875.01/1–945: Airgram

Mr. Alexander C. Kirk, United States Political Adviser to the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater, to the Secretary of State

A–5. Reference my telegram No. 81, January 9, 2 p.m.8

From the Newspaper Bashkimi, Central Organ of the Albanian National Liberation Front. Issue of 4 January 1945

The Albanian Government Seeks Recognition by Its Great Allies.

The note of our Government to the Governments of the Great Allies, England, the Soviet Union and America. The Albanian Government has sent to the Great Allies, England, the Soviet Union and America through their respective leaders the following note:9

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Mr. Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain;

Mr. President of the Commissars of the People of U.S.S.R. and Marshal of the Soviet Union, Stalin;

Mr. Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States of America;

In the name of the Democratic Government of Albania I have the honor of presenting to you the following.

On April 7, 1939 when the troops of Mussolini10 landed in Albania11 the Albanians resisted with arms, thus demonstrating to the whole world that they did not approve of the occupation of their country by the foreigner. In a short while [they?] were organized in open warfare against the Fascist occupier.

In September 1942 all of the outstanding fighters of our people met in conference at Peza, where without regard for differences of religion, locality or ideas they united under the leadership of the Central National Liberation Council for severe and unrelenting war against the occupier and the traitors. Here the Albanian People revealed their unshaken faith in the victory of the Great Allies, England, the Soviet Union and America. They expressed their firm confidence in the victory of the freedom-loving peoples of the world.

The significant declarations of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Great Britain, the United States of America and of the Soviet Union in December 194212 were a great moral and political assurance for our People’s War. These were a guide for our war of liberation and a promise of security of our freedom and independence once these had been won through war and struggle.

The gigantic war of the Great Allies, for the Albanian people was a guarantee of victory and it was this which paved the way for us by giving examples of the war against the Fascist aggressor and the Quislings.

By having faith and confidence in the great cause of the Anti-Fascist Bloc, and by having faith and conviction in the sacred cause of the National Liberation Movement, the Albanian people, our people continued the war unceasingly side by side with the Great Allies and with other freedom-loving peoples.

In this war our people united, were strengthened and organized as never before.

In the war for freedom and democracy, the Albanian people organized an Anti-Fascist National Army which was born and reared with the ideal of democracy and brotherhood-in-arms with the Great Allies as well as with the neighboring peoples who are fighting against the common enemy.

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In the war for freedom and democracy, in the war against the aggressor and the traitors of the country, the Albanian people attained National unity.

The Convention of Permeti14 and that at Berat15 were the crossing events of this struggle and of the five year war. These gave to Albania a new authority, a Democratic Government, a government that is an authentic expression of the will of the Albanian people; a government which includes in its ranks the most capable persons proven in the Anti-Fascist National Liberation war. The Democratic Government of Albania has the confidence of all the Albanian people united in the National Liberation Front and in the National Liberation Army.

Today with Albania liberated the Democratic Government of Albania is the only government which represents Albania both internally and externally. There is none either inside Albania or outside contesting the fact of our government. The authority of our government extends today to all provinces of the country and over all of the Albanian people.

The Democratic Government of Albania has announced publicly its democratic principles. It has announced also that it is the only one that protects and guarantees personal rights and the rights of citizenship. Our Government has announced publicly its adherence to the great Anglo-Soviet-American Alliance.

Our Army not only liberated our country, but it has fought against the German Armies in behalf of the great alliance in the territories of Yugoslavia.

The Democratic Government of Albania, which is the authentic expression of the will of the Albanian Nation and People wishes to continue to strengthen the great alliance of the Anti-Fascist Bloc and the friendly ties which unite the Albanian people to your great peoples.

As today for the definite victory over Fascism and the problems of reconstruction, tomorrow also for securing democracy and peace in the World our government will stand faithful in all sincerity to the cause of democracy and independence of the people; faithful to the spirit of the Atlantic Charter16 and to the Conference of Moscow17 and of Teheran.18

In order to retain, consolidate and strengthen the ties of friendship that have been born in the common war against Fascism and in order to strengthen cooperation between Albania and the Great Allies, I [Page 5]have the honor to express to you the will of the Albanian people and their desire that the Democratic Government of Albania be recognized in the first line (without reservations??)19 by the great Anglo-Soviet-American Allies and that diplomatic transactions be established between your governments and our government.

Accept, Mr. President, my most sincere greetings,

Enver Hoxha20

[
Kirk
]
  1. Not printed; it reported publication on January 4, 1945, in the Tirana newspaper Bashkimi of the text of a note to the British, Soviet and American Governments requesting recognition of present Albanian Government; the actual document itself had not yet been delivered, but a translation of the newspaper article was being sent by airgram (875.01/1–945).
  2. Telegram 237, January 20, midnight, from Caserta (875.01/1–2045), reported that the Albanian representative in Italy, Kadri Hoxha, had presented to Mr. Kirk a note addressed to President Roosevelt requesting formal recognition of the Albanian regime; the text was reported to be as set forth in this airgram. The original note, in French, dated December 21, 1944, numbered 11/D, was transmitted to the Department in despatch 1019, January 22, 1945, from Caserta (875.01/1–2245).
  3. Benito Mussolini, Italian Prime Minister and Head of Government, 1922 to July 25, 1943.
  4. For documentation regarding the absorption of Albania by Italy in 1939, see Foreign Relations, 1939, vol. ii, pp. 365 ff.
  5. For text of the statement by Anthony Eden, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, on December 17, 1942, see Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 5th series, vol. 385, cols. 2114–2115. For text of the statement by Secretary of State Cordell Hull on continued resistance of Albania to Italian occupation, released to the press on December 10, 1942, see Department of State Bulletin, December 12, 1942, p. 998. For text of the statement by the Soviet Commissariat of Foreign Affairs regarding the independence of Albania, dated December 18, 1942, see Izvestia, December 18, 1942, and Vneshnyaya Politika Sovetskogo Soyuza v period otechestvennoi voyny, torn I, p. 287.
  6. May 24, 1944, often identified as Përmet. At this convention the Albanian National Liberation forces created the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council, a supreme legislative and executive organ, and the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee with the attributes of a provisional government.
  7. October 22, 1944. At this convention the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee was changed to the Democratic Government of Albania. Enver Hoxha was named Premier.
  8. Joint statement by President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill, August 14, 1941, Foreign Relations, 1941, vol. i, p. 367.
  9. Apparent reference to the Tripartite Conference of Foreign Ministers in Moscow, October 18–November 1, 1943. For documentation on this conference, see ibid., 1943, vol. i, pp. 513 ff.
  10. For documentation on the conference between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Premier Stalin with their advisers at Tehran, November 27–December 2, 1943, see Foreign Relations, The Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943.
  11. In the original French version of this note (see footnote 9, p. 2), this phrase read as follows: “… la volonté du peuple Albanais à ce que son gouvernement soit reconnu en premier lieu de la part de nos Grands Alliés.…”
  12. The note sent to President Roosevelt was signed: “The President of the Council of Ministers of the Democratic Government of Albania, Colonel-General Enver Hoxha”.