Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, 1928, Volume I
The Ambassador in Italy (Fletcher) to the Secretary of State
[Received August 10.]
Sir: Referring to my despatch No. 1726 of June 5th last42 enclosing an advance copy of the Report of the United States Delegation to the International Conference for the Revision of the Convention of Berlin of 1908 for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, as well as a copy of the printed text of the Convention as signed here, together with a copy of the Report of the Reporter General at the Conference, I now have the honor to enclose the original Report of the United States Delegation to this Conference.
The Report of the Delegation is accompanied by a corrected text of the Convention signed here, in triplicate, which should be substituted for that accompanying my despatch No. 1726 above mentioned. The corrections, however, are merely typographical.
The Report is accompanied by:43
- Appendix 1. A complete file of all papers issued by the Secretariat General of the Conference, in the French language.
- Appendix 2. Minutes of the inaugural session, May 7, 1928.
- Appendix 3. Minutes of the first plenary session, May 8, 1928.
- Appendix 4. Minutes of the second plenary session, June 1, 1928.
- Appendix 5. Minutes of the closing session and signatures.
- Appendix 6. Printed text of the Resolutions of the Conference.
- Appendixes 7 and 8. Propositions, Counter-Propositions and Amendments proposed.
The Department is thus in possession of a complete file of the Conference. I understood from Representative Bloom that he was having English translations made of the minutes of the various committee meetings. If he has done this I have no doubt he would be glad to make translations available to the Department.
I have [etc.]
The American Delegation to the Secretary of State
Sir: The undersigned, appointed by the President as Delegates of the United States of America to the International Conference for [Page 401] the Revision of the Convention of Berlin of 1908 for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, have the honor to submit the following report:
The Conference met at Rome on May 7th and concluded its labors on June 2, 1928. The following members of the Union were represented: Germany, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Free City of Danzig, Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Morocco, Monaco, Norway, New Zealand, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Czechoslovakia, Tunisia. The following non-member countries were also represented: Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Egypt, Ecuador, United States of America, Guatemala, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Nicaragua, Persia, Peru, San Marino, Salvador, Yugoslavia, Siam, Turkey, Uruguay, Venezuela.
The delegates representing Union countries only were given the vote. Representatives of non-Union countries were given every facility for speaking but had no vote.
The official language of the Conference was French.
At the first plenary session a drafting committee was appointed and the Conference sitting as a committee of the whole was in almost daily session. More than one hundred proposals for the amendment of the Articles of the Convention of Berlin of 1908 were suggested by delegates from the different countries of the Union, debated at great length and very fully considered. All the committee hearings were open to all delegates who desired to be heard.
One or more members of the United States Delegation attended every meeting of the various committees and the Delegation kept in close touch with the debates and developments of the Conference. The United States Delegation has at all times given full and careful consideration to all suggestions received from time to time from representatives of American interests. As occasion arose suggestions and explanations were made by our Delegation when proposals were in debate which in our opinion if adopted might injure American interests or hinder or prevent the eventual adhesion of the United States to the Convention. The observations of members of the American Delegation were at all times given careful consideration by the Conference.
The official text of the Convention adopted by the Conference and signed in Rome on June 2, 1928, is hereto attached, accompanied by an English translation.
The proceedings of the Conference, reports of committees, and all documents issuing from the Secretariat General also appear in the Appendix to this Report.[Page 402]
Representatives of the following named countries signed the Convention: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Denmark, Free City of Danzig, Spain, Estonia, Finland, Great Britain, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, India, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Morocco, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Sweden, Switzerland.
The Delegation wishes to call special attention to Paragraph 3 of Article 28 of the Rome Convention which, in translation, reads as follows:
“The countries not members of the Union may up to the 1st of August 1931 join the Union by way of adhesion either to the Convention signed at Berlin on the 13th of November 1908, or to the present Convention. After the 1st of August 1931 they may only adhere to the present (Rome) Convention.”
A Resolution was also adopted (Voeu VI) to the following effect:
“The Conference, bearing in mind the identity of general principles and objects of the Berne Convention, as revised first at Berlin and then at Rome, and of the Convention signed by the American States in Buenos Aires in 1910,44 as revised at Havana in February 1928;45 noting that most of the dispositions of the two Conventions are in agreement: expresses the hope that conformably with the suggestions made by the Brazilian and French Delegations, the American Republics signatory to a convention to which the non-American States are unable to adhere, may, on the one hand, following the example of Brazil, accede to the Berne Convention as revised in Rome, and that, on the other hand, all the interested Governments may agree among themselves with a view to preparing a general understanding having as a base those rules of the two Conventions which are similar and as an object the unification throughout the world of the laws protecting intellectual production.”
The Delegation wishes to acknowledge the courteous consideration shown by the Conference to the suggestions made by our Delegation and the attentions and hospitalities received from the Italian Government and its officials while in attendance upon the Conference.
- Henry P. Fletcher
- Sol Bloom
- Thorvald Solberg
- Warren D. Robbins
- Mowatt M. Mitchell
- George R. Canty
Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works Signed at Berne, September 9, 1886, As Revised and Signed at Berlin, November 13, 1908, and at Rome, June 2, 192846
The President of the German Reich; the Federal President of the Republic of Austria; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; the President of the United States of Brazil; His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians; His Majesty the King of Denmark; His Majesty the King of Spain; the President of the Republic of Estonia; the President of the Republic of Finland; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions Beyond the Seas, Emperor of India; the President of the Hellenic Republic; His Most Serene Highness the Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Luxemburg; His Majesty the Sultan of Morocco; His Most Serene Highness the Prince of Monaco; His Majesty the King of Norway; Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands; the President of the Polish Republic in the name of Poland and of the Free City of Danzig; the President of the Portuguese Republic; His Majesty the King of Rumania; His Majesty the King of Sweden; the Federal Council of the Swiss Confederation; the States of Syria and the Great Lebanon; the President of the Czechoslovak Republic; His Highness the Bey of Tunis—
Equally animated by the desire to protect in as efficacious and uniform a manner as possible the rights of authors as to their literary and artistic works,
Have resolved to revise and complete the Act signed at Berlin on November 13, 1908.
They have, consequently, named as their plenipotentiaries:
[Here follows list of names of plenipotentiaries.]
Who, being thereunto duly authorized, have agreed upon the following:
The Countries to which the present Convention applies shall be constituted into a Union for the protection of the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works.
- The term “literary and artistic works” shall include all productions in the literary, scientific, and artistic domain, whatever the [Page 404] mode or form of expression, such as: books, pamphlets, and other writings; lectures, addresses, sermons and other works of like nature; dramatic or dramatico-musical works; choreographic works and pantomimes, the staging (mise en scène) of which is fixed in writing or otherwise; musical compositions with or without words; drawings, paintings; works of architecture and sculpture; engravings and lithographs; illustrations; geographical charts; plans, sketches, and plastic works relating to geography, topography, architecture, or the sciences.
- Translations, adaptations, arrangements of music and other reproductions transformed from a literary or artistic work, as well as compilations from different works, shall be protected as original works without prejudice to the rights of the author of the original work.
- The countries of the Union shall be bound to secure protection in the case of the works mentioned above.
- Works of art applied to industry shall be protected so far as the domestic legislation of each country allows.
Article 2 Bis
- The authority is reserved to the domestic legislation of each country of the Union to exclude, partially or wholly, from the protection provided by the preceding Article political discourses or discourses pronounced in judicial debates.
- There is also reserved to the domestic legislation of each country of the Union authority to enact the conditions under which such lectures, addresses, sermons and other works of like nature may be reproduced by the press. Nevertheless, the author alone shall have the right to bring such works together in a compilation.
The present convention shall apply to photographic works and to works obtained by any process analogous to photography. The countries of the Union shall be bound to guarantee protection to such works.
- Authors within the jurisdiction of one of the countries of the Union shall enjoy for their works, whether unpublished or published for the first time in one of the countries of the Union, such rights, in the countries other than the country of origin of the work, as the respective laws now accord or shall hereafter accord to nationals, as well as the rights specially accorded by the present Convention.
- The enjoyment and the exercise of such rights shall not be subject to any formality; such enjoyment and such exercise are independent of the existence of protection in the country of origin of the work. Consequently, apart from the stipulations of the present [Page 405] Convention, the extent of the protection, as well as the means of redress guaranteed to the author to safeguard his rights, shall be regulated exclusively according to the legislation of the country where the protection is claimed.
- The following shall be considered as the country of origin of the work: for unpublished works, the country to which the author belongs; for published works, the country of first publication, and for works published simultaneously in several countries of the Union, the country among them whose legislation grants the shortest term of protection. For works published simultaneously in a country outside of the Union and in a country within the Union, it is the latter country which shall be exclusively considered as the country of origin.
- By “published works” (“oeuvres publiées”) must be understood, according to the present Convention, works which have been issued (“oeuvres éditées”). The representation of a dramatic or dramatico-musical work, the performance of a musical work, the exhibition of a work of art and the construction of a work of architecture shall not constitute publication.
Authors within the jurisdiction of one of the countries of the Union who publish their works for the first time in another country of the Union, shall have in this latter country the same rights as national authors.
- Authors not within the jurisdiction of any one of the countries of the Union, who publish their works for the first time in one of the Union countries, shall enjoy in such Union country the same rights as national authors, and in the other countries of the Union the rights accorded by the present Convention.
- Nevertheless, when a country outside of the Union does not protect in an adequate manner the works of authors within the jurisdiction of one of the countries of the Union, this latter Union country may restrict the protection for the works of authors who are, at the time of the first publication of such works, within the jurisdiction of the non-union country and are not actually domiciled in one of the countries of the Union.
- Any restriction, established by virtue of the preceding paragraph, shall not prejudice the rights which an author may have acquired in a work published in one of the countries of the Union before the putting into effect of this restriction.
- The countries of the Union which, by virtue of the present article, restrict the protection of the rights of authors, shall notify [Page 406] the fact to the Government of the Swiss Confederation by a written declaration indicating the countries in whose case protection is restricted, and indicating also the restrictions to which the rights of authors within the jurisdiction of such country are subjected. The Government of the Swiss Confederation shall immediately communicate this fact to all the countries of the Union.
Article 6 Bis
- Independently of the author’s copyright, and even after assignment of the said copyright, the author shall retain the right to claim authorship of the work, as well as the right to object to every deformation, mutilation or other modification of the said work, which may be prejudicial to his honor or to his reputation.
- It is left to the national legislation of each of the countries of the Union to establish the conditions for the exercise of these rights. The means for safeguarding them shall be regulated by the legislation of the country where protection is claimed.
- The duration of the protection granted by the present Convention shall comprise the life of the author and fifty years after his death.
- In case this period of protection, however, should not be adopted uniformly by all the countries of the Union, its duration shall be regulated by the law of the country where protection is claimed, and it can not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work. The countries of the Union will consequently not be required to apply the provision of the preceding paragraph beyond the extent to which it agrees with their domestic law.
- For photographic works and works obtained by a process analogous to photography; for posthumous works; for anonymous or pseudonymous works, the term of protection shall be regulated by the law of the country where protection is claimed, but this term shall not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work.
Article 7 Bis
- The term of copyright protection belonging in common to collaborators in a work shall be calculated according to the date of the death of the last survivor of the collaborators.
- Persons within the jurisdiction of countries which grant a shorter period of protection than that provided in paragraph 1 can not claim in the other countries of the Union a protection of longer duration.
- In any case the term of protection shall not expire before the death of the last survivor of the collaborators.
Authors of unpublished works within the jurisdiction of one of the countries of the Union, and authors of works published for the first time in one of these countries, shall enjoy in the other countries of the Union during the whole term of the right in the original work the exclusive right to make or to authorize the translation of their works.
- Serial stories, tales and all other works, whether literary, scientific, or artistic, whatever may be their subject, published in newspapers or periodicals of one of the countries of the Union, may not be reproduced in the other countries without the consent of the authors.
- Articles of current economic, political, or religious discussion may be reproduced by the press if their reproduction is not expressly reserved. But the source must always be clearly indicated; the sanction of this obligation shall be determined by the legislation of the country where the protection is claimed.
- The protection of the present Convention shall not apply to news of the day or to miscellaneous news having the character merely of press information.
As concerns the right of borrowing lawfully from literary or artistic works for use in publications intended for instruction or having a scientific character, or for chrestomathies, the provisions of the legislation of the countries of the Union and of the special treaties existing or to be concluded between them shall govern.
- The stipulations of the present Convention shall apply to the public representation of dramatic or dramatico-musical works and to the public performance of musical works, whether these works are published or not.
- Authors of dramatic or dramatico-musical works shall be protected, during the term of their copyright in the original work, against the unauthorized public representation of a translation of their works.
- In order to enjoy the protection of this article, authors in publishing their works shall not be obliged to prohibit the public representation or public performance of them.
Article 11 Bis
- The authors of literary and artistic works shall enjoy the exclusive right to authorize the communication of their works to the public by broadcasting.
- It belongs to the national legislatures of the countries of the Union to regulate the conditions for the exercise of the right declared in the preceding paragraph, but such conditions shall have an effect strictly limited to the country which establishes them. They can not in any case adversely affect the moral right of the author, nor the right which belongs to the author of obtaining an equitable remuneration fixed, in default of an amicable agreement, by competent authority.
Among the unlawful reproductions to which the present Convention applies shall be specially included indirect, unauthorized appropriations of a literary or artistic work, such as adaptations, arrangements of music, transformations of a romance or novel or of a poem into a theatrical piece and vice-versa, etc., when they are only the reproduction of such work in the same form or in another form with non-essential changes, additions or abridgments and without presenting the character of a new, original work.
- Authors of musical works shall have the exclusive right to authorize: (1) the adaptation of these works to instruments serving to reproduce them mechanically; (2) the public performance of the same works by means of these instruments.
- The limitations and conditions relative to the application of this article shall be determined by the domestic legislation of each country in its own case; but all limitations and conditions of this nature shall have an effect strictly limited to the country which shall have adopted them.
- The provisions of paragraph 1 shall have no retroactive effect, and therefore shall not be applicable in a country of the Union to works which, in that country, shall have been lawfully adapted to mechanical instruments before the going into force of the Convention signed at Berlin, November 13, 1908; and, in the case of a country which has acceded to the Union since that date, or shall accede to it in the future, then when the works have been adapted to mechanical instruments before the date of its accession.
- Adaptations made by virtue of paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article and imported, without the authorization of the parties interested, into a country where they would not be lawful, shall be liable to seizure there.
- Authors of literary, scientific or artistic works shall have the exclusive right to authorize the reproduction, adaptation, and public representation of their works by means of the cinematograph.
- Cinematographic productions shall be protected as literary or artistic works when the author shall have given to the work an original character. If this character is lacking, the cinematographic production shall enjoy the same protection as photographic works.
- Without prejudice to the rights of the author of the work reproduced or adapted, the cinematographic work shall be protected as an original work.
- The preceding provisions apply to the reproduction or production obtained by any other process analogous to cinematography.
- In order that the authors of the works protected by the present Convention may be considered as such, until proof to the contrary, and be admitted consequently before the courts of the various countries of the Union to proceed against infringers, it shall suffice that the author’s name be indicated upon the work in the usual manner.
- For anonymous or pseudonymous works, the publisher whose name is indicated upon the work shall be entitled to protect the rights of the author. He shall, without other proof, be considered the legal representative of the anonymous or pseudonymous author.
- All infringing works may be seized by the competent authorities of the countries of the Union where the original work has a right to legal protection.
- Seizure may also be made in these countries of reproductions which come from a country where the copyright on the work has terminated, or where the work has not been protected.
- The seizure shall take place in conformity with the domestic legislation of each country.
The provisions of the present Convention may not prejudice in any way the right which belongs to the Government of each of the countries of the Union to permit, to supervise, or to forbid, by means of legislation or of domestic police, the circulation, the representation or the exhibition of every work or production in regard to which competent authority may have to exercise this right.[Page 410]
- The present Convention shall apply to all works which, at the time it goes into effect, have not fallen into the public domain of their country of origin because of the expiration of the term of protection.
- But if a work by reason of the expiration of the term of protection which was previously secured for it has fallen into the public domain of the country where protection is claimed, such work shall not be protected anew.
- This principle shall be applied in accordance with the stipulations to that effect contained in the special Conventions either existing or to be concluded between countries of the Union, and in default of such stipulations, its application shall be regulated by each country in its own case.
- The preceding provisions shall apply equally in the case of new accessions to the Union and where the protection would be extended by the application of Article 7 or by the abandonment of reservations.
The provisions of the present Convention shall not prevent a claim for the application of more favorable provisions which may be enacted by the legislation of a country of the Union in favor of foreigners in general.
The governments of the countries of the Union reserve the right to make between themselves special treaties, when these treaties would confer upon authors more extended rights than those accorded by the Union, or when they contain other stipulations not conflicting with the present Convention. The provisions of existing treaties which answer the aforesaid conditions shall remain in force.
- The international office instituted under the name of “Bureau of the International Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works” (“Bureau de l’Union internationale pour la protection des oeuvres littéraires et artistiques”) shall be maintained.
- This Bureau is placed under the high authority of the Government of the Swiss Confederation, which controls its organization and supervises its working.
- The official language of the Bureau shall be French.
- The International Bureau shall bring together, arrange and publish information of every kind relating to the protection of the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works. It shall study questions of mutual utility interesting to the Union, and edit, with the aid of documents placed at its disposal by the various administrations, a periodical in the French language, treating questions concerning the purpose of the Union. The governments of the countries of the Union reserve the right to authorize the Bureau by common accord to publish an edition in one or more other languages, in case experience demonstrates the need.
- The International Bureau must hold itself at all times at the disposal of members of the Union to furnish them, in relation to questions concerning the protection of literary and artistic works, the special information of which they have need.
- The Director of the International Bureau shall make an annual report on his administration, which shall be communicated to all the members of the Union.
(1) The expenses of the Bureau of the International Union shall be shared in common by the countries of the Union. Until a new decision, they may not exceed one hundred and twenty thousand Swiss francs per year. This sum may be increased when needful by the unanimous decision of one of the Conferences provided for in Article 24.
(2) To determine the part of this sum total of expenses to be paid by each of the countries, the countries of the Union and those which later adhere to the Union shall be divided into six classes each contributing in proportion to a certain number of units to wit:
(3) These coefficients are multiplied by the number of countries of each class, and the sum of the products thus obtained furnishes the number of units by which the total expense is to be divided. The quotient gives the amount of the unit of expense.
(4) Each country shall declare, at the time of its accession, in which of the above-mentioned classes it demands to be placed, but [Page 412] it may always ultimately declare that it intends to be placed in another class.
(5) The Swiss Administration shall prepare the budget of the Bureau and superintend its expenditures, make necessary advances and draw up the annual account, which shall be communicated to all the other administrations.
- The present Convention may be subjected to revision with a view to the introduction of amendments calculated to perfect the system of the Union.
- Questions of this nature, as well as those which from other points of view pertain to the development of the Union, shall be considered in the Conferences which will take place successively in the countries of the Union between the delegates of the said countries. The administration of the country where a Conference is to be held shall, with the cooperation of the International Bureau, prepare the agenda of the same. The Director of the Bureau shall attend the meetings of the Conferences and take part in the discussions without a deliberative voice.
- No change in the present Convention shall be valid for the Union except by the unanimous consent of the countries which compose it.
- The countries outside of the Union which assure legal protection of the rights which are the object of the present Convention, may accede to it upon their request.
- Such accession shall be communicated in writing to the Government of the Swiss Confederation and by the latter to all the others.
- The full right of adhesion to all the clauses and admission to all the advantages stipulated in the present Convention shall be implied by such accession and it shall go into effect one month after the sending of the notification by the Government of the Swiss Confederation to the other countries of the Union, unless a later date has been indicated by the adhering country. Nevertheless, such accession may contain an indication that the adhering country intends to substitute, provisionally at least, for Article 8 concerning translations, the provisions of Article 5 of the Convention of the Union of 1886, revised at Paris in 1896, it being of course understood that these provisions relate only to translations into the language or languages of the country.
- Each of the countries of the Union may, at any time, notify in writing the Government of the Swiss Confederation that the [Page 413] present Convention shall be applicable to all or to part of its colonies, protectorates, territories under mandate or all other territories subject to its sovereignty or to its authority, or all territories under suzerainty, and the Convention shall then apply to all the territories designated in the notification. In default of such notification, the Convention shall not apply to such territories.
- Each of the countries of the Union may, at any time, notify in writing the Government of the Swiss Confederation that the present Convention shall cease to be applicable to all or to part of the territories which were the object of the notification provided for by the preceding paragraph, and the Convention shall cease to apply in the territories designated in such notification twelve months after receipt of the notification addressed to the Government of the Swiss Confederation.
- All the notifications made to the Government of the Swiss Confederation, under the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, shall be communicated by that Government to all the countries of the Union.
- The present Convention shall replace in the relations between the countries of the Union the Convention of Berne of September 9, 1886 and the acts by which it has been successively revised. The acts previously in effect shall remain applicable in the relations with the countries which shall not have ratified the present Convention.
- The countries in whose name the present Convention is signed may still retain the benefit of the reservations which they have previously formulated on condition that they make such a declaration at the time of the deposit of the ratifications.
- Countries which are at present parties to the Union, but in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, may at any time adhere to it. They may in such case benefit by the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
- The present Convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be deposited at Rome not later than July 1, 1931.
- It shall go into effect between the countries of the Union which have ratified it one month after that date. However, if, before that date, it has been ratified by at least six countries of the Union it shall go into effect as between those countries of the Union one month after the deposit of the sixth ratification has been notified to them by the Government of the Swiss Confederation and, for the countries of the Union which shall later ratify, one month after the notification of each such ratification.
- Countries that are not within the Union may, until August 1, 1931, enter the Union, by means of adhesion, either to the Convention signed at Berlin November 13, 1908, or to the present Convention. After August 1, 1931, they can adhere only to the present Convention.
- The present Convention shall remain in effect for an indeterminate time, until the expiration of one year from the day when denunciation of it shall have been made.
- This denunciation shall be addressed to the Government of the Swiss Confederation. It shall be effective only as regards the country which shall have made it, the Convention remaining in force for the other countries of the Union.
- The countries which introduce into their legislation the term of protection of fifty years provided for by Article 7, paragraph 1, of the present Convention, shall make it known to the Government of the Swiss Confederation by a written notification which shall be communicated at once by that Government to all the other countries of the Union.
- It shall be the same for such countries as shall renounce any reservations made or maintained by them by virtue of Articles 25 and 27.
In faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention.
Done at Rome, the second of June, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-eight, in a single copy, which shall be deposited in the archives of the Royal Italian Government. One copy, properly certified, shall be sent through diplomatic channels to each of the countries of the Union.
- For Germany:
- C. von Neurath.
- Georg Klauer.
- Wilhelm Mackeben.
- Eberhard Neugebauer.
- Maximilian Mintz.
- Max von Schillings.
- For Austria:
- Dr. August Hesse.
- For Belgium:
- Cte. della Faille de Leverghem.
- For the United States of Brazil:
- F. Pessoa de Queiroz.
- J. S. da Fonseca Hermes Jr.
- For Bulgaria:
- G. Radeff.
- For Denmark:
- I. C. W. Kruse.
- F. Graae.
- For the Free City of Danzig:
- Stefan Sieczkowski.
- For Spain:
- Francisco Alvarez-Ossorto.
- For Estonia:
- K. Tofer.
- For Finland:
- Emile Setälä.
- Rolf Thesleff.
- George Winckelmann.
- For France:
- Marcel Plaisant.
- P. Grunebaum-Ballin.
- Cn. Drottets.
- Georges Maillard.
- André Rivoire.
- Romain Coolus.
- A. Messager.
- For Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
- S. J. Chapman.
- W. S. Jarratt.
- A. J. Martin.
- For Canada:
- Philippe Roy.
- For Australia:
- W. Harrison Moore.
- For New Zealand:
- S. G. Raymond.
- For the Irish Free State:
- [No signature.]
- For India:
- G. Graham Dixon.
- For the Hellenic Republic:
- N. Mavroudis.
- For Hungary:
- Andre de Hory.
- For Italy:
- Vittorio Scialoja.
- E. Piola Caselli.
- Vicenzo Morello.
- Amedeo Giannini.
- Domenico Barone.
- Emilio Venezian.
- A. Jannoni Sebastianini.
- Mario Ghiron.
- For Japan:
- M. Matsuda.
- T. Akagi.
- For Luxemburg:
- For Morocco:
- For Monaco:
- R. Sauvage.
- For Norway:
- Arnold Raestad.
- For The Netherlands:
- A. van der Gols.
- For Poland:
- Stefan Sieczkowski.
- Frédéric Zoll.
- For Portugal:
- Enrique Trindade Coelho.
- For Rumania:
- Theodore Solacolo.
- For Sweden:
- E. Marks von Würtemberg.
- Erik Lidforss.
- For Switzerland:
- W. Kraft.
- A. Streuli.
- For Syria and Great Lebanon:
- For Czechoslovakia:
- Dr. V. Mastnt.
- Prof. Karel Hermann-Otavsey.
- For Tunis:
- Not printed.↩
- Appendixes not printed.↩
- Foreign Relations, 1910, p. 57.↩
- Not printed.↩
- Official text is in French; this translation is reprinted from S. Ex. Doc. E, 73d Cong., 2d sess. The convention was submitted to the Senate Feb. 19, 1934. For list of ratifications and adhesions, see League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. cxxiii, pp. 235–239.↩