1970–1979

January 9, 1970

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 545 replaced the Office of Water for Peace with the Office of Environmental Affairs. Christian A. Herter, Jr., son of a former Secretary of State, was appointed Director and Special Assistant for Environmental Affairs on January 13.

January 14, 1970

Deputy Under Secretary for Administration William B. Macomber, Jr. instituted a study of the organization of the Department and the Foreign Service. The recommendations of thirteen task forces were published November 20 as Diplomacy for the 70’s and were made public on December 8.

Macomber also announced that Special Assistants for Welfare and Grievances would be established in the Department of State, AID, and USIA. State’s Special Assistant reported to the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 546 announced the establishment of Special Assistants for Welfare and Grievances in the Department of State, USIA, and AID for a two-year trial period.

January 27, 1970

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 547 abolished the Office of Inter-American Political Affairs and incorporated its functions and personnel into the U.S. Mission to the Organization of American States.

February 28, 1970

The Foreign Service Amendment Act Amendments of 1969 (84 Stat. 17) provided for the financing and administration of the Foreign Service retirement and disability systems.

March 4, 1970

The Task Force on Foreign Aid, chaired by Randolph A. Peterson, issued a report concluding that the Department of State needed to “exercise firm policy guidance” over security assistance programs.

April 6, 1970

During Nigeria’s civil war, a Joint State/AID Office of Nigerian Affairs was established to coordinate U.S. humanitarian aid to the region. The Joint Office was abolished November 1, 1970.

April 10, 1970

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 556 reorganized the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, establishing the Directorates for Management, Regional Research, Functional Research, and Coordination, each headed by a Deputy Director.

July 6, 1970

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 560 of June 18 announced the replacement of the Country Director for Eastern Europe with two Country Directors, responsible respectively for Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland; and Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 562 replaced the Public Correspondence and Distribution Control Divisions of the Bureau of Public Affairs with a Public Inquiries Division. The Office of Policy Guidance became the Office of Policy and Plans. These changes took place July 13, 1970.

September 22, 1970

Counseling, career management, and assignment functions in the Office of Personnel were reorganized by pay grades rather than along functional lines.

November 20, 1970

The Ad Hoc Committee to Improve the Status of Women in Foreign Affairs Agencies reconstituted itself as the Women’s Action Organization (WAO).

November 23, 1970

Department of State Airgram CA-5901 stated that except in cases of “compelling reasons of foreign policy,” overseas assignments in State, AID, and USIA were to be made “without consideration of the race, color, religion, sex, or national origin of the employee concerned.” A Department Notice of December 2 said that there would be no exceptions for domestic positions in the Department.

January 11, 1971

Management Reform Bulletin No. 5 centralized Department personnel programs under the Director General of the Foreign Service. Deputy Directors of Personnel were established for: Career Counseling and Assignments, Personnel Management and Services, and Recruitment.

February 10, 1971

Secretary of State Rogers dedicated a new Press Briefing Room on the second floor of the Department of State.

February 16, 1971

Management Reform Bulletin No. 8 established the Foreign Affairs Specialist Corps (FAS) within the Foreign Service Reserve. The first 31 FAS officers were inducted on June 3, and would serve as Foreign Service Reserve offices with unlimited tenure (FSRUs).

February 23, 1971

Management Reform Bulletin No. 9 established the Dissent Channel to ensure that dissenting views received a proper and discreet handling within the Department.

March 26, 1971

Secretary of State Rogers released United States Foreign Policy 1969–1970, the first such narrative summary since 1896. A second report was released on March 7, 1972.

April 21, 1971

President Nixon announced plans to appoint a Coordinator of Security Assistance in the Department of State.

May 12, 1971

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 574 established an Office of Planning and Analysis for International Security Assistance in the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs. The Office would be supervised by the Bureau’s director pending the establishment of a Coordinator of International Security Assistance.

May 17, 1971

In the Bureau of African Affairs, the Office of Inter-African Affairs was abolished and the Regional Affairs and Policy Planning Staffs replaced it. These changes were reversed in 1974.

June 22, 1971

Secretary of State Rogers and Postmaster General Winton M. Blount signed an agreement to allow post offices throughout the United States to accept passport applications.

June 30, 1971

A Department Notice announced a reorganization of the Executive Secretariat. A Deputy Executive Secretary for Management would oversee the Secretariat Staff, the Operations Center, the Information Management Center, and a new Archives Unit. The Information Management Center was in charge of a computerized information storage system known as SADI (Secretariat Automated Data Index System).

July 2, 1971

Another Department Notice announced that the Secretariat Staff would be in charge of reviewing Executive Orders and assigning necessary actions within the Department.

July 4, 1971

An Office of Private Cooperation was established in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs to assist private voluntary organizations involved in promoting educational and cultural exchanges.

July 6, 1971

Secretary of State Rogers announced a reorganization of the upper-level offices of the Department. A new management system called PARA (Policy Analysis and Resource Allocation) would be instituted. Congress was asked to change the Under Secretary’s title to Deputy Secretary and to make the Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs into an Under Secretary. The Deputy Under Secretary for Administration’s title would be changed to “Management.” These officials, as well as the Counselor and a Coordinator for Security Assistance, would form a coordinated management team.

Management Reform Bulletin No. 28 and Airgram CA-4943 announced the “Mustang” program to recruit lower-grade Civil Service and Foreign Service Staff personnel for the Foreign Service Reserve and eventual admission to the FAS and FSO programs. The term “Mustang” was borrowed from a Navy expression for officers commissioned from the enlisted ranks. The first candidates for the Mustang Program were elected in July 1972.

July 12, 1971

A Departmental Notice announced that the Deputy Under Secretary for Administration’s title would be changed to “Management.” An Assistant Secretary for Administration assumed charge of Departmental administration. An Office of the Inspector General was also established.

July 22, 1971

Nelson Gross was appointed as the first Senior Adviser to the Secretary of State for Narcotics Matters. He entered on duty on August 2.

July 26, 1971

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 581 established the Department Council on Classification Policy, chaired by the Deputy Under Secretary for Management, to review policies on the control and release of information.

August 11, 1971

The Department of State, AID, and USIA sent Airgram CA-3745, enhancing equal employment opportunities for women. Women applicants would no longer be asked about their present or prospective marital status, marital status and dependents would no longer be barriers to overseas assignments, women who had to resign from the Foreign Service when they married could apply for readmission, foreign affairs agencies would try to assign Foreign Service spouses to the same post (“tandem couples’), and efforts would be made to provide employment for dependents of employees serving overseas.

August 12, 1971

A Department Notice announced the establishment of a Foreign Service Grievance Board. The Board entered on duty on December 6.

September 16, 1971

The Department of State announced that it would increase the maximum age for entry into the Foreign Service from 31 to 54 years. It intended to seek persons interested in economic, commercial, and administrative work, and would attempt to recruit more women and minorities.

December 7, 1971

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 595 transferred the Office of Multilateral Policy and Programs and the Secretariat of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO from the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs to the Bureau of International Organization Affairs. The Agency Director for Education, Tourism, and Cultural became the Director for UNESCO.

December 17, 1971

President Nixon issued Executive Order 11636, establishing a new system of employee-management relations in the Foreign Service. Elections were to be held to determine what organization would represent foreign affairs agency personnel. An Employee-Management Relations Commission was established by the Board of the Foreign Service on December 24. A five-member Disputes Panel was established to resolve disputes between agencies and organizations.

December 21, 1971

The Department of State announced that it would develop a grievance procedure for the foreign affairs agencies and would hold consultations about involuntary retirements (“selection out”) under Section 633 of the Foreign Service Act.

January 11, 1972

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 598 announced that the Department, AID, and USIA would make all assignments without consideration of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

January 21, 1972

An Office Notice to the foreign affairs agencies announced that participation of wives of Foreign Service personnel in post activities were voluntary acts rather than legal obligations. Directive A-728 announced it on January 22.

February 7, 1972

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1971 (86 Stat. 28) authorized the President to appoint an officer for Coordinating Security Assistance Programs. Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance Curtis W. Tarr was appointed on May 1.

March 8, 1972

President Nixon signed a memorandum directing the Secretary of State to expedite the publication of Foreign Relations of the United States. The goal was to reduce a 26-year publication lag to 20 years after 3 years.

March 9, 1972

The Board of the Foreign Service announced the formation of a Special Review Panel to consider the cases of FSOs eligible for “selection-out.” No dismissals were scheduled until after June 30. On June 5, selections-out were postponed until December 31. On November 27, they were postponed again until March 31, 1973. On February 13, following selection of the American Foreign Service Association as the exclusive representative of Foreign Service employees, the Department postponed them again until June 30. A further postponement until July 31 was announced on June 29.

April 14, 1972

Under Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 609, the Bureau of European Affairs abandoned the Country Directors organizational plan and replaced it with ten regional offices: Northern European Affairs, Central European Affairs, Eastern European Affairs, Canadian Affairs, Soviet Union Affairs, Spanish and Portuguese Affairs, NATO and Atlantic Political-Military Affairs, OECD, European Community and Atlantic Political-Economic Affairs, and Soviet and Eastern European Exchanges. An Executive Director was also established. The changes took effect the next day.

May 3, 1972

A Department Notice outlined procedures for use of the Dissent Channel by Foreign Service and Department personnel.

May 31, 1972

The Foreign Service Institute’s Viet-Nam Training Center closed, having trained 1,845 foreign affairs agency personnel, including 300 FSOs. AID then announced that it would no longer accept applications by FSOs for service in the CORDS program.

June 1, 1972

The Department of State announced a revision of its classification and declassification systems in response to Executive Order 11652 of March 8. Three levels of classification were envisioned: Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential. Classification authority would be limited to senior personnel in offices or missions (in two months, persons with classification authority were reduced from 5,435 to 2,233). A General Declassification Schedule provided for downgrading documents by one level every two years. Unless exemptions were properly claimed, Top Secret documents would be declassified after ten years, Secret documents after eight years, and Confidential documents after six years. Exemptions included information from foreign governments or international organizations, cryptography, intelligence sources or methods, subjects essential to national security, or information placing a person in immediate jeopardy. The Office of Security would devise instructions for the new procedures.

July 1, 1972

The Department concluded issuance of new photo identification cards for its personnel. The new cards would be valid for five years.

The Office of Career Counseling and Assignments was reorganized into the Foreign Service and Civil Service Counseling and Assignment Divisions and the Title and Rank Unit. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 618 announced the change on July 20.

July 13, 1972

The Foreign Relations Authorization Act (86 Stat. 490) created the position of Deputy Secretary of State to replace the Under Secretary of State as the second-ranking officer in the Department. It also authorized permanent Under Secretaries of State for Political Affairs and Economic Affairs. On October 17, Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 629 outlined the Deputy Secretary’s responsibilities.

The Act also provided for a Commission to study the organization and functions of U.S. foreign policy agencies, the future Murphy Commission.

September 14, 1972

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 625 announced a reorganization of the Office of the Deputy Director General and Director of Personnel. A Deputy Director of Personnel for Management was established. The Deputy Directors for Personnel Management and Services and Recruitment had their titles changed to Policy, Classification, and Evaluation; and Recruitment and Employment. A Grievance Staff was established. The Alcohol Abuse Program was transferred to the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Medical Services.

September 15, 1972

The designation of the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs was changed to “Economic and Business Affairs.”

September 25, 1972

President Nixon established a cabinet-level Committee to Combat Terrorism, to be chaired by the Secretary of State. Other members included the Secretaries of Defense and Transportation, the Attorney General, the Directors of the CIA and the FBI, and the National Security Adviser. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Security Marvin Gentile was also a member.

October 2, 1972

The Department of State established a Special Assistant to the Secretary and Coordinator of the Office for Combatting Terrorism as the head of a Working Group of the Cabinet Committee to Combat Terrorism. Armin H. Meyer held the position.

October 4, 1972

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 627 announced the establishment of the Office of the Under Secretary for Security Assistance and outlined its duties. The Office acquired AID’s policymaking role in the economic aspects of security assistance, as well as the policymaking role of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs. The Under Secretary for Security Assistance was to “ensure” that security assistance programs were consistent with foreign policy objectives, would direct their planning and coordination and their presentation to Congress, and would determine whether a country should receive security assistance.

October 6, 1972

A Deputy Assistant Secretary for Canadian Affairs was established in the Bureau of European Affairs. Rufus Z. Smith was the first to hold this position.

November 30, 1972

Secretary of State Rogers dedicated a modernized Operations Center in the Department’s Executive Secretariat. Work on the facility had begun in September 1971.

December 1, 1972

The Department of State revised its regulations in light of the March 24 Equal Employment Opportunity Act (P.L. 92-261). Complaints were to be made within 30 days. Remedial action included back pay, which was made retroactive to March 24. Women’s program coordinators were to be appointed, and duty hours were to be adjusted to accommodate employees’ religious practices.

December 4–5, 1972

The American Foreign Service Association (AFSA) won a majority of votes in an election held under E.O. 11636 to determine which organization would represent Foreign Service employees in dealings with Department of State’s management. AFSA received 3,093 votes, while the American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) received 1,050. Secretary Rogers recognized AFSA as the exclusive representative of Foreign Service employees on January 26, 1973. USIA held elections on December 15, in which AFSA received 574 votes to AFGE’s 470. AID held elections on March 28, in which AFSA won 2,091 votes to AFGE’s 347.

December 11, 1972

President Nixon announced a freeze on executive branch hirings and promotions until submission of a new budget to Congress. A Department Notice of December 13 said that the freeze did not apply to in-grade step increases.

December 27, 1972

The Department of State and the Marine Corps signed a memorandum of understanding that provided for the assignment of specially trained Marine Security Guards for the protection of chiefs of mission during special emergency situations. The Department was responsible for special training in security-related subjects, while posts were responsible for special emergency instructions.

January 1, 1973

The Department of State complied with Libya’s demand that all U.S. passports issued for travel there be written in Arabic.

March 1, 1973

The Department of State changed the format of its telegrams and airgrams to indicate their status under Executive Order 11652 on classification and declassification and to include a new organizational code known as TAGS (Traffic Analysis by Geography and Subject). TAGS initially consisted of 91 subject codes, 8 subject matter fields, 242 country codes, and 42 organization codes.

March 7, 1973

The foreign affairs agencies issued an airgram and a Departmental notice affirming the rights and responsibilities of secretaries.

March 9, 1973

President Nixon announced the appointment of the first four members of the Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy: Robert D. Murphy, David M. Abshire, William J. Casey, and Anne L. Armstrong. Four other members were to be appointed respectively by the President of the Senate and by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

March 21, 1973

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 642 abolished the office of Special Assistant for Welfare and Grievances in the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary for Management following the issuance of interim grievance procedures in the Foreign Service and the establishment of a Grievance Staff.

May 29, 1973

President Nixon issued a directive that reaffirmed the Department of State’s responsibility for representing U.S. commercial and economic interests abroad.

June 12, 1973

In response to a lawsuit filed by the American Federation of Government Employees, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia “permanently restrained” the Department of State and USIA from offering FSRU status to anyone but FSRs with at least three years of service. This effectively terminated the Foreign Affairs Specialist (FAS) program that had been instituted in 1971. FSRU appointments (222 in all) that did not comply with the court decision were rescinded on August 13.

July 1, 1973

The Department of State inaugurated an automated document system for its central telegraphic files.

Responsibilities for French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique were transferred from the Bureau of European Affairs to the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 657 announced the change on August 31.

July 5, 1973

A Department Notice announced the incorporation of the Executive Secretariat’s Archives Unit into the Information Management Section.

July 9, 1973

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 652 established a Foreign Affairs Document and Reference Center (FADRC) and an Information Services Office in the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Operations.

August 20, 1973

A Department Notice defined the responsibilities of the Executive Secretariat’s Information Management Section: indexing, reviewing, distributing, and microfilming the correspondence of the principal officers of the Department, Ambassadors at Large, and units of the Executive Secretariat.

August 30, 1973

A Department Notice announced that the Executive Secretary would coordinate the transition between Secretaries of State Rogers and Kissinger. The Executive Secretariat later prepared briefing papers about the Department of State during the transitions between Presidential Administrations.

September 5, 1973

The Department of State formed a Special Review Panel to study the cases of Foreign Service Officers who were subject to selection-out.

October 18, 1973

The Department of State Appropriations Authorization Act (87 Stat. 453) authorized a Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs and specified that it be headed by an Assistant Secretary of State. Dixy Lee Ray, the first Assistant Secretary, was appointed January 19, 1975, but resigned on June 19.

The Act also authorized $40 million for the protection of Department personnel and facilities against terrorism.

November 21, 1973

Director General of the Foreign Service Nathaniel Davis dedicated the Department’s first modern word processing center, the Communications Support Center, located in the Deputy Directorate of Personnel for Recruitment and Employment.

December 12, 1973

In response to a class action suit by FSOs Philip M. Lindsay and Temple G. Cole, U.S, District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell ruled that State and USIA’s selection-out procedures lacked procedural due process. The U.S. District Court ruled that persons to be selected-out deserved full information about the basis of the decision, a hearing, representation by counsel, and return to Washington for the hearing at agency expense. Lindsay et al. v. Kissinger et al. did not reject selection-out on the basis of standards of performance.

January 28, 1974

The Secretary’s Open Forum Panel received a full-time manager.

February 14, 1974

The Office of the Law of the Sea Negotiations was established in the Office of the Deputy Secretary of State.

February 27, 1974

The Planning and Coordination Staff became the Policy Planning Staff, effective March 8.

March 19 and 22, 1974

A circular telegram and a Department Notice allowed women who had to resign from the Foreign Service when they had married to apply for readmission by June 30.

March 25, 1974

A memorandum of understanding provided for temporary assignment of FSOs to the Peace Corps.

March 29, 1974

A reorganization of the Bureau of Public Affairs combined the Office of the Executive Director and the Office of Policy and Plans into an Office of Plans and Management. The Office of Public Services became the Office of Public Programs. A third Deputy Assistant Secretary was placed in charge of the two new Offices. A Freedom of Information Staff was established to handle requests for documents under the Freedom of Information Act. The Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs became chairman of the Department Council of Classification Policy

April 18, 1974

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 674 transferred responsibility for the affairs of Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus from the Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs to the Bureau of European Affairs, effective April 29. It also transferred responsibility for the affairs of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya from the Bureau of African Affairs to the Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, effective April 22.

May 1974

The Open Forum program began publishing a classified, quarterly journal, later known as Open Forum Options.

May 3, 1974

The Director of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs received the additional title of Deputy Coordinator for Security Assistance.

May 7, 1974

The Department of State and AFSA reached an agreement to promote a more global outlook among FSOs. At the end of the year’s assignment cycle, 20% of the officers in the geographic bureaus would be assigned to other areas.

May 13, 1974

The Office of Soviet and Eastern European Exchanges was abolished and its personnel were transferred to the Offices of the Soviet Union or Eastern European Affairs.

June 30, 1974

The Position and Pay Management Division of the Bureau of Personnel completed a survey of Foreign Service positions, with a view toward matching ranks of employees with their jobs, and realigning comparable positions in different geographic areas.

July 11, 1974

A new Office of Southern European Affairs was established in the Bureau of European Affairs to cover Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey.

July 23, 1974

Deputy Under Secretary for Management L. Dean Brown appointed a Secretarial task Force to examine the roles of Foreign Service and Civil Service secretaries, to be chaired by former Ambassador Alfred Puhan.

October 8, 1974

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 687 established the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, incorporating the Office of International Scientific and Technological Affairs (established 1965) the Offices of the Special Assistants to the Secretary for Fisheries and Wildlife, Population Matters, and Environmental Affairs. Deputy Assistant Secretaries would head the new offices of Oceans and Fisheries Affairs, Scientific and Technological Affairs, and Environmental and Population Affairs. The reorganization took effect October 14.

The Department of State Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1975 (88 Stat. 1442) formally conferred on U.S. Ambassadors full responsibility for the direction of all civilian government employees in their countries of assignment. Ambassadors were to keep themselves “fully and currently informed” of all U.S. Government activities in their country, and agencies were in turn required to keep the Ambassadors informed about their activities.

December 8, 1974

A reorganization of the Office of the Deputy Director of Personnel for Management took place. The Personnel Services Division and the Secretariat Control Group were abolished. The Analysis and Requirements Division became the Analysis and Research Division. The Retirement Branch of the Personnel Services Division became the Retirement Division. An Operating Systems Division replaced the Transactions Branch of the Personnel Services Division, the Reports Branch of the Analysis and Requirements Division, and the Secretariat Control Group. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 693 announced the change on December 27.

December 16, 1974

In Bergstrom et al. v. Kissinger et al., Judge Gesell dismissed a lawsuit in which an FSO and six FSIOs who had been selected-out between 1970 and 1972 sought reinstatement. He concluded that although he had the power to make his Lindsay decision of 1973 retroactive, the plaintiffs had waited too long to bring up their lawsuit, and that since 779 FSOs and FSIOs had been selected-out during the period, retroactivity would create enormous administrative problems.

January 17, 1975

In the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, a Deputy Director for Research replaced Deputy Directors for Regional Research and Functional Research. A Senior Deputy Director was also established.

January 27, 1975

The Secretarial Task Force released its report, which contained 72 recommendations for improving training, and working conditions.

February 13, 1975

The Department of State revised its regulations concerning requests for documents in order to comply with an amended Freedom of Information Act. Responses would be due within 10 working days of receipt, and action on appeals of denials was required within 20 working days.

March 3, 1975

The Department convened a task group, headed by Earl D. Sohm, to study the management of its Civil Service personnel. As a result of the task group’s work, the Department submitted a revised Merit Promotion and Placement Plan to the Civil Service Commission on April 9, which was approved on June 6 and went into effect on November 5.

April 21, 1975

In response to growing Congressional interest in human rights issues in foreign policy, the Department established the position of Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs in the Office of the Deputy Secretary.

May 27, 1975

Establishment of the Office of Management Operations from the former Management Systems Staff. The Director held rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State. Earl D. Sohm had been appointed to the position on May 15.

The Director of the Bureau of International Scientific and Technological Affairs, the Coordinator of Ocean Affairs, and the Special Assistant to the Secretary for Fisheries and Wildlife lost rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary.

June 4, 1975

A Department Notice announced that the Office of Commercial Affairs and Business Activities in the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs had become the office of Commercial and Special Bilateral Affairs under a Deputy Assistant Secretary.

In the Bureau of Oceans and International Scientific and Environmental Affairs, the Office of Nuclear and Energy Technology was abolished and replaced by a Deputy Assistant for Nuclear Energy Technology Affairs.

June 21, 1975

Delegation of Authority 107-2 transferred the Secretary’s statutory and other responsibilities for the direction, coordination, and supervision of interdepartmental refugee and migration activities to the Deputy Under Secretary for Management and to the newly-established Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs.

June 24, 1975

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 700 established an Office of Humanitarian Affairs, headed by a Coordinator, in the office of the Deputy Secretary of State. This replaced the office of the Special Assistant for Refugee and Migration Affairs.

June 27, 1975

Publication of the report of the Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy (Murphy Commission). Recommended organizational changes included consolidating the positions of the Under Secretaries for Political Affairs and Security Affairs, changing the title and responsibilities for the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs to “Economic and Scientific Affairs,” establishing a Senior Officer for Policy Information, and granting Under Secretary status to the Deputy Under Secretary for Management. An Information and Cultural Affairs Agency would replace the USIA and the Department’s Bureau fo Educational and Cultural Affairs.

In an address to the 119th Foreign Service Officer Class, Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger announced the formation of a Priorities Policy Group that was designed to link decisions on financial and other resources to foreign policy objectives. Deputy Under Secretary for Management Lawrence W. Eagleburger would be the Chairman. Kissinger also noted that the Department was encouraging FSOs to take assignments outside their areas of geographical or functional expertise in order to broaden their experience. A Board of Professional Development would be formed to establish a continuous and long-term training program.

In the Bureau of European Affairs, the Office of Iberian Affairs was abolished and its duties were transferred to the Office of Western European Affairs. Western European Affairs also assumed responsibility for Malta, but transferred responsibility for the Benelux countries to the Office of Northern European Affairs.

July 24, 1975

Deputy Under Secretary for Management Eagleburger sent a message to all chiefs of mission and principal officers that reaffirmed the Department of State’s policies on non-discrimination and equal employment opportunity.

August 4, 1975

Director General of the Foreign Service Carol C. Laise announced the start of a more open and centrally directed assignment process for Foreign Service personnel.

August 14, 1975

The Department of State signed a contract with Xerox-Electro-Optical Systems to automate the duplicating facility in the Office of Communications. The first of seven printing stations was scheduled for installation in December 1976; the last, in May 1977.

August 18, 1975

A Department Notice placed the Office of Medical Services under the Deputy Under Secretary for Management.

October 1, 1975

A Department Notice announced the reduction in the number of Deputy Assistant Secretaries in the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs from four to three. The Directorates for Laos-Cambodia and Vietnam were combined into a single office under a Country Director.

November 23, 1975

An administrative action gave the Director General of the Foreign Service the additional title of Director of the Bureau of Personnel. The Office of Personnel became the Bureau of Personnel. Five Directorates, three Divisions, and two Special Assistants were replaced by six new Offices.

November 29, 1975

The Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1976 (89 Stat. 765) amended the Foreign Service Act of 1946 to provide for a system for resolving grievances of Foreign Service personnel, including the establishment of a Foreign Service Grievance Board. The procedures went into effect March 26, 1976, the Grievance Board’s regulations went into effect on June 23.

The Act also (89 Stat. 763) authorized the Department to assign “a substantial number” of FSOs with between 10 and 15 years of service to assignments with state or local governments or “other public organizations” designated by the Secretary.

January 30, 1976

The position of Special Assistant and Consumer Affairs Coordinator was established.

February 12, 1976

A Reports Coordinator was established to improve the reporting process in Department bureaus. James R. Ruchti was appointed to the position on May 3.

March 2, 1976

An Office of Human Rights Affairs was established in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs, replacing a subunit in the Office of UN Political Affairs.

April 23, 1976

The Director of the Foreign Service Institute received rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State.

April 26, 1976

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 713 announced a reorganization of the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic and Business Affairs became the senior Deputy Assistant Secretary. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Commercial and Special Bilateral Affairs was abolished. The Offices of Special Bilateral Affairs and of Business Practices were transferred to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Finance and Development. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation and Telecommunications had their title changed to “Transportation, Telecommunications, and Commercial Affairs.” The Office of Commercial Affairs was transferred to Transportation, Telecommunications, and Commercial Affairs.

June 1976

The Biographic Register, which had last been published in 1974, became a classified publication. Publication of the Foreign Service List was also discontinued for security reasons.

The Office of Security established a Command Center and a Threat Analysis Group to better coordinate the protection of visiting foreign dignitaries.

June 1, 1976

In the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, the Offices of Brazilian Affairs and Argentine-Paraguayan-Uruguayan Affairs were combined into an Office of East Coast Affairs.

June 2, 1976

The separation of State and AID offices dealing with Latin American Affairs began. It was completed October 1, 1978.

June 18, 1976

The Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs changed the title of its Office of Atomic Energy and Aerospace to “Nuclear Policy and Operations.” The renamed office was in charge of administering U.S. policy under the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

June 23, 1976

A Directorate for International Women’s Programs was established in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs. Shirley Hendsch was its first Director.

June 30, 1976

The International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 748) made the Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs a Presidential appointee and changed the title to “Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs.” The Coordinator received rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State on November 30.

July 12, 1976

An Office for International Labor Organization Affairs was established in the Bureau of International Organization Affairs. Alison Palmer was its first Director.

August 1, 1976

The Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and Coordinator of the Office for Combatting Terrorism became an Office Director, with rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State.

August 16, 1976

The Bureau of Inter-American Affairs was reorganized into the Directorates of Regional Political Programs and Policy, Public and Congressional Affairs and six regional offices: Andean, Bolivia/Chile, East Coast, Cuban, Central American, and Mexican Affairs.

October 26, 1976

Secretary of State Kissinger dedicated the Dean Acheson Auditorium (formerly the West Auditorium) and the Loy Henderson Conference Room (formerly the International Conference Room) in the Main Department of State Building.

November 10, 1976

The Department of State urged all U.S. missions to try to curb the number and length of their telegrams. The next day, Deputy Under Secretary for Management Eagleburger urged a similar effort by Assistant Secretaries and chiefs of bureaus.

February 5, 1977

President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Order 11970, establishing a Presidential Advisory Board on Ambassadorial Appointments, which was intended to advise the President and the Secretary of State about the qualifications of non-career nominees.

February 11, 1977

Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance announced plans to establish a Human Rights Coordinating Group in the Department.

March 10, 1977

The Foreign Service Institute opened the “Consulate General Rosslyn” training facility.

March 15, 1977

Secretary of State Vance appointed an Executive Level Task Force on Affirmative Action.

March 23, 1977

Under Secretary of State for Coordinating Security Assistance Programs Lucy Wilson Benson was redesignated Under Secretary for Security Assistance.

March 25, 1977

Hodding Carter III entered on duty as Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs and concurrently as Spokesman of the Department. This merger of functions had been recommended by President Carter’s transition team. Ever since, most Assistant Secretaries for Public Affairs have also served as Spokesmen of the Department.

April 18, 1977

Secretary of State Vance issued a memorandum about “Policies Governing United States Delegations to International Conferences and Meetings.” Delegations should live simply and be 15% smaller in size. Members were to represent the United States, not organizations, and should “reflect the composition of American society.” The Office of International Conferences was to approve the accreditation of delegates and meetings in the United States.

June 20, 1977

The Secretary of State directed the Inspector General of the Foreign Service to perform the functions of the Inspector General of Foreign Assistance. The International Development and Food Assistance Act of August 3, 1977, (91 Stat. 541) formally authorized the transfer of functions, which was completed July 1, 1978.

June 28, 1977

In the case of Bradley v. Vance, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that a mandatory retirement age of 60 for Foreign Service Officers violated the equal protection guarantees of the Fifth Amendment. Civil Service employees were required to retire at age 70. The Department of State appealed on February 1, 1978, and later took it to the Supreme Court.

July 12, 1977

Secretary of State Vance authorized the establishment of a Family Liaison Office. The Office opened March 1, 1978.

August 1, 1977

After the retirement of Frances Knight, who had served as Director since 1955, the Passport Office was formally integrated into the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs.

August 17, 1977

The Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1978 (91 Stat. 847) increased the number of Assistant Secretaries from 11 to 13, making the Administrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs the Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs. It also made the Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs an Assistant Secretary of State.

Section 413 of the Act (91 Stat. 856) required the Department of State to give “equal consideration” to providing employment to spouses and family members serving overseas.

August 22, 1977

An administrative action changed the title of Under Secretary for Security Assistance to Under Secretary for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology.

October 11, 1977

President Carter sent a message to Congress announcing Reorganization Plan No. 2, combining the USIA and the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs into an Agency for International Communication. The Plan took effect April 1, 1978.

October 25, 1977

President Carter sent a letter to all U.S. Ambassadors that reaffirmed their authority over all U.S. Government activities in their countries. It also gave them authority over military attachés, security assistance personnel, and other military personnel not under command of a U.S. area military commander or assigned to an international organization. The letter also allowed Ambassadors to review message traffic to and from all official personnel.

October 27, 1977

The Department of State established the Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs by administrative action. The new Bureau comprised a Human Rights Office and an Office of Refugee and Migrations Affairs, each under a Deputy Assistant Secretary. A third Deputy Assistant Secretary dealt with POW/MIA matters.

November 18, 1977

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that the Department’s pre-1976 selection-out procedures may not have complied with the Foreign Service Act and may have denied the plaintiffs a hearing. The case of FSOs Peter W. Colm and John McIntyre, who had been selected-out in 1968 and 1970, was referred back to the U.S. District Court.

November 29, 1977

Secretary of State Vance accepted the report of the Executive Level Task Force on Affirmative Action, which called for substantial increases in hiring goals of women and minorities, more such appointments to executive level positions and selection boards, centralization of recruitment and hiring, and for making affirmative action considerations a factor in performance evaluations and promotions.

December 7, 1977

A Policy Management Staff replaced the Policy Planning and Reports Staff of the Bureau of International Organization Affairs.

December 23, 1977

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 737 gave the Director General of the Foreign Service the additional title of Director of Personnel.

January 3, 1978

The Department of State instituted a new Career Candidate program for junior FSOs. They would have provisional status for 48 months, after which they would be tenured as commissioned officers or else their limited FSR status would lapse.

February 1, 1978

The title of Inspector General of the Foreign Service was changed to Inspector General. The office of Inspector General for Foreign Assistance was abolished on July 1.

February 3, 1978

Publication of the first Country Report on Human Rights Practices.

February 6, 1978

The Department of State Bulletin changed its format and was published monthly rather than weekly.

February 13, 1978

The Office of Press Relations and Spokesman of the Department was transferred from the Office of the Secretary to the Bureau of Public Affairs, where it became the Office of Press Relations.

March 1, 1978

Establishment of the Family Liaison Office.

March 31, 1978

Reorganization Plan No. 2 (91 Stat. 1637) abolished the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and transferred its functions to the International Communications Agency. The ICA came into existence the next day.

May 8, 1978

The Office of the SALT Working Group was established in the Bureau of European Affairs to coordinate public information activities relating to negotiation of the SALT Agreement. This Office was disbanded October 3, 1980.

July 5, 1978

The Bureau of Public Affairs was reorganized into the Offices of Press Relations, Plans and Management, Public Programs, Public Communications, the Office of the Historian, and the Freedom of Information Staff.

August 1, 1978

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 759 established an Office of the Executive Director in the Bureau of Administration. It also placed the Deputy Under Secretary for Management in charge of overseeing the classification and declassification of Department of State records.

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 762 established an Office of the Executive Director and an Office of Systems Analysis in the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs.

September 6, 1978

A passport agency was established in Detroit, Michigan.

October 1, 1978

The administrative relationship between the Department of State and AID in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs that had been instituted in 1964 was discontinued. An Office of the Executive Director replaced the combined management staff for the two agencies. Other Offices included: The Assistant Secretary, Policy Planning, Public and Congressional Affairs, Andean Affairs, Caribbean Affairs, Cuban Affairs, Central American Affairs, East Coast Affairs, Mexican Affairs, Panamanian Affairs, Regional Economic Policy, Regional Political Programs, and the U.S. Permanent Representative to the OAS. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 768 announced the changes on October 24.

October 7, 1978

The Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1979 (92 Stat. 969) authorized an Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics Matters. The Assistant Secretary replaced a Senior Advisor to the Secretary, who had first been appointed in 1971.

The Act also (92 Stat. 968) authorized a permanent position of Under Secretary of State for Management.

November 16, 1978

An Office for Liaison with State and Local Governments in the Office of the Secretary was established. Former Ambassador W. Beverley Carter, Jr. held the position and held the rank of Ambassador at Large. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 774 announced the new position on November 24.

November 21, 1978

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 773 established the Classification/Declassification Center in the Bureau of Administration to handle requests for records under the Freedom of Information Act. It was headed by a new Deputy Assistant Secretary. The Classification Policy Council was abolished.

A passport agency was opened in Stamford, Connecticut.

December 1, 1978

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 775 established an Office of Employee Relations in the Bureau of Personnel, replacing the Employee Management Relations Staff and the Office of Employee Services. The Divisions of Executive and Professional Placement Services and Local Personnel, and the Benefits, Campaigns, and Awards Staff were eliminated.

December 14, 1978

A passport agency was established in Houston, Texas.

January 1, 1979

The United States established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China and terminated them with the Republic of China. In the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, the Office of Republic of China Affairs was replaced by a Taiwan Coordination Staff responsible for cooperation with an unofficial American Institute in Taiwan.

January 8, 1979

The Bureau of Consular Affairs was established. It included the Offices of Passport Services, Visa Services, and Overseas Citizen Services , each headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary. Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 778 had announced the change on January 5.

February 13, 1979

A Department Notice outlined a proposed restructuring of the Foreign Service personnel system. Foreign Service personnel limited to home service only would be converted to Civil Service status. An FS category would replace the existing FSRU, FSS, and FSR groups and a single FS pay scale would be introduced. A Senior Foreign Service (SFS) would be established for grades above FSO/RU/R-3 and FSS-1. The latter change mirrored the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, which established a Senior Executive Service (SES).

February 22, 1979

By a vote of eight to one, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the provision of the Foreign Service Act that required retirement at age 60. A U.S. District Court dismissed the case of Bradley v. Vance on April 4.

March 28, 1979

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 787 established the Bureau of International Narcotics Matters.

April 10, 1979

Reorganization Plan No. 2 (93 Stat. 1378) made the Agency for International Development part of the U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, which also included the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. Executive Order 12163 of September 29, 1979, implemented the Plan.

June 11, 1979

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 796 announced that, effective July 1, the Board of Appellate Review would be transferred from the Office of the Under Secretary for Management to the Office of the Legal Adviser.

June 14, 1979

Judge June L. Green of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia dismissed a lawsuit to force the release of post-1975 issues of the Biographic Register under the Freedom of Information Act. She concluded that disclosure of the information contained in the Register would assist terrorists in planning attacks on Foreign Service personnel.

June 22, 1979

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 799 divided the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs into four Offices, each headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary: Nuclear Energy and Energy Technology Affairs; Environment, Health and Natural Resources; Science and Technology; and Oceans and Fisheries Affairs.

July 13, 1979

Fifty-eight high-ranking Civil Service personnel in the Department joined the Senior Executive Service (SES). An Executive Resources Board was later established to determine staffing, evaluation, retention, and removal of SES personnel.

July 30, 1979

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 804 established the position of Coordinator for Refugee Affairs. On July 31, Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 805 established the Office of Refugee Programs as part of a reorganization of all U.S. overseas refugee assistance programs.

September 25, 1979

Reorganization Plan No. 3 gave the U.S. Trade Representative primary responsibility for coordination U.S. international trade policy. The Department of Commerce assumed responsibility for major non-agricultural international trade functions previously handled by the Departments of Commerce and State. Foreign Service personnel transferred to the Commerce Department became the Foreign Commercial Service (FCS) on January 2, 1980. The FCS began operations on April 1, 1980.

September 26, 1979

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 810 established the Office of the Comptroller to oversee budget and financial matters, replacing a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Budget and Finance in the Bureau of Administration. Roger B. Feldman became Comptroller on October 1, and had rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary.

October 17, 1979

Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 816 transferred the Office for Combatting Terrorism from the Office of the Under Secretary for Management to the Office of the Deputy Secretary.

November 15, 1979

A reorganization of the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs established a new Deputy Assistant Secretary’s position to cover relations with domestic constituencies. The Office of Policy Planning, Public and Congressional Affairs was replaced by an Office of Policy Planning and Coordination and an Office of Congressional, Human Rights and Public Affairs. The Office of East Coast Affairs was replaced by the Offices of Brazilian Affairs and Southern Cone Affairs. The changes were announced January 25, 1980, in Foreign Affairs Manual Circular 3 (FAMCs were re-numbered consecutively in January 1980).