United States general policy with respect to Latin America1
1. For previous documentation, see Foreign Relations, 1952–1954, vol. iv, pp. 1 ff.
2. Memorandum of Discussion at the 237th Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, February 17, 1955
Source: Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records. Top Secret. Items 1–6 of this memorandum were prepared by Bromley Smith, Senior Member, NSC Special Staff; item 7 was prepared by J. Patrick Coyne, NSC Representative on Internal Security, on February 18.
4. National Security Council Progress Report
Source: Department of State, S/P–NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1, NSC 5432 Series. Top Secret. A title sheet and a transmittal memorandum from Staats to Lay, August 24, are not printed. This progress report, the second on NSC 5432/1, was drafted by the Working Group on Latin America under date of July 19 and reviewed at a Board Assistants meeting on July 29. As a result of the meeting, the Board prepared a revised version on August 3. Thereafter, the Department of State recommended to the OCB Secretariat additional revisions, and these were incorporated into the report. The changes requested by the Department were described in a memorandum from Holland to Hoover, dated August 5. (Ibid., S/S–OCB Files: Lot 62 D 430, Latin America—1955) The new version, dated August 10, was submitted to the OCB for discussion on that date. The OCB approved the report with a few minor revisions, and concurred in its transmission to the NSC.
5. Memorandum of Discussion at the 258th Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, September 8, 1955
Source: Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records. Top Secret. Prepared by Gleason on September 15.
6. National Intelligence Estimate
Source: Department of State, INR–NIE Files. Secret. A cover sheet and table of contents are not printed. National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) were high-level interdepartmental reports presenting authoritative appraisals of vital foreign policy matters. NIEs were drafted by officers from those agencies represented on the Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC), discussed and revised, if necessary, by the interdepartmental working groups coordinated by the Office of National Estimates of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), approved by the IAC, and circulated under the aegis of the CIA to the President, appropriate officers of cabinet rank, and the NSC. The Department of State provided all political and some economic sections of the NIEs.
NIE 80/90–55 superseded NIE 70, “Conditions and Trends in Latin America Affecting U.S. Security”, December 12, 1952. According to a note on the cover sheet, the CIA and the intelligence organizations of the Departments of State, the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Joint Staff participated in the preparation of this estimate. The IAC concurred on December 6. The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) representative to the IAC and the Assistant Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), abstained on the ground that the subject was outside their jurisdiction.
8. National Security Council Progress Report
Source: Department of State, S/P–NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1, NSC 5432 Series. Top Secret. A covering title sheet and a transmittal memorandum from OCB Acting Executive Officer Roy M. Melbourne, dated April 6, are not printed. This progress report, the third on NSC 5432/1, was drafted by the Working Group on Latin America on February 24, and reviewed at the Board Assistants meeting on March 9. At the meeting, the Board Assistants recommended changes, in part to resolve questions arising from certain deletions and additions proposed by the Treasury Department representative in the Working Group. Subsequently, a new draft was prepared under date of March 13. The differences between the two drafts are described in a paper attached to a memorandum from Staats to the Board Assistants, dated March 13. (Ibid., OCB Files: Lot 62 D 430, Latin America—1956) The Board Assistants discussed the March 13 draft on March 16 and recommended additional revisions, which were incorporated into a new draft under date of March 20. They finally concurred in the submission of this version of the report to the OCB.
In a memorandum of March 21 to Hoover, cleared with Kalijarvi, summarizing the contents of the draft progress report, Lyon noted that Treasury wanted to add a recommendation to the report requesting NSC review of the policies contained in NSC 5432/1 on the grounds that some Latin American countries tended to expend resources on military equipment which could be better devoted to economic development. He also stated: “The Treasury has the support of E in this desire. It is the opinion of the Working Group and of ARA that such a review of policy would be premature at this time. Efforts are currently under way within the Department to develop a program within existing policy which would tend to limit unnecessary expenditures for military equipment by Latin American countries.” Lyon recommended that Hoover move OCB approval of the progress report without the addition of a recommendation as proposed by Treasury; the Bureau of Economic Affairs recommended that he move approval with such a recommendation. (Ibid.) The OCB discussed the draft progress report on March 28, and on that date concurred in its transmission to the NSC on April 6.
10. Outline Plan Prepared for the Operations Coordinating Board
Source: Department of State, OCB Files: Lot 62 D 430, Latin America—1956. Top Secret. A covering title sheet; a statement concerning the purpose and use of the Outline Plan, dated April 18; and an action memorandum by the OCB Secretariat Staff, dated April 25, are not printed. This Outline Plan had its origins in early 1955 in Assistant Secretary Holland’s “concern at the apparent failure of Latin American Governments to appreciate the seriousness of the threat posed by international communism and their resultant failure to take effective measures to control communist activities.” (Memorandum from Lyon to Hoover, December 2, 1955; ibid., Latin America—1955) A paper on the subject, apparently drafted in the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs and circulated within the Bureau for comment during the summer of 1955, was thereafter submitted to the OCB Working Group on Latin America. (Memorandum from John T. Fishburn of the Office of Regional American Affairs to Robert M. Sayre of the Office, August 8, 1955; ibid., Central Files, 611.20/8–555) The Working Group prepared a draft outline plan entitled “Outline Plan of Operations Against Communist Activities in Latin America”. dated November 29, and submitted it to the OCB for preliminary consideration prior to its transmission to U.S. Embassies in Latin America for comment. At its meeting on December 15, the OCB suggested certain revisions, and authorized its transmission to the field. The Department transmitted the draft plan, under cover of instruction CA–4731, dated December 21, 1955.
In March 1956, the USIA notified the OCB of its urgent need for the Outline Plan, and the OCB agreed to expedite its completion. Consequently, the Working Group met on March 28, 29, and 30, before all replies had been received from the field, and produced a revised version dated April 5. The Board Assistants reviewed this version at a meeting on April 13, made additional changes, and concurred in its submission to the OCB under date of April 13. At its meeting on April 18, the OCB concurred in the Outline Plan, after suggesting a few more changes, including a new title, and authorized its transmission to the field under date of April 18. The Department sent copies of the Outline Plan to all Chiefs of Mission in Latin America at various dates during May and June 1956, under cover of similar letters signed by Hoover, requesting that they personally supervise its implementation. Copies of the letters are ibid., Central File 611.20.
11. Memorandum of Discussion at the 283d Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, May 3, 1956
Source: Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records. Top Secret. Prepared by Gleason on May 4.
12. National Security Council Draft Report
Source: Department of State, S/P–NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1, NSC 5613 Series. Secret. A covering title sheet and a transmittal memorandum from Lay to the NSC, August 20, are not printed. The memorandum states, inter alia, that a financial appendix would be circulated at a later date, that comments concerning paragraphs 16–e and 20–28 by the CFEP were being requested prior to Council consideration of NSC 5613, and that NSC 5613, if approved, was intended to supersede NSC 5432/1. On August 27, Lay transmitted the Financial Appendix to all holders of NSC 5613, together with revised pages to correct the spelling of the word “contributing” in paragraph 14, line 6, and the placing of brackets in paragraph 34–a. (Memorandum from Lay, August 27; ibid., S/S–NSC Files: Lot 63 D 351, NSC 5613—Memoranda) NSC 5613 was initially scheduled for Council discussion on August 30, but was thereafter rescheduled to September 6.
13. Memorandum of Discussion at the 296th Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, September 6, 1956
Source: Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records. Top Secret. Prepared by Gleason on September 7.
14. Memorandum From the Acting Executive Secretary of the National Security Council (Gleason) to the National Security Council
Source: Department of State, S/S–NSC Files: Lot 63 D 351, NSC 5613—Memoranda. Secret.
15. Memorandum of Discussion at the 297th Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington, September 20, 1956
Source: Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records. Top Secret. Prepared by Gleason.
16. National Security Council Report
Source: Department of State, S/P–NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1, NSC 5613 Series. Secret. A covering title sheet, a transmittal note by Lay, dated September 25, and a table of contents are not printed. NSC 5613/1 was approved by President Eisenhower on September 25, thereby superseding NSC 5432/1, and transmitted to all American missions in Latin America in Department instruction CA–3421, dated October 19. (Ibid., Central Files, 611.20/10–1956)
18. Outline Plan of Operations for Latin America Prepared for the Operations Coordinating Board
Source: Department of State, OCB Files: Lot 62 D 430, Latin America, January–May 1957. Secret. A covering title sheet, an undated action memorandum from OCB Executive Assistant Charles E. Johnson, and a statement of purpose and use of this Outline Plan are not printed.
19. National Security Council Progress Report
Source: Department of State, S/P–NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1, NSC 5613 Series. Secret. A covering title sheet and an undated transmittal memorandum from OCB Acting Executive Officer Roy M. Melbourne to Lay are not printed. The OCB Working Group on Latin America initiated preparation of this progress report, the first on NSC 5613/1, during the summer of 1957, and forwarded a draft to the Board Assistants under date of July 24. At its meeting on August 23, the Board Assistants reviewed and revised this draft, noting alternative positions concerning an estimate of country military force levels, and also ICA’s problem in programming assistance for Latin America in light of an apparent inconsistency in paragraphs 31–33 of the policy paper. The July 24 draft was referred back to the Working Group, which prepared a new draft dated August 27. The Board Assistants considered this new draft on September 6, and after proposing a few additional changes, concurred in its submission to the OCB. On September 11, the OCB agreed to incorporate a new paragraph 8b(2) in Section B, Major Operating Problems portion of the report, and concurred in its transmission to the NSC. The NSC noted the Progress Report at its 338th meeting on October 2. (Memorandum of discussion at the 338th NSC meeting, October 3, 1957; Eisenhower Library, Whitman File, NSC Records)