International Cooperation in Space, 1969-1972


228. Memorandum From Secretary Rogers to President Nixon

As requested, Rogers sent the President a staff study entitled, “New Initiatives in Space Cooperation.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1967-69, SP 1-1. Limited Official Use. No drafting information information appears on the memorandum. Cleared in draft by Hillenbrand, EA/J, and J/PM, and in information by DEPALMA. Copies were sent to DuBridge and Burns. Nixon’s February 21 request asked Rogers to review recommendations proposed by the President’s Task Force on Space, chaired by Dr. Charles H. Townes. (Ibid.)


229. Letter From the Acting Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Paine) to President Nixon

Paine provided a status report on NASA’s plans to increase international space cooperation in a post-Apollo program.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs, Foreign Cooperation. No classification marking. Also printed as Document I-14 in John M. Logsdon with Dwayne A. Day and Roger D. Launius (eds.), Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program, Vol. II, External Relations (Washington, D.C.: NASA History Office, 1996). On February 12 Paine sent the President a letter summarizing European space programs in conjunction with Nixon’s forthcoming trip to Europe and suggested positions the President might take during the trip on European and cooperative space activities, ibid., Document I-13.


230. National Security Study Memorandum 72

President Nixon specified the creation of an ad hoc group on international space cooperation with friendly countries and the Soviet Union.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-162, NSSM Files, NSSM 72. Confidential. Copies were sent to Laird and Flanigan.


231. Memorandum of Conversation

President Nixon specified the creation of an ad hoc group on international space cooperation with friendly countries and the Soviet Union.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files (H-Files), Box H-162, NSSM Files, NSSM 72. Confidential. The meeting took place in Kissinger's office. Copies were sent to Laird and Flanigan.


232. Memorandum From Robert M. Behr of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Behr provided Kissinger with a report on U.S. Government activities on multinational participation in future space flights and discussed the activities of the interagency group.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs. Sent for action. No classification marking. Attached but not published were Tabs A and B. On December 15 Kissinger wrote the following note on the first page: “Why can’t I get a coherent report for everything over a 5-year period. There was a Borman report earlier. State will just turn it into a negotiating exercise.”


233. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Paine)

Kissinger passed on a personal suggestion, received from an ambassador, that NASA should implement President Nixon’s “all-mankind” theme by including representatives of various races in the space program.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 249, Agency Files, NASA Vol. I. No classification marking.


234. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Kissinger summarized the highlights of NASA Administrator Paine’s European trip to promote international space cooperation in post-Apollo programs.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 249, Agency Files, NASA Vol. I. No classification marking. A notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it. Nixon wrote on the first page: “Good report.” Kissinger wrote: “Tell Paine in a note from me.” In a January 12, 1970, memorandum to Paine, Kissinger stated that the President had reviewed Paine’s letter of November 7 and “he endorses your approach and is pleased with results you have reported so far. (Ibid.) Attached but not published was Tab A. It is printed as Document I-15 in Exploring the Unknown, Vol. II, External Relations. For a report of Paine’s trip to Australia and Japan, see ibid., Document I-16.


235. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Kissinger summarized NASA Administrator Paine’s report on his trip to Canada and other developments in international space cooperation.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 249, and Agency Files, NASA Vol. I. Confidential. Sent for information. Nixon wrote on the end of the second page: “Particularly follow up on program we could announce soon for Germ, Japan, British, French astros to participate in ′75 or whatever is earliest feasible year. This is a must.” Attached but not published was Tab A.


236. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Kissinger offered a summary of the NSC Under Secretaries’ paper on international space cooperation with the Soviet Union.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1970. Confidential. Sent for action. Tabs A-D were attached but not published. Tab A is a draft of Document 238. Nixon initialed his approval of the draft NSDM.


237. National Security Decision Memorandum 70

President Nixon directed that cooperation with the Soviet Union in space should be pursued, but that a direct approach to Soviet Premier Kosygin should not be undertaken.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, NSC Institutional Files, (H-Files), Box H-217, NSDM Files, NSDM 70. Confidential. Copies were sent to Shultz and Flanigan.


238. National Security Decision Memorandum 72

President Nixon authorized the establishment of an ad hoc interagency group to create a program of exchange technical data between the United States and the international space community, with an initial concentration on Europe.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1970. Confidential. Copies were sent to David, Shultz, and Flanigan.


239. Letter From the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Paine) to the President of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union (Keldysh)

Paine suggested that Keldysh discuss common docking equipment for Soviet and U.S. spacecraft during Keldysh’s planned trip to Washington in 1971.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Subject Files, Box 392, Space Programs, 1970. No classification marking. Paine’s July 31 letter to Keldysh, is printed in Logsdon (ed.), Exploring the Unknown, Vol. II, External Relations, Document I- 44.


240. Memorandum From Robert M. Behr of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Behr reported on Chairman of the European Space Conference Lefevre’s meeting with Department of State officials to discuss European participation in the U.S. post-Apollo space program.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1970. Limited Official Use. Sent for information. Tab A was attached but not published.


241. Information Memorandum From the Director of the Bureau of International Scientific and Technological Affairs (Pollack) to Secretary of State Rogers

Pollack informed Rogers that President of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union Keldysh had invited U.S. specialists to visit Moscow to begin a dialogue on compatible docking equipment.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 1-1 US-USSR. Secret. Drafted by Webber. Cleared in draft by Burgess and Dubs. Copies were sent to J, EUR, and PM. Tabs A and B were attached but not published. Tab C is Document 237. On September 25 Low sent Keldysh a letter accepting an invitation to come to Moscow and suggesting topics for discussion (Text in telegram 158937 to Moscow, September 26; National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 1-1 US-USSR)


242. Letter From the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (Johnson) to Chairman of the European Space Conference (Lefevre)

In response to a request from Lefevre, Johnson spelled out the U.S. position on specific space-related questions, including the availability of U.S. launch services, decision-making, post-Apollo cooperation, and access to information and facilities.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US. No classification marking.


243. Memorandum From Robert M. Behr of the National Security Council Staff to the the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Behr explained that the United States could guarantee satellite launch services to the Europeans if European participation in the post-Apollo program was substantial, the launch was for peaceful purposes, and it was consistent with the terms of the Intelsat agreement.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1970. For Official Use Only. Sent for information. A copy was sent to Sonnenfeldt. Tab A is Document 240. Tab C is Document 242. Tab B was attached but not published.


244. Memorandum From Robert M. Behr of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Behr reported that a team of NASA experts was traveling to Moscow to discuss common docking possibilities. He suggested that the United States should keep scientific cooperation with the Soviet Union insulated from current political circumstances.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1970. Official Use Only. Sent for action. In Tab A, an attached October 22 memorandum to Flanigan, Kissinger stated: “While I, too, am sensitive to the character of our present relations with the Russians, I believe that international scientific cooperation is an area where we can operate effectively in furtherance of long-term objectives.” Attached but not published was Tab B, an October 7 memorandum from Flanigan to Kissinger. Tab C is Document 237. For Tab D, see Document 236.


245. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Kissinger reported on the positive results of the U.S.-Soviet technical meeting on compatible docking equipment.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 392, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1970. No classification marking. Sent for information. Attached but not published at Tab A was an October 25 letter from Low to Kissinger. Nixon placed an exclamation point next to the second paragraph.


246. Intelligence Note SAN-1 Prepared by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research

Intelligence note entitled, “European Space Conference Splits on Post-Apollo Cooperation.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US. Limited Official Use; No Foreign Dissem. Drafted by Herbert Spielman (INR/Science Affairs).


247. Memorandum From the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (Johnson) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Johnson argued that European participation in the post-Apollo program (if it were to happen) would reduce the U.S. budget requirements by $1 billion, generate U.S. cooperation in other scientific and technical projects, and strengthen NATO.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US. No classification marking. Drafted by Robert Packard.


248. Memorandum From Michael H. Guhin and Helmut G. Sonnenfeldt of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Guhin and Sonnenfeldt provided briefing materials for Kissinger in advance of a meeting with acting NASA Administrator Low, who had planned a trip to the Soviet Union.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 249, Agency Files, NASA Vol. II. Confidential. Sent for information. Kissinger met with Low from 3:20 to 4:05 p.m. on January 12. (Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Kissinger Papers, Box 438, Miscellany, 1968-1976, Record of Schedule) No other record of that conversation has been found. Tab A is Document 237. An account of the NASA mission to Moscow, October 26-28, 1970, is printed in, Logsdon (ed.), Exploring the Universe, Vol. II, External Relations, Document I-45.


249. Telegram 232 From the Embassy in Belgium to the Department of State

Embassy Brussels reported ESC Chairman Lefevre’s concerns about the European response to potential participation in the post-Apollo program as evidenced by their recent discussions in Brussels. Ambassador Eisenhower asked that background on these concerns be passed to Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Johnson on a confidential basis.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US. Confidential; Exdis.


250. Telegram 237 From the Embassy in Belgium to the Department of State

The Embassy transmitted the text of a letter from ESC Chairman Lefevre explaining the official European positions on participation in a post-Apollo space program.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US. Limited Official Use. Repeated to Rome, Bonn, Bern, Copenhagen, The Hague, London, Madrid, Oslo, Ottawa, Paris, Stockholm, Tokyo, Canberra, and the U.S. Mission Geneva.


251. Letter From the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (Johnson) to the President of Communications Satellite Corporation (Charyk)

Johnson responded to Charyk’s concerns about the provision of launch facilities for the Europeans.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US. Limited Official Use. Johnson sent this letter to Charyk under cover of a January 23 memorandum in which he stated: “I have used the language which you passed to my office yesterday, although I have made slight revisions in the wording in the interests of continuity. I think, however, that this language preserves the substance of your suggestion, with which I am in full accord.” Attached but not published was a copy of circular airgram CA-5237, October 9, 1970.


252. Memorandum From the Director, Bureau of International Scientific and Technological Affairs, (Pollack) to Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs (Hillenbrand)

Summary of the results of a meeting between officials from NASA and the Soviet Academy of Sciences.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 1-1 US-USSR. Confidential. Copies were sent to E, IO, P, H, J, EUR/SOV, EUR/SES, EUR, L/SCI, INR/DRF, S/PC, and E/TT. Attached but not published were Tabs A-C.


253. Telegram 19915 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Belgium

The telegram contains a copy of a letter from Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Johnson to ESC Chairman Lefevre asking the Europeans to prepare responses to specific U.S. questions about the Europeans proposed involvement in the post-Apollo program.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US. Immediate; Limited Official Use. Drafted by Baker and Webber on February 3; cleared by S, Intelsat, EUR, E, OTP, L, in substance by Behr and EUR/FBX, and in information by Frutkin; and approved by U. Alexis Johnson.


254. Memorandum From Robert M. Behr of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Behr informed Kissinger of an upcoming meeting with a European Space Conference delegation under ESC Chairman Lefevre and reviewed the contentious issues that would be raised during the discussions.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 393, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1971. Limited Official Use. Sent for information. Initialed by Haig.


255. Memorandum for the Record

A transcript of an NSC senior staff meeting that includes a discussion of the upcoming discussions on the post-Apollo program with the Europeans.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 1272, Saunders Chronology, NSC Operations Staff Meetings. Secret.


256. Memorandum From Robert M. Behr of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Behr informed Kissinger of the outcome of the talks with ESC Chairman Lefevre in Washington on cooperation in the post-Apollo program. Also included are a 12-page overview of the issues with policy discussion points and a 2-page summary of European reactions.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 393, Subject File, Space Programs, 1971. Limited Official Use. Sent for action. A copy was sent to Sonnenfeldt. An extensive report of the meeting with the Europeans is in telegram 30947 to Bern et. al., February 24. (Ibid., RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SP 10 US)


257. Memorandum From Robert M. Behr of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Behr pointed out to Kissinger the difficulties of carrying on political negotiations on European participation in a post-Apollo program of space cooperation when that program had been neither defined nor fully approved within the U.S. Government.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 393, Subject Files, Space Programs, 1971. Limited Official Use. Sent for action. Kissinger wrote the following note on the first page: “OK-Put on agenda with David. Should see him soon.” The note was dated March 18. Attached at Tab A but not published was a copy of telegram 774 from Brussels, March 6.