J.C.S. Files

Report by an Ad Hoc Committee of the Combined Chiefs of Staff1

Enclosure to C.C.S. 324/1

Rehabilitation of Occupied and Liberated Territories

References: a. C.C.S. 288;2 C.C.S. 288/1;3 C.C.S. 288/2.4
b. C.C.S. 104th Meeting, Item 3.5

the problem

1. To determine the broad basic policy and division of responsibility as between the United Kingdom and the United States regarding the [Page 1050] stating of requirements, procurement of supplies and shipping thereof, for supplies required in connection with the initial phases of relief and rehabilitation of reoccupied countries.


2. It is recognized that minimum economic relief for the population of occupied areas must be furnished by the military during the period of military operations and for some time thereafter. Procurement for such relief by the military should be limited to that essential to military occupation but as this period may vary it is desirable for the military procurement to be coordinated with that of the civil authorities for the purpose of long term production planning. As such, it should be confined to making available the minimum quantities of food, fuel, medical, sanitary, and agreed essential supplies necessary to maintain the health and working capacity of the civilian population, as well as that required to preserve public order, maintain lines of communication and, where appropriate, develop effective fighting partners or local resources to lighten the burden on the allied armies.

3. In accordance with the basic objectives outlined in paragraph 2 above, it is essential that a program of requirements be developed which will clearly indicate the quantities of supplies estimated to be required for the civilian populations of reoccupied countries in Europe according to operational estimates. Such a statement of requirements should indicate the quantities of each category which will be supplied by the United Kingdom and what part will be supplied by the United States. Likewise, the responsibility for arranging for the shipment of these supplies should be established.

4. Stockpiles should be held to the smallest possible amount with food items limited to the basic ration in order that large frozen stocks will not accumulate and thereby impinge on other needs of equal or greater urgency. In the case of the United States, inasmuch as the War Department utilizes military priorities for the procurement of those stores it furnishes during the period of military operations for the economic relief of the populations of occupied areas, such procurement must necessarily be limited to the basic ration, soap, medical and sanitary supplies and fuel (coal and petroleum) essential to military operations as distinguished from a more generous relief standard or from rehabilitation measures. It is essential that the basic ration issued by the United States or the United Kingdom be as nearly as possible the same.

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5. It is recommended that an over-all combined program of requirements covering the minimum economic relief for the population of occupied areas that must be furnished by the military during the period of military operations and for some time thereafter, be developed in accordance with the following principles:

The quantities incorporated in the program to be confined to the provision of the basic ration, soap, medical, sanitary supplies, fuel (coal and petroleum products), and other agreed articles considered essential to military operations. The basic ration should be as nearly as possible the same whether supplied by the United ‘States or United Kingdom.
Stockpiling should be limited to the smallest possible amount.
A statement of requirements will be prepared indicating the quantities of each category which will be supplied by the United Kingdom and the United States.
Responsibility for arranging for shipment will rest with the country procuring the supplies.
In the provision of coal and other supplies required for relief of civil populations in reoccupied countries, maximum use will be made of supplies, stockpiles and resources locally available within such reoccupied countries. Where possible and where a surplus of coal or other supplies exists within any particular reoccupied country over and above the requirements for such commodities by that country, such surpluses will be used to fill the requirements of other reoccupied countries.
The monthly requirements for the various countries which it is anticipated may be reoccupied, will be a matter for recommendation by the Combined Civil Affairs Committee.
It is agreed that for a period of three months subsequent to the occupation of Italy, the United Kingdom will deliver up to 100,000 tons of coal to Italy each month if the Italian stock position and the need require it. Deliveries after the first three months will be the subject of further negotiation. Subsequent to the occupation of Italy within the strategic plan, the United States will make available the equivalent of two ships each month for the purpose of supplying the Italian civilian population with the essential dry cargo imports other than coal if the need requires it. Should it be agreed that essential civilian requirements exceed the capacity set forth above additional shipping will be provided as may be agreed upon. This paragraph is subject to the provision that Italian ships are not available for the purposes herein stated.

  1. Circulated under cover of a note by the Secretaries of the Combined Chiefs of Staff (C.C.S. 324/1), August 22, 1943. This report was based on a paper (not printed) which had been circulated under cover of the following note by the Secretaries of the Combined Chiefs of Staff (C.C.S. 324), August 20, 1943: “In order to avoid delay, the Enclosure, prepared by the U.S. Joint Administrative Committee, has been referred to a combined ad hoc committee for study and report to the Combined Chiefs of Staff. It will be placed on the C.C.S. agenda when the report of the ad hoc committee is received.”

    For the action taken on the enclosure to C.C.S. 324/1 at the 115th Meeting of the Combined Chiefs of Staff, August 23, 1943, see ante, p. 940.

  2. Ante, p. 400.
  3. Ante, p. 402.
  4. Ante, p. 404.
  5. The minutes of this meeting, which took place at Washington on July 30, 1943, are not printed.