions of: Current Information; Research and Publication; Motion Pictures and Radio; and Science, Education, and Art. The Division of Research and Publication replaced the Office of the Editor of Treaties. A Division of Labor Relations was also established.

Two organizations were established for long-range planning: the Policy Committee and the Committee on Postwar Programs.

The reorganization plan eliminated the Office of the Chief Clerk and Administrative Assistant, transferring its duties to the Division of Administrative Management. The Office of Coordination and Review was also eliminated, but was re-established as part of the Division of Communications and Records a month later. A Central Translating Division replaced the Central Translating Office and the Translating Bureau. The Treaty Division was abolished and its functions transferred to the Legal Adviser’s Office. A Division of Budget and Finance replaced the Division of Accounts and the Office of Fiscal and Budgetary Affairs.

Conducted in relative secrecy and haste with little consultation among senior officers of the Department, the January 15 reorganization was subsequently adjusted by 33 Department Orders through December 20.

January 22, 1944

Executive Order 9417 established a War Refugee Board, consisting of the Secretaries of State, Treasury, and War. Departmental Order 1227 of February 16 created the position of Advisor on Refugees and Displaced Persons in the Office of Wartime Economic Affairs. Departmental Order 1294 of October 13 formalized the Advisor’s duties in coordinating refugee policy within the Department, representing the Department at international meetings on the subject, and liaison with the War Refugee Board.

March 6, 1944

Departmental Order 1234 established a Planning Staff in the Office of Foreign Service Administration to study projects to be undertaken by the Foreign Service and to make recommendations about personnel requirements.

March 10, 1944

Departmental Order 1236 established a Personnel Utilization Section in the Division of Departmental Personnel, which was charged with developing a personnel utilization program. Departmental Order 1272 of May 3 outlined principles and policies of the Department’s personnel administration.

March 13, 1944

The United States and Great Britain concluded a Combined Security Classification Agreement, which instituted the “Top Secret” level of classification.

March 21, 1944

Departmental Order 1243 placed the Protocol Division under the direction of a Special Assistant to the Secretary.

March 27, 1944

Departmental Order 1245 established a Petroleum Division in the Office of Economic Affairs.

March 30, 1944

An Administrative Instruction from Assistant Secretary G. Howland Shaw established four levels of records classification: Secret, Confidential, Restricted, and Routine. On June 3, another Administrative Instruction transmitted a “handbook on communication security.”

April 10, 1944

Departmental Order 1254 established an Industry Branch in the Commodities Division of the office of Economic Affairs to determine policy toward cartels.

May 3, 1944

Departmental Order 1269 systematized the Department of State’s official notices. It listed Departmental Orders, Departmental Regulations, Departmental Designations, Administrative Instructions (comprising General Administration, Personnel, Budget and Fiscal, Communications and Records, Coordination and Review, Operating Facilities, Security Control, and Official Travel), Public Notices, and Announcements.

May 6, 1944

Departmental Order 1273 renamed the Office of Foreign Service Administration the Office of the Foreign Service and established a Division of Foreign Buildings Operations.

June 3, 1944

Departmental Order 1275 established the position of Assistant Security Officer, who was responsible for ensuring the safe handling of information about classified materials. The Department also issued a Handbook on Communications Security. According to a circular issued June 2, all personnel handling classified materials were required to state that they had read and understood the Handbook.

June 26, 1944

President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9452, authorizing the Secretary of State to issue regulations, orders, and instructions concerning the duties of Foreign Service personnel as long as they did not contravene presidential powers.

July 1, 1944

Departmental Order 1281 changed the name of the Division of Science, Education and Art to the Division of Cultural Cooperation.

August 14, 1944

An Administrative Instruction from Assistant Secretary G. Howland Shaw established new categories of classified materials: Top Secret, Secret, Confidential, and Restricted. These classifications were included in the January 1, 1947, Manual of Department Regulations.

August 31, 1944

Departmental Order 1285 changed the name of the Motion Picture and Radio Division to the International Information Division.

September 18, 1944

Departmental Order 1286 established a Transportation Service Branch in the Division of Foreign Service Administration, to facilitate official travel by Department personnel.

September 20, 1944

Departmental Order 1288 established a Division of Cryptography in the Office of Departmental Administration.

September 29, 1944

Departmental Order 1289 replaced the Division of Administrative Management (created by the January 15 reorganization plan) with a Division of Administrative Services, comprised of Operations Management, Facilities, and Procurement Branches. The change took effect September 1. The December 20 reorganization plan combined the Divisions of Administrative Services and Communications and Records into a Division of Central Services.

October 7, 1944

Departmental Order 1290-A established a Division of Management Planning in the office of Departmental Administration, effective October 16.

October 13, 1944

Departmental Order 1292 transferred responsibility for consular services to ships and seamen from the Shipping Division to the Division of Foreign Service Administration.

Departmental Order 1293 reorganized the Office of Wartime Economic Affairs. Its Supply and Resources Division became the War Supply and Resources Division, which was divided into Industrial Resources, Agricultural Resources, Shipping, Munitions Control, Surplus Property, and Wartime Trade Policy Sections. The Liberated Areas Division became the War Areas Economic Division. The Eastern Hemisphere and American Republics Requirements Divisions were abolished and their functions transferred to the War Areas Economic Division and to the War Supply and Resources Division.

November 10, 1944

Departmental Order 1298 changed the name of the Division of Labor Relations in the office of Economic Affairs into the Division of International Labor, Social, and Health Affairs. One of its new responsibilities involved international narcotics control.

November 30, 1944

Cordell Hull resigned after nearly 12 years; the longest term of any Secretary of State thus far. Under Secretary Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. succeeded him.

December 1, 1944

Establishment of the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee (SWNCC), which sought to coordinate the work of the three Departments on foreign policy matters and postwar policy planning. It was also involved in establishing rules for access to classified materials, declassification, and in developing procedures for security screening of personnel. Transmittal Letter 15 of March 28, 1946, placed it in charge of coordinating U.S. policy in occupied areas. Departmental Announcement 871 of December 3, 1947, made it the State-Army-Navy-Air Force Coordinating Committee, effective November 4. It was abolished in June 1949.

December 8, 1944

Congress authorized the appointment of two more Assistant Secretaries of State (58 Stat. 798) for a period of up to two years. No functional titles were assigned to the six Assistant Secretaries.

December 20, 1944

Departmental Order 1301 instituted another reorganization plan. It provided for a Staff Committee composed of the Secretary, the Under Secretary, the six Assistant Secretaries, the Legal Adviser, and the Special Assistant for International Organizations. A Coordinating Committee comprised the Under Secretary, the twelve office directors, and the Special Assistant for Press Relations. A Joint Secretariat was established to collect and coordinate information. The Division of International Organization Affairs became part of the Office of Special Political Affairs. The Office of Public Information became the Office of Public Affairs. A Division of Central Services was established to provide administrative services, replacing the Division of Administrative Services and Communications and Records.

Designation 106 gave the six Assistant Secretaries of State functional titles for the first time: Inter-American Affairs; European, Far Eastern, Near Eastern and African Affairs; Economic Affairs; Administration; Public and Cultural Relations; and Congressional Relations and International Conferences.

January 8, 1945

Departmental Order 1303 established a Foreign Trade Branch in the Division of Commercial Policy, to coordinate operations with the Agriculture and Commerce Departments.

January 22, 1945

Departmental Order 1305 transferred the Secretariat of the Executive Committee on Economic Foreign Policy to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs.

January 26, 1945

Departmental Order 1306 replaced the Offices of Economic Affairs and Wartime Economic Affairs with the Offices of Commercial Policy and Financial and Development Policy. It also temporarily assigned the Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons to the Office of Commercial Policy.

March 1, 1945

Departmental Order 1311 subdivided the Office of Financial Development Policy into the Divisions of Financial Affairs, Foreign Economic Development, Lend-Lease and Surplus War Property Affairs, and Economic Security Controls. The Division of Economic Security Controls replaced the World Trade Intelligence Division and enforced wartime economic controls. The Division of Financial and Monetary Affairs was abolished.

March 9, 1945

Departmental Order 1312 changed the name of the Office of Commercial Policy to the Office of International Trade Policy

April 7, 1945

Departmental Order 1314 divided the Office of the Foreign Service into three new Divisions: Foreign Service Planning, Training Services, and Foreign Reporting Services.

April 25, 1945

Departmental Order 1318 changed the name of the Office of Transportation and Communications to the Office of Transport and Communications Policy.

April 26, 1945

Departmental Order 1319 combined the War Supply and Resources Division and the Commodities Division into a new Commodities Division within the Office of International Trade Policy.

Departmental Order 1320 changed the name of the Joint Secretariat to the Central Secretariat. It was a forerunner of the Executive Secretariat and the Policy Planning Council.

May 3, 1945

An Act of Congress (59 Stat. 102), known as the “Bloom Bill,” established a special category of administrative personnel in the Foreign Service: administrative officers ($3,500 to $5,600), administrative assistants ($2,600 to $3,800), and clerks (up to $2,900). The act also eliminated percentage restrictions in the six upper pay grades, and it provided for exchanges of personnel with other government agencies for periods of up to four years.

The Division of American Republics Analysis and Liaison was also established.

May 12, 1945

Departmental Order 1322 relieved the Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations of their responsibilities for international conferences.

June 6, 1945

Acting Secretary of State Joseph C. Grew issued a statement concerning the unauthorized release of classified material. Six persons, including Foreign Service Officer John S. Service and Department employee Emmanuel S. Larsen, were later arrested after an article in Amerasia magazine contained parts of a secret report by the Office of Strategic Services. Service was exonerated by a grand jury; Larsen pled nolo contendere and was fined. This was the first Cold War-era security case involving the Department of State.

June 18, 1945

Departmental Order 1324 established a Security Office in the Office of Controls with “the primary responsibility for the review and evaluation of investigative reports from a security and loyalty standpoint.” A Special Assistant to the Director was to be Security Officer of the Department. Robert L. Bannerman, son of a former Chief Special Agent, held the new position. At least five Assistant Security Officers were to be appointed to represent: the Offices of the Chief Special Agent and the Foreign Service, and the Divisions of Central Services, Foreign Activity Correlation, and Cryptography.

July 7, 1945

Departmental Order 1328 provided for the appointment of up to ten Administrative Officers to head functional Divisions.

August 8, 1945

Executive Order 9608 transferred the White House’s Office of Inter-American Affairs, established in 1940, to the Department of State’s Office of American Republic Affairs.

August 29, 1945

Press Release No. 643 announced that the Department of State would begin a five-day, forty-hour work week for its personnel in Washington.

August 31, 1945

Executive Order 9608 abolished the Office of War Information and assigned its functions to an Interim International Information Service in the Department of State through December 31. The Department also received the foreign information functions of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. Departmental Order 1337 of September 10 established the new office.

Departmental Order 1336 established an Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs that was separated from the Office of Public Affairs. The Central Translating Division was assigned to the new Office, but was transferred to the office of Departmental Administration on December 29.

September 14, 1945

The office of Counselor was revived again with the appointment of Benjamin V. Cohen. He served from October 11, 1945, to July 31, 1947. His duties involved post-war conferences, peace negotiations, and treaties as well as Congressional liaison.

September 17, 1945

The Assistant Secretary of State for Public and Cultural Affairs was redesignated as the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs after the appointment of William Benton.

September 20, 1945

Executive Order 9621 terminated the Office of Strategic Services and transferred its research, analysis, and presentation functions to an Interim Research and Intelligence Service in the Department of State, effective October 1. A Special Assistant to the Secretary of State in charge of Research and Intelligence was appointed on September 27, and Departmental Order 1350 of October 24 established IRIS. Departmental Order 1354 of October 29 defined the duties of the Special Assistant.

September 27, 1945

Executive Order 9630 terminated the Foreign Economic Administration and other wartime economic agencies and transferred their functions to the Department of State. On October 19, Departmental Order 1343 established the Interim Foreign Economic and Liquidation Service. On October 20, Departmental Order 1345 established the Office of Foreign Liquidation, and Departmental Order 1347 established a Foreign Liquidation Commissioner.

October 3, 1945

Departmental Order 1341 changed the name of the Special War Problems Division to Special Projects Division.

October 19, 1945

Departmental Order 1346 established the Office of Economic Security Policy to deal with economic issues in occupied territories. It comprised the Divisions of Japanese and Korean Economic Affairs, the Division of German and Austrian Economic Affairs, and the Division of Economic Security Policy.

October 26, 1945

Departmental Order 1352 established the Alien Enemy Control Section to assume responsibility for enemy aliens who had been transferred from other American Republics to the United States. These responsibilities previously had been held by the Special Projects Division.

October 29, 1945

Departmental Order 1354 re-established the Division of Communications and Records in the Office of Departmental Administration. It had been previously a part of the Division of Central Services. The change took place November 1.

November 5, 1945

Departmental Order 1355 changed the name of the Commodities Division to the International Resources Division, effective November 1.

Responsibility for consular services to ships and sailors was transferred from the Office of the Foreign Service to the Office of Transport and Communications Policy.

November 14, 1945

Departmental Order 1357 changed the name of the Division of Foreign Economic Development to the Division of Investment and Economic Development.

November 21, 1945

Departmental Order 1359 established an Office of Budget and Finance under the Assistant Secretary of State for Administration. It replaced the Division of Budget and Finance, and was divided into a Division of Budget and a Division of Finance.

December 1, 1945

Departmental Order 1360 replaced Departmental Orders with Departmental Regulations, Office Instructions, and Departmental Announcements.

December 29, 1945

The International Organization Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669) allowed the President to extend diplomatic privileges and immunities to officers and employees of public international organizations by Executive Order. On February 19, 1946, Executive Order 9698 designated personnel of the Food and Agricultural Organization, the International Labor Organization, the Pan American Union, the UN, and the UNRRA to be covered by the Act. The Protocol Division assumed the Department’s responsibilities under the Act on February 21, 1946.

Transmittal Letter 4 transferred the Central Translating Division from the Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs to the Office of Departmental Administration.

December 30, 1945

Dr. Arthur W. MacMahon released a memorandum describing the continuing need for an official U.S. international information program associated with the State Department.

December 31, 1945

The Department of State reorganized the Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs into Divisions of: International Press and Publications, International Broadcasting, International Motion Pictures, International Exchange of Persons, Libraries and Institutes, and five geographical divisions. The new organization replaced the Division of Cultural Cooperation and the International Information Division and went into effect the next day.

January 1, 1946

The Interim Research and Intelligence Service was replaced by two offices under a Special Assistant for Research and Intelligence: the Office of Intelligence Collection and Dissemination and the Office of Research and Intelligence.

January 17, 1946

A Division of Investigations was established in the Office of Controls to investigate applications for employment, passports, and visas. It also was to assist in the reception of foreign diplomats and VIPs and to examine and safeguard the records of the diplomatic and consular offices of former enemy nations. The new division incorporated the Office of the Chief Special Agent into the Office of Controls.

March 15, 1946

Departmental Announcement 62 dissolved the War Areas Economic Division and transferred its functions to the geographic divisions, the Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs, and to the Divisions of Commercial Policy and International Resources.

April 3, 1946

The State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee established a Subcommittee for Security Control, also known as the Security Advisory Board. Its first tasks involved simplifying the downgrading and declassification of wartime documents and devising peace-time security procedures for non-military federal agencies.

April 8, 1946

The Department of State established an Office of Occupied Areas, under an Assistant Secretary of State, to coordinate its activities in Germany, Austria, Japan, and Korea.

April 10, 1946

Executive Order 9710 terminated the Office of Inter-American Affairs (established July 30, 1941 as the office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs and renamed March 23, 1945) and transferred its functions to the Department of State.

April 16, 1946

The Department of State established a Fisheries and Wildlife Branch in its International Resources Division.

April 22, 1946

The “Russell Plan,” named for Assistant Secretary for Administration Donald Russell, transferred the geographic functions of the Office of Research and Intelligence to the political offices of the Department and established an Advisory Committee on Intelligence and an Office of Intelligence Coordination and Liaison to formulate a program for Department-wide research. Special Assistant for Research and Intelligence Alfred McCormack resigned in protest the next day. William L. Langer was appointed to the post on April 29, and received rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary on July 1.

April 30, 1946

The Office of Research and Intelligence was terminated, and replaced the next day by the Office of Intelligence Coordination and Liaison.

May 17, 1946

Executive Order 9726 transferred responsibility for the financial aspects of the Lend-Lease program from the Department of State to the Treasury Department.

May 20, 1946

Departmental Announcement 109 established the Munitions Control Branch of the International Resources Division.

June 3, 1946

An Office of Transport and Communications was established, effective June 1, comprising Aviation, Shipping, and Telecommunications Divisions.

June 15, 1946

Transmittal Letter 22 established the Foreign Service Board of Awards and Decorations, comprising the Deputy Directors of the Office of the Foreign Service and the geographic offices. In 1947, it was authorized to award certificates or other evidences of recognition where medals and decorations were not appropriate.

July 1, 1946

The Special Assistant to the Secretary for Research and Intelligence received rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State. The Office of Intelligence Coordination and Liaison was divided into the Divisions of Intelligence Coordination, International and Functional Intelligence, Map Intelligence, Intelligence Collection and Dissemination, Acquisition and Distribution, Reference, and Biographic Information. Four geographic offices were also established,

July 3, 1946

An Act of Congress (60 Stat. 426) authorized the lateral appointment of 250 additional Foreign Service officers as an emergency measure. Candidates had to have been citizens for at least 15 years, aged at least 31, and with wartime service in either the armed forces, the merchant marine, or in the U.S. Government. The Act recruited 166 new FSOs, and was known as the “Manpower Act”.

July 5, 1946

The “McCarran rider” to the Department of State Appropriations Act of 1947 (60 Stat. 458) gave the Secretary of State the authority to terminate any Department or Foreign Service employee if he believed it to be in the national interest. This rider was included in Department appropriations acts until 1953. The Secretary in turn delegated his authority over security matters to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration. Terminated employees could still serve in other federal agencies if the Civil Service Commission found them eligible. On June 27, 1947, the Department announced the termination of ten employees. On October 3, the Personnel Security Board recommended that three be permitted to resign without prejudice. The remaining seven were allowed to do so on November 17.

July 15, 1946

Stanley Woodward, the head of the Department of State’s protocol staff, was commissioned as “Chief of Protocol for the White House.”

July 25, 1946

An Act of Congress (60 Stat. 663) authorized $125 million ($110 million in foreign currencies) for the Foreign Service buildings program.

July 30, 1946

An Act of Congress (60 Stat. 712) authorized U.S. participation in the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), established a National Commission for UNESCO to advise the Secretary of State, and authorized the Secretary to establish a secretariat in the Department for the National Commission. The secretariat became the UNESCO Relations Staff in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs.

August 1, 1946

An Act of Congress (60 Stat. 789) authorized an Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs to serve as the third-ranking officer in the Department for two years. William L. Clayton held the post from August 17, 1946, until his retirement on October 15, 1947.

August 9, 1946

The Adviser on Refugees and Displaced Persons was transferred from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs to that of the Assistant Secretary for Occupied Areas.

August 13, 1946

The Foreign Service Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1000) recognized six categories of Foreign Service personnel: Ambassadors and Ministers, Foreign Service Officers (the number of classes was reduced from eleven to seven, with a new grade of Career Minister), Foreign Service Reserve Officers (specialists serving for up to four years), Foreign Service Staff Officers (22 classes of administrative, fiscal, clerical, technical, custodial, and miscellaneous personnel), alien employees, and consular agents.

A “selection-out” system was instituted, requiring the resignation of FSOs who were not promoted within a specific period. Retirement age was set at 65 for Career Ministers and 60 for all other FSOs. Voluntary retirement was possible after 20 years’ service after age 50. The allowance system was extended to provide separation allowances when hazardous or unhealthy conditions prevented families from residing at post. Differentials were also authorized for service at dangerous or unhealthy posts. The inspection function was placed under the Assistant Secretary for Administration, and Foreign Service posts were to be inspected every two years by the Foreign Service Inspection Corps.

The Act created the position of Director General of the Foreign Service, with rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State. Until 1980, Directors General of the Foreign Service were designated by the Secretary of State. The Foreign Service Act also authorized the Foreign Service Institute, the Board of the Foreign Service, and the Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service.

Section 562 of the Act authorized the Secretary of the Navy to provide Navy or Marine Corps personnel to serve as “custodians” at overseas missions at the request of the Secretary of State.

The Foreign Service Act of 1946 took effect on November 13. The Foreign Service Auxiliary was disbanded, and its personnel were incorporated into the Foreign Service Reserve and the Foreign Service Staff.

August 20, 1946

The Division of Map Intelligence became the Division of Map Intelligence and Cartography. On February 4, 1947, its name was changed to the Map Division.

September 15, 1946

The Presidential Appointments and Authentications Section, which was previously attached to the White House, was transferred to the Division of Protocol. It was responsible for preparation of nominations and commissions of Presidential appointees, along with letters of credence and recall.

September 16, 1946

The Office of Public Affairs was subdivided into Divisions of: Public Liaison, Public Studies, Historical Policy Research, and Publications. The Division of Geography and Cartography was transferred to the Intelligence area.

September 27, 1946

Departmental Announcement 109 established a Munitions Division in the Office of Controls.

October 26, 1946

Departmental Announcement 231 established a Regional Administrative Office of the Department in New York City.

November 12, 1946

Transmittal Letter 35 abolished the Board of Foreign Service Personnel and replaced it with the Board of the Foreign Service, effective the next day.

January 14–21, 1947

The Department of State carried out its first formal security indoctrination program for 7,000 employees that included a training film, Security of Information, and issuance of a security handbook. The program established procedures for classifying documents and for transmitting, storing, and disposing of classified materials.

January 22, 1947

The Department of State began moving its offices from the old State-War-Navy Department Building to the former War Department Building at 21st Street and Virginia Avenue.

February 1, 1947

A Legislative Counsel was established in the Office of the Legal Adviser to handle Congressional relations. Durward V. Sandifer was appointed to the new position on February 6.

The Department of State announced that the termination of various wartime programs would result in the elimination of about 200 positions, most of which were war service appointments.

February 6, 1947

Departmental Announcement 344 established the Executive Secretariat, which began its operations on February 17. Its function was to regulate the flow of information within the highest levels of the Department.

The Office of Intelligence and Liaison became the Office of Intelligence Research and regained control over data collection in the geographic areas. It comprised four geographic area divisions and a Division of International and Functional Intelligence. The Map Division became the Map Intelligence Division. A Special Assistant to the Secretary for Intelligence and Research assumed charge. This marked the end of the “Russell Plan.”

February 26, 1947

Transmittal Letter 47 renamed the Division of Japanese Affairs the Division of Northeast Asian Affairs. Its responsibilities still included Japan, Korea, former Japanese island possessions, and the Soviet Far East.

It also combined the Security Office and the Division of Investigation into a Division of Security and Investigation within the Office of Controls.

March 12, 1947

Executive Order 9835 established the President’s Loyalty Program, which took effect on October 1. Loyalty investigations were required of all persons starting employment with the executive departments. The Civil Service Commission was the primary investigative agency, but agencies not using the Civil Service Commission examinations could conduct their own investigative programs. Agency heads were to develop such programs, and loyalty boards were to be appointed to hear cases.

March 13, 1947

Establishment of the Foreign Service Institute, which superseded the Foreign Service School and the Division of Training Services. FSI was divided into four schools: Advanced Officer Training, Basic Officer Training, Language Training, and Management and Administrative Training. Directors of the Foreign Service Institute are designated by the Secretary of State and hold rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State.

March 20, 1947

Publication of the first issue of the Foreign Service Newsletter, a forerunner of State Magazine. The first issue was eight pages, hand-typed, and was distributed in carbon copies. Early issues were stamped “Restricted;” from January 1950 to January 1954, they were stamped “Official Use Only.”

March 27, 1947

The Office of Transportation and Communications was established under an Assistant Secretary of State.

April 17, 1947

Departmental Announcement 474 abolished the Division of Protocol and made it the Protocol Staff of the Executive Secretariat. The Division of Coordination and Review became the Executive Secretariat’s Correspondence Review Branch, and the Committee Secretariat and Policy Registry Branches replaced the Central Secretariat.

May 1947

The Department received its first medical component, when a Medical Director was detailed from the U.S. Public Health Service. Dr. Marion R. King held the position until 1949.

May 5, 1947

Secretary of State George C. Marshall established a Policy Planning Staff, whose Chairman held rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State. George F. Kennan became its first Chairman. On May 7, Departmental Order 393 outlined its duties.

Transmittal Letter 54 transferred the Division of Management Planning from the Office of Departmental Administration to the Office of Budget and Planning. The Office of Budget and Finance became the Office of Budget and Planning. On May 19, a Division of Organization and Budget replaced the Divisions of Budget and Management Planning.

June 3, 1947

The Division of Investigations in the Office of Controls became the Division of Security and Investigations.

June 10, 1947

The Department of State established the position of Assistant Secretary of State for Political Affairs to oversee the Department’s four geographic offices. Norman Armour served in that position until July 15, 1948. The position was discontinued in 1949, after the number of Assistant Secretaries was increased from six to ten and the geographic offices became Bureaus.

July 1, 1947

Departmental Announcement 607 changed the title of the Assistant Secretary for European, Far Eastern, Near Eastern, and African Affairs to “Political Affairs.” Their duties then included American Republic Affairs.

July 9, 1947

The Department of State established a three-member Personnel Security Board to review the records of personnel who were suspected of being security risks and to recommend what actions should be taken in their cases.

July 21, 1947

Circular Airgram A-81 established a Foreign Service Security Corps to oversee security procedures at overseas posts. Overseas security officers held the title of Assistant Attaché.

July 28, 1947

Departmental Announcement 650 abolished the Office of Economic Security Policy and transferred its functions to the Office of Financial and Development Policy, effective July 15. The Divisions of Economic Security Controls, German and Austrian Economic Affairs, and Japanese and Korean Economic Affairs were also abolished and their functions transferred to a new Division of Occupied Areas Economic Affairs.

July 29, 1947

The Special Projects Division became the Division of Protective Services under Departmental Announcement 653.

August 15, 1947

The Office of International Information and Cultural Affairs became the Office of Information and Educational Exchange.

September 2, 1947

The Central Translating Division became the Division of Language Services.

September 15, 1947

The Counselor was placed in charge of Congressional relations.

September 18, 1947

The Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs was reorganized into four Divisions: Near Eastern; South Asian; African; and Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs.

October 7, 1947

The Department of State announced security principles and the hearing procedure for the Personnel Security board. Criteria for being considered a security risk included: membership in or sympathy with foreign or domestic organizations seeking to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitutional means; espionage or other activities on behalf of a foreign government; unauthorized disclosure or careless handling of classified information; association with persons in the first two categories; and weaknesses of character or judgment that might lead a person into questionable activities.

October 13, 1947

Departmental Announcement 683 renamed the Central Translating Division the Division of Language Services.

October 23, 1947

The Division of Lend-Lease and Surplus War Property Affairs was abolished.

October 28, 1947

The Department of State established four levels of classified information: Top Secret, Secret, Confidential, and Restricted.

December 29, 1947

The functions of the Map Intelligence Division were transferred to the Central Intelligence Agency.

January 21, 1948

Departmental Announcement 943 renamed the Office of Special Political Affairs the Office of United Nations Affairs, effective January 23.

January 27, 1948

The Smith-Mundt Act required the FBI to investigate all federal employees within six months. Foreign Service Officers were exempt, but the Act applied to other American and foreign employees at U.S. missions.

February 1948

Deputy Under Secretary of State for Administration John E. Peurifoy submitted a plan for the reorganization of the Department. It recommended the establishment of two Deputy Under Secretary positions, one to serve as a general assistant to the Under Secretary, and the other to be in charge of management of the Department. It also recommended that the geographic offices be headed by Assistant Secretaries.

February 18, 1948

Economic affairs personnel assigned to the Office of the Under Secretary were transferred to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs.

March 30, 1948

Departmental Announcement 1050 transferred the functions of the Special Assistant for Economic and Social Council Affairs from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs to the Office of UN Affairs in the Division of International Organization Affairs.

April 3, 1948

The Economic Cooperation Act (62 Stat. 138) established the Economic Cooperation Administration to administer the European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan). The Administrator was appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Mutual Security Act of 1951 abolished the ECA and replaced it with the Mutual Security Agency.

April 22, 1948

Departmental Announcement 13 replaced the Office of Information and Educational Exchange with the Offices of International Information, Educational Exchange, and an Executive Staff.

May 27, 1948

The Special Adviser on Geography was transferred from the Office of the Special Assistant for Research and Intelligence to the Office of Intelligence Research under Departmental Announcement 41.

June 8, 1948

The Personnel Security Board was renamed the Loyalty Security Board.

June 22, 1948

Under Secretary of State Robert A. Lovett sent a request to Secretary of the Navy John L. Sullivan for the assignment of up to 300 Marines as security guards at Foreign Service posts. They would be assigned to the staffs of Naval Attachés, with the Navy being responsible for administration and discipline while the Department of State was responsible for pay, allowances, travel, and provision of civilian clothing when needed. Acting Secretary of the Navy John N. Brown authorized the assignment of the Marine Security Guards on July 20.

June 24, 1948

An Act of Congress (62 Stat. 670) authorized the appointments of the two additional Assistant Secretaries for up to three years.

June 30, 1948

The Division of Procurement Control of the Office of Budget and Planning was abolished and its functions transferred to the Economic Cooperation Administration.

July 1, 1948

The Shipping Division was abolished. The Office of Transport and Communications assumed its advisory and coordinating functions, the Division of Communications and Records assumed responsibility for correspondence, and the Division of Protective Services took charge of the Seamen Affairs Branch.

The Office of Intelligence Collection and Dissemination became the Office of Libraries and Intelligence—Acquisition. It comprised three Divisions: Library and Reference Services, Acquisition and Distribution, and Biographic Information.

August 10, 1948

The Interim Office for German Affairs was established in the Division of Protective Services of the Office of Controls to provide consular services for German nationals in the United States. It was abolished October 15, 1950, following the establishment of a German Consulate General in New York City.

August 27, 1947

Departmental Announcement 115 abolished the Division of Foreign Activity Correlation and transferred its personnel and functions to the Security and Investigations Division. The Division became the Division of Security, being responsible for personnel investigations, security training, physical security of Department buildings, recommendations on passports and visas, and protection of the Secretary and visiting foreign dignitaries.

December 8, 1948

An 11-member Advisory Committee of the Foreign Service Institute was established. Director General Christian M. Ravndal chaired the committee, which included two Senators and two Congressmen.

December 15, 1948

Under Secretary of State Robert A. Lovett and Secretary of the Navy John L. Sullivan signed a Memorandum of Agreement that established the Marine Security Guard program. The first Marine Security Guards went overseas on January 28, 1949: six to the Embassy in Bangkok and nine to the Consulate General in Tangier.

The Advisory Committee on Occupied Areas Affairs was abolished and its functions transferred to the Assistant Secretary for Occupied Areas.

December 20, 1948

Press Release No. 1017 announced the designation of Robert E. Ward, Jr. as Fair Employment Officer for the Department of State. Ward’s appointment followed Executive Order 9980, which restated that Federal government employment was to be without discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. He was the first officer in the Department to be specifically concerned with civil rights issues.

February 14, 1949

Department Announcement No. 16 re-established the position of Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations. Ernest A. Gross was appointed on March 2.

February 15, 1949

Garrison Norton resigned as Assistant Secretary of State for Transportation and Communications. His duties were assigned first to the Under Secretary of State and later to the Bureau of Economic Affairs.

February 21, 1949

The Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, chaired by former President Herbert Hoover, concluded a two-year study and submitted its report to Congress. It noted that 45 federal agencies were involved in foreign relations, and that the Department of State spent only 5% of the money and employed only 11% of the civilian federal employees abroad. It recommended the establishment of a single service that would include all Foreign Service and Department personnel above a certain grade. It endorsed the Peurifoy Plan, and recommended the creation of two Deputy Under Secretaries of State. It also recommended Bureau status for the geographic divisions and for the Office of United Nations Affairs, which would be “line units” with action responsibility, as opposed to “staff units” with advisory roles. It also recommended the establishment of a full-time Assistant Secretary for Congressional Relations. The Director of the Policy Planning Staff should become a Planning Adviser. The Department then organized three task forces to study the Foreign Service, the Department, and high-level positions.

The Hoover Commission Report also recommended that Chiefs of Mission should have “the ultimate authority overseas with respect to foreign affairs aspects of program operations.”

March 1, 1949

President Harry S. Truman appointed Philip C. Jessup as the first U.S. Ambassador at Large. His duties involved special assignments to represent the United States at international conferences and meetings. He served until January 19, 1953. The position was then abolished as an economy measure.

March 4, 1949

The Office of Occupied Areas was replaced by an Office of German and Austrian Affairs. The Office of Far Eastern Affairs assumed charge of Japanese and Korean affairs.

March 24, 1949

The Department of State announced that the Office of the Foreign Liquidation Commissioner would terminate its operations on June 30.

April 1, 1949

Departmental Announcement 40 announced the transfer of the Division of International Conferences from the Office of Departmental Administration to the Office of United Nations Affairs.

May 16, 1949

Departmental Announcement 60 reorganized the administrative area of the Department. The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration would include the Director General of the Foreign Service, the Foreign Buildings Office, the Foreign Reporting Service and the Foreign Service Inspection Corps. The Office of Personnel would include the Divisions of Departmental and Foreign Service Personnel, the Foreign Service Institute, and the Secretariat of the Board of Examiners of the Foreign Service. The Office of Consular Services included the Passport and Visa Divisions, the Munitions Division, and the Divisions of Protective Services and Security. The Office of Operating Facilities included the Divisions of Central Services, Communications and Records, Cryptography, and Language Services. The Office of Management and Budget included the Divisions of Organization, Budget, and Finance.

May 26, 1949

The Department of State Organization Act (63 Stat. 111) authorized the appointment of ten Assistant Secretaries of State, two of whom would also be titled Deputy Under Secretaries. The Under Secretary remained the second-ranking officer of the Department. The Counselor received rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary. The Office of the Foreign Service was abolished; the Secretary of State acquired the powers over the Foreign Service given to the Assistant Secretary for Administration and the Director General of the Foreign Service. The latter position became strictly advisory.

June 24, 1949

The Bureau of International Organization Affairs was established.

July 6, 1949

Department Announcement 96 assigned Assistant Secretaries to the Offices of European Affairs, Near East and African Affairs, American Republic Affairs, and United Nations Affairs.

August 1, 1949

The Office of European Affairs became the Bureau of European Affairs, and comprised six geographic divisions: British Commonwealth, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, Southwest Europe, Northern Europe, and Western Europe.

August 8, 1949

The Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs was redesignated as the Assistant Secretary of State for United Nations Affairs. The Bureau was renamed on October 27.

October 3, 1949

The present system of geographic bureaus was established when the Offices of European Affairs, American Republics Affairs, Near East and African Affairs, Far Eastern Affairs, and United Nations Affairs became the Bureaus of European Affairs; Inter-American Affairs; Far Eastern Affairs; Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs; and United Nations Affairs. An Office of International Administration and Conferences incorporated the Division of International Conferences and the International Administration Staff. The Office of Transportation and Communication was transferred under the direction of the Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs.

The Assistant Secretary for Economic Affairs was to supervise the Offices of International Trade Policy, Financial and Development Policy, and Transport and Communications Policy. The Bureau of United Nations Affairs would comprise: Refugees and Displaced Persons and United Nations Planning Staffs; Offices of Dependent Area Affairs, International Administration and Conferences, UN Economic and Social Affairs, and UN Political and Security Affairs.

The six Divisions of the Bureau of European Affairs were combined into four Offices: British Commonwealth and Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Regional Affairs.

October 4, 1949

Secretary of State Dean Acheson appointed Dr. Lloyd V. Berkner as a special consultant on international scientific affairs. An Office of the Consultant to the Secretary on International Science Matters was established on November 1. On June 4, 1950, Berkner published a report, Science and Foreign Relations, in which he recommended the establishment of a Science Office headed by a Science Adviser who would be a Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State.

The Department of State announced the establishment of a system of awards to be administered by an Honor Awards Board. The Department’s first awards were the Distinguished Service Award, the Superior Service Award, the Meritorious Service Award, and the Commendable Service Award. Within-grade pay increases were provided for each award. Length-of-service awards were instituted for 10–19, 20–29, and over 30 years’ service. The first Honor Awards Ceremony was held on October 12.

October 25, 1949

An Office of Mutual Defense Assistance was established to oversee the State Department’s responsibilities under the Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949. Ambassador James Bruce had been appointed as Director on October 17, and also held the rank of Special Assistant to the Secretary.

November 1, 1949

The Bureau of German Affairs was organized to replace the Office of German and Austrian Affairs. The Director held rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State.