J.C.S. Files

Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff1

C.C.S. 339

Directive for the Control Commission and AMG in Italy

1. It is necessary that General Eisenhower be furnished immediately with a Directive for his use in the event that the Conditions of Surrender are accomplished. The Directive should inform him:

Whom he shall designate as Military Governor for occupied Italy.
The Basic Organization of the Control Commission and its relationship with Allied Military Government and the Italian National Government, as General Eisenhower requested in his Naf 340.2

facts bearing on the problem

2. a. General Eisenhower, pursuant to the Directive furnished him for Husky , established Allied Military Government. He designated [Page 1270] General Alexander as Military Governor and empowered him to exercise the functions of Allied Military Government in Sicily. Recently General Eisenhower requested authority to extend the jurisdiction of Allied Military Government under General Alexander to areas of continental Italy captured in the near future. General Eisenhower was given such authority. General Eisenhower cabled that he did not intend that the authority given the Commanding General, 15th Army Group, would include supervision of the Italian National Government.

b. General Eisenhower, in his Naf 340, outlined his preliminary plans for handling the Control Commission, Allied Military Government in Italy, and the Italian Government. This planning has been done in the absence of any such Directive from the Combined Chiefs of Staff. A reply3 to Naf 340 has been sent to General Eisenhower, which confirms his present planning program, but which does not constitute an adequate Directive. The reply states that he will receive such a Directive in the near future.


3. a. Control Commission

The Control Commission referred to in this Paper is created by the authority contained in Paragraph 37 of the comprehensive surrender terms Document4 in General Eisenhower’s possession and is quoted herewith:

“37. There will be appointed a Control Commission representative of the United Nations, charged with regulating and executing this instrument under the orders and general directions of the Allied Commander in Chief.”

With reference to the term “United Nations” mentioned above, the Document states in the preamble that the United States and United Kingdom governments are acting on behalf of the United Nations. This explains the reason for establishing a Control Commission consisting of personnel furnished generally by the U.S. and U.K.

b. Jurisdictional Authority of AMG and the Control Commission The jurisdictional authority of the Control Commission, the Allied Military Government in Italy (AMG), and the Italian Government can be explained as follows:

The Control Commission is charged in the Instrument of Surrender with regulating and executing its provisions. Therefore, the Commission enforces the Surrender Conditions; it does not govern. The Commission operates under the orders and general directions of the Allied Commander in Chief. In the performance of its duties, the [Page 1271] Commission functions through existing governmental agencies, whether it is territory being governed by the Italian Government, or by AMG.
AMG is a governing body, and constitutes the sovereign authority in occupied Italy.
The Italian Government constitutes the sovereign authority in unoccupied Italy.
The Control Commission operates throughout Italy and makes use of both governments as its operators in order to assure compliance with the provisions of the Surrender Terms. The Control Commission is not an administrative governmental agency, and does not infringe upon the functions of the Italian Government or AMG.
The division of Italy into occupied and unoccupied areas is based on military considerations and not on economic self-sufficiency. Hence it is of the utmost importance that there be close coordination between the policies and operations of AMG, the Italian Government, and the Control Commission.


4. a. Conflicts in the operation of AMG and the Control Commission may well ensue in actual practice unless one individual is the head of both agencies. To insure complete cooperation and coordination between AMG and the Control Commission, and to insure that the same policies prevail in both occupied and unoccupied territories, it is proposed that General Eisenhower designate an American officer of high rank to serve both as Military Governor of Italy and Deputy President of the Control Commission.

b. The Enclosure is a proposed Directive to General Eisenhower.

c. We are informed that the British members of the Combined Civil Affairs Committee concur in the proposed Directive subject to comment from London.


5. That the Combined Chiefs of Staff approve the enclosed Directive and submit it to the President and the Prime Minister for their approval.


Draft Directive on Military Government in Italy

Directive to General Eisenhower From the Combined Chiefs of Staff

1. In the event that the terms of surrender are concluded, it is of the utmost importance that the Control Commission for Italy and AMG follow uniform policies and procedure in their dealings with the Italian Government and people. Their functions must be completely [Page 1272] coordinated under one supreme authority. To accomplish this, you will announce yourself as President of the Control Commission, and appoint a Deputy President who will also be the Military Governor of occupied Italy.

2. Allied Military Government. The Directives for AMG for Husky will serve as a basis for AMG in Italy. As circumstances require, you will acquaint the Italians and Italian Government with the areas over which AMG has extended or will extend its jurisdiction.

3. Control Commission.

Functions. To enforce and execute the Instrument of Surrender under your orders and general directives.
Organization. The Control Commission will be divided into three sections: (1) Military, (2) Political, (3) Economic and Administrative. Each Section will be in charge of a Vice-President, and will be divided into subcommissions to conform as nearly as practicable with the Organization of Italian Ministries.
The Military Section will be divided into the following sub-commissions: (1) Naval Forces, (2) Land Forces, (3) Air Forces, (4) Prisoners of War, (5) War Material Factories, and (6) Material Disposal.
The Economic and Administrative Section will be divided into the following subcommissions: (1) Interior, (2) Justice (Law, Order, Police, Prisons), (3) Finance, (4) Foreign Trade, (5) Industry and Commerce, (6) Public Works and Utilities, (7) Fuel, (8) Food, (9) Agriculture, (10) Public Health, (11) Labor, (12) Transportation, (13) Communications (Postal Telegraph, and Telephone, Radio).
The Political Section will be divided into the following sub-commissions: (1) Foreign and Internal Affairs, (2) Civilian Internees and Displaced Persons, (3) Information, Press, Censorship, and (4) Fine Arts and Archives.
Where the functions of the various Sections overlap, liaison and, if necessary, exchange of personnel, will be arranged between the subcommissions concerned.
A suitable Secretariat should be established.
You may assume that each Government will assume expenses of the personnel it furnishes, and that other expenses will be shared equally.

4. Personnel.

a. Allocation of posts between U.S. and U.K. The Commission will be organized generally on an Anglo-American basis, according to the most convenient alternation of posts and preserving the ratio in numbers of 50/50; at any rate, in the higher posts.

[Page 1273]

b. The allocation of the principal posts between U.S. and U.K. is as follows:

Deputy President of the Commission U.S.
Vice-President in charge of the Military Section U.S.
Deputy Vice-President in charge of the Military Section U.K.
Vice-President in charge of the Political Section U.K.
Deputy Vice-President in charge of the Political Section U.S.
Vice-President in charge of the Economic and Administrative Section U.K.
Deputy Vice-President in charge of the Economic and Administrative Section U.S.

In the event a vacancy should occur in the posts of the Deputy President, Vice-Presidents, or Deputy Vice-Presidents, such a vacancy will be filled by a person of the same nationality.

The posts of heads of the subcommissions will, insofar as possible, be distributed equally between the U.S. and U.K., and the assistant heads will similarly be of opposite nationality.

5. Except in special cases, the personnel of the Military and Economic and Administrative Sections should have a military status, and the personnel of the Political Section should have a civilian status. The Deputy President of the Commission should be military.

6. The Vice-President of the Economic and Administrative Section will be the Chief Civil Affairs Officer of Allied Military Government.

7. It is contemplated that provision will be made for representation of the interested United Nations at the Headquarters of the Control Commission. Further instructions will be sent to you on this point.

8. The channel of communication for instructions and directives and all matters of policy will be to and from the Allied Commander-in-Chief, through the Combined Chiefs of Staff.

  1. For the action taken on this paper at the 118th Meeting of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, September 10, 1943, see ante, p. 1226.
  2. For text, see Eisenhower Papers, p. 1367.
  3. Not printed.
  4. Ante, p. 1168.