396.1 GE/6–1454: Telegram

The United States Delegation to the Department of State


Secto 436. Sent Ottawa 5, Paris 429. Addis Ababa 2, Bogota 2, Athens 11, The Hague 20, Wellington 8, Manila 11, Ankara 3, repeated information Canberra 12, Brussels 12, Bangkok 24, London 278, Tokyo 132, Luxembourg 6, Seoul 26. Department pass Defense. Tokyo for CINCUNC. Reference Secto 435,1 repeated information Tokyo, and sent action all other addressees.

Following is draft of declaration by 16 resulting from 3-hour meeting drafting committee this afternoon. It does not fully meet every point of view, but in our best judgment should be satisfactory to all [Page 373] points of view. In view of press leaks on 16 meeting this morning disclosing this project, believe it essential that full agreement on text be reached at meeting 16 Tuesday 11 a.m. so that it may be subscribed to by all and issued immediately following Korean plenary same afternoon.

Word “appropriate” first sentence, second principle, is still under discussion and will require resolution at meeting 16 Tuesday. ROK insist on deletion “appropriate” and Commonwealth delegations wish delete “UN” in supervision of elections but will probably agree on following text if “appropriate” included. USDel agreeable to either formulation but in order maintain maximum allied unity, believe preferable “appropriate” be included. Request action addressees determine soonest whether instructions Del here sufficient to permit immediate agreement on this text and if not see Foreign Minister or other appropriate official urging that necessary instructions be transmitted in time permit maintenance foregoing schedule and thus permit termination conference under conditions most advantageous UN side.

Text follows:

“Pursuant to the resolution of August 28, 1953, of the United Nations General Assembly, and the Berlin communiqué of February 18, 1954, we, as nations who contributed military forces to the United Nations Command in Korea, have been participating in the Geneva Conference for the purpose of establishing a united and independent Korea by peaceful means.

We have made a number of proposals and suggestions in accord with the past efforts of the United Nations to bring about the unification, independence and freedom of Korea; and within the framework of the following two principles which we believe to be fundamental:

The United Nations, under its Charter, is fully and rightfully empowered to take collective action to repel aggression, to restore peace and security, and to extend its good offices to seeking a peaceful settlement in Korea.
In order to establish a unified, independent and democratic Korea, genuinely free elections should be held under (appropriate) UN supervision, for representatives in the national assembly, in which representation shall be in direct proportion to the indigenous population in Korea.

We have earnestly and patiently searched for a basis of agreement which would enable us to proceed with Korean unification in accordance with these fundamental principles. We have failed.

The Communist delegations have rejected our every effort to obtain agreement. The principal issues between us, therefore, are clear. Firstly, we accept and assert the authority of the United Nations. The Communists repudiate and reject the authority and competence of the United Nations in Korea and have labelled the United Nations itself as the tool of aggression. Were we to accept this position of the Communists, it would mean the death of the principle of collective security [Page 374] and of the UN itself. Secondly, we desire genuinely free elections. The Communists insist upon procedures which would make genuinely free elections impossible. It is clear that the Communists will not accept impartial and effective supervision of free elections. Plainly, they have shown their intention to maintain Communist control over North Korea. They have persisted in the same attitudes which have frustrated United Nations efforts to unify Korea since 1947.

We believe, therefore, that it is better to face the fact of our disagreement and not to raise false hopes and mislead the peoples of the world into believing that there is agreement where there is none.

In the circumstances, we have been compelled reluctantly and regretfully to conclude that so long as the Communist delegations reject the two fundamental principles which we consider indispensable, further consideration and examination of the Korean question by the conference would serve no useful purpose. We reaffirm our continued support for the objectives of the United Nations in Korea.

In accordance with the resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations of August 28, 1953, the member states parties to this declaration will inform the United Nations concerning the proceedings at this conference.”