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Chapter 5. International Environmental Policy


287. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon

Kissinger reported on progress at the North Atlantic Council of NATO on establishing a Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society to deal with environmental issues.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Agency Files, Box 256, NATO, Vol. V. Confidential. Sent for information. Nixon proposed the committee in an April 10 speech to the North Atlantic Council. The full text of the address is in Public Papers: Nixon, 1969, pp. 272-276. Attached but not published was Richardson’s May 19 memorandum.


288. Letter From the Acting Secretary of the Interior (Train) to Under Secretary of State (Richardson)

Train expressed his concern that the Department of State was not enthusiastic about the UN Conference on the Human Environment. The American concern over the conference budget, he predicted, would have a negative effect on world opinion. He suggested that U.S. leadership adopt a “positive attitude” toward the Conference.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 61-3. No classification marking.


289. Letter From Under Secretary Richardson to Under Secretary of the Interior (Train)

Richardson assured Train that the Department of State was giving the UN Conference on the Human Environment, slated for Stockholm, Sweden, its fullest support.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 61-3. No classification marking. Drafted by Guy Ferri (IO/OES), cleared by Thomas Kellermann (SCI), and redrafted by Melvin Levitsky on December 8.


290. Telegram 16911 From the Department of State to the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The telegram reviewed the progress of the CCMS proposal within NATO.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 3 NATO. Limited Official Use; Priority. Drafted by Alan D. Berlind (EUR/RPM) on December 3; cleared with SCI, EUR/RPM, and the White House; and approved by Springsteen.


291. Telegram 27061 From the Department of State to the Mission to North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Mission to the United Nations European Office, and to UNESCO

The Department of State outlined a rationale for a new U.S. initiative in East-West cooperation in environmental matters.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41-3 NATO. Confidential. Repeated to all NATO capitals, all Eastern European capitals, Bern, Helsinki, Madrid, Stockholm, Tokyo, Vienna, Dublin, Belgrade, Strasbourg, Moscow, and USUN. Drafted by Arva C. Floyd and Edward J. Streator (EUR/RPM) on February 9; cleared with EUR, SCI, IO, BMI, EE and the White House; and approved by Richardson.


292. Telegram 37255 From the Department of State to the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Under Secretary of State Richardson reassured NATO Ambassador Ellsworth that the Department of State was not detracting from environmental efforts launched through CCMS.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41-3 NATO. Confidential. Repeated to all NATO capitals, OECD Paris, the U.S. Mission to Geneva, and USUN. Drafted by Floyd and Streator; cleared in EUR, SCI, IO, and the White House; and approved by Richardson. In telegram 794 from NATO, March 4, Ellsworth agreed that the concept of more vigorous U.S. leadership in environmental matters through the ECE was sound, but disagreed that the main focus should shift to the OECD. (Ibid.)


293. Memorandum From the Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for Environmental Affairs (Herter) to Secretary of State Rogers

Herter briefed Rogers on the first meeting of the Standing Committee within the Cabinet Committee on the Environment.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41. No classification marking Sent through Pollack (SCI) and Eliot. Drafted by William C. Salmon (SCI/EN) on March 5. Tabs A-C were attached but not published.


294. Memorandum From Secretary Rogers to President Nixon

Rogers reported that at the first meeting of the International Standing Committee on the Environment he had set 1972 as a target date for tangible results in international environmental cooperation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, President’s Evening Reading: Lot 74 D 164. Secret. Richardson signed for Rogers


295. Telegram 48681 From the Department of State to the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The Department emphasized the importance of the Economic Commission for Europe’s Prague Conference on the Environment as a forum for East-West cooperation and as a means for orienting the ECE toward tangible action. It believed that this emphasis should not detract from the work of the CCMS.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 NATO. Confidential; Priority. Repeated to the Mission to Geneva. Drafted by Floyd and Smith (IO) on March 28; cleared in EUR, SCI, IO, and the White House; and approved by Springsteen.


296. Research Study REUS-7 Prepared by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research

Study entitled: “NATO: Support for Committee on Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) Growing.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 NATO. Secret; No Foreign Dissem; Controlled Dissem. Drafted by F. Herbert Capps (INR/REU/BINC) and cleared by Martin Packman (INR/REU).


297. Telegram 1370 From the Mission to North Atlantic Treaty Organization to the Department of State

The Mission transmitted the text of Counsellor to the President Moynihan’s remarks delivered at the opening of the second meeting of the CCMS.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 NATO. Unclassified; Priority. Repeated to USIA and all NATO capitals


298. Letter From the Acting Deputy Director of the Office of Environmental Affairs (Salmon) to the Secretary to the Council on Environmental Quality (Gibbons)

The letter transmitted a document entitled, “Significant Activities of the Department of State in the Environmental Field.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41. No classification marking.


299. Memorandum From Acting Secretary of State Johnson to President Nixon

Johnson asked the President to provide guidance for U.S. policy toward the major international organizations dealing with the environment.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41. Unclassified. Drafted by Herter. A notation on the first page indicated that the President approved the statement


300. Research Study SAS-1, Prepared by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research

The study, entitled: “Major International Conference on the Environment, 1971-1972,” was prepared as a supporting paper for a report on “U.S. Priority Interest in the Environmental Activities of International Organizations.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41. Limited Official Use. Drafted by Howard M. Wiedemann, (IND/DFR).


301. Telegram 171300 From the Department of State to All Embassies in Europe, the Mission to the United Nations, the Mission to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Mission to Economic Commission for Europe, and the Mission to North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The telegram was also sent to the Mission to the United Nations, the Mission to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Mission to Economic Commission for Europe, and the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Department provided guidelines for President Nixon’s decisions on U.S. policy toward the major international organizations dealing with the environment.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 UN. Unclassified. Drafted by Herter on October 14; cleared by Pollack, Herz, Hillenbrand, Treize, and in substance with Train and Moynihan; and approved by Acting Secretary of State Irwin.


302. Letter From the Representative to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (Greenwald) to the Deputy Director, Office of Atlantic Political-Economic Affairs (Phillips)

Greenwald discussed the Department of State’s broad strategy in directing the OECD’s environmental work.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 OECD. Limited Official Use; Official-Informal. A notation on the letter indicates Greenwald signed the original


303. Report by Task Force III of the Committee on International Environmental Affairs

The report is entitled: “U.S. Priority Interests in the Environmental Activities of International Organizations.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41. No classification marking.


304. Telegram 4070 From the Mission to the Economic Commission for Europe to the Department of State

The Mission reported that at the meeting of the ECE senior environmental advisers, Soviet senior advisers tried to play down the importance of international environmental action.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 ECE. Confidential. Repeated to OECD, USUN, USNATO, Bonn, London, Moscow, Paris, Prague, and Stockholm.


305. Memorandum From the Deputy Assistant to the President (Whitaker) to Secretary of State Rogers

Rogers was authorized to continue the International Standing Committee on the Environment even though its parent Cabinet Committee had been abolished.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41. No classification marking. A copy was sent to Train.


306. Letter From the Scientific Attache (Hudson) at the Embassy in Brazil to the Director of the Office of Environmental Affairs (Herter)

Hudson informed Herter that underdeveloped countries may feel that concern about the environment is a “rich man’s game” and that this may inhibit the work of the Stockholm conference.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 BRAZ. Limited Official Use; Official-Informal. Copies were sent to the ambassador, deputy chief of mission, and public affairs officer at the U.S. Embassy.


307. Research Study From the Bureau of Intelligence and Research

ECE/GDR: The Prague Environmental Symposium A Shortlived Compromise.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73. SCI 41 ECE. Confidential.


308. Report of the US Group of Experts on the Economic Commission for Europe’s Symposium on Problems Relating to Environment

The report summarized the results of the symposium held in Prague, Czechoslovakia. The symposium was downgraded from “conference” status because of the problem of East German representation.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 ECE. No classification marking. Drafted by Patrick Mulloy on July 12.


309. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of the Department of State (Eliot) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Under a covering memorandum, Eliot transmitted scenarios in which the U.S. would support an invitation to the People’s Republic of China to attend the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41-3 UN. Secret. Drafted by Barbara J. Schrage (IO/UNP) on August 1 and cleared in IO, EA, EUR, L, C, and SCI.


310. Intelligence Note RSGN-16 Prepared by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research

Research study entitled: “UN: Soviets Pushing GDR Participation in Stockholm Environment Conference.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41-3 UN. Secret. Drafted by John J. Donovan and cleared by Frank H. Perez (both of INR/RSG.)


311. Memorandum From Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (Train) to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Train discussed the possibility of environmental cooperation with the People’s Republic of China.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Agency Files, Box 217, CEQ I. No classification marking. A copy was sent to Ehrlichman.


312. Memorandum From Secretary Rogers to President Nixon

Rogers recommended that the President propose the establishment of a United Nations Fund on the Environment, asserting that it, and substantial financial support, would serve as the keystone of U.S. participation in the Stockholm Conference.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41 UN. A notation on the memorandum reads: “Message sent to Congress 2/8/72.” The message is printed in Public Papers: Nixon, 1972, pp. 173-189. Annexes 1-6 were attached but not published.


313. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (Train)

Kissinger thanked Train for his suggestions on possible environmental cooperation with China and promised to “keep them in mind,” but agreed that there was little evidence that the Chinese were interested in environmental cooperation.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Agency Files, Box 217, CEQ I. No classification marking. Haig signed for Kissinger.


314. Research Study RSGS-1 Prepared by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research

The study was entitled, “UN: Soviets Increase Pressure for GDR Participation in Stockholm Conference.”

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41-3 UN. Confidential. Drafted by Donovan and cleared by Perez.


315. Memorandum From the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (Train) to President Nixon

Kissinger and Train recommended that the President agree to Secretary of State Rogers’ recommendation to create a voluntary UN Fund on the Environment in part because it would give the Stockholm Conference the chance to produce a substantive international program.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Agency Files, Box 217, CQE I. Confidential. Sent for action. A notation on the memorandum indicates the President saw it. The initials “RN” are next to the option of recommendation 2 that the “US should offer $40 million on a 40/60 matching basis.” There is no indication that the President approved the other recommendations.


316. Memorandum From the Executive Secretary of State (Eliot) to the President’s’ Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger)

Eliot described the Department’s position on an anti-nuclear clause submitted by the Japanese and inserted into the draft declaration on the environment prepared for the Stockholm Conference.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SCI 41-3 UN. Confidential. Drafted by John Trevithick (IO/SCT) on February 28, and cleared by IO, SCI, ACDA, and PM. Carson signed for Eliot. The IWG Report, DOD Memorandum, and State Memorandum were attached but not published.