162. Memorandum From Paul Henze of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)1


  • CIA Report on Results of Stepped-up Publishing and Distribution Effort to USSR & Eastern Europe

Stan Turner has sent a good summary report on the results of CIA’s effort, which we approved a year ago last summer, to publish and send more indigenous-language material into Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The results are impressive. They are typical of what can be done when long-established, professionally run programs are given the opportunity to expand and the best judgment of the people who are running them is taken as the basis of judgment for what can be done.

This expansion is projected to continue further during the coming fiscal years. By about 1981 it may be back at the level it was at 10–15 years ago. Its effectiveness is likely to be greater than it was then since the material available to be used is better and the receptivity in the target countries greater.


Memorandum From Director of Central Intelligence Turner to the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs (Brzezinski)2


  • Progress Report on Publishing and Distributing Literature to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
[Page 493]


A. My Memorandum of 13 March 78; Subject: Support for Russian Emigre Publishing House

B. Your Memorandum of 18 March 78; Subject: Support for Russian and East European Book Publishing3

1. Paragraphs 2–5 below summarize the use of the $960,000 [less than 1 line not declassified] earmarked specifically for an increase in book publishing and distribution to the USSR and Eastern Europe.

2. The [less than 1 line not declassified] funds were made available to our major book distribution mechanism in February 1978. While all the funds were obligated prior to 1 October 1978, the full impact on actual distribution cannot be measured accurately until well into FY 79, as some of the books purchased are still in the distribution pipeline. Since our operational mechanism was largely in place, it was possible to utilize [dollar amount not declassified] directly for the purchase and distribution of books. Two preliminary indicators of the effectiveness of the effort are:(A) 212,000 items were distributed from 1 July 1977 to 30 June 1978 (115,000 to Soviets; 97,000 to Eastern Europeans) as compared with a total of 175,000 for the same period the previous year—an increase of 37,000 (21%); and (B) 122,000 items were distributed in the period 1 January–30 June 1978 as compared with 90,000 in the 1 July–31 December 1977 period—an increase of 32,000 (35%). [1 line not declassified]

3. Further to paragraphs 3–5 of Reference A, in the spring of 1978 we provided the first subsidy [dollar amount not declassified] to a prominent Russian-language publishing house [place not declassified] With these funds it was possible for them both to keep in business and to plan the publication of approximately 12 titles of philosophical works much in demand in the Soviet Union. [dollar amount not declassified]

4. Increased funding has allowed an increase in publication of Russian-language books to provide a wider choice of materials available for infiltration into the Soviet Union. Two major works have now appeared, and four additional titles are in the process of being published. Three or four more titles will appear by the end of the year, including the initial volume of what is to be a major historical series. At the same time, in order to exploit more fully increased political activism in Poland, eight additional titles are in various stages of publication in the Polish language. Five volumes have already appeared and have been distributed. The demand for written materials in Poland is [Page 494] high, [2 lines not declassified] Russian and Polish editions of works of current importance in Western thought are now being given active consideration. [dollar amount not declassified]

5. Although tighter controls exist in Czechoslovakia than in Poland (especially during the tenth anniversary of the invasion) many manuscripts have been smuggled out of Czechoslovakia. The additional funds were used to publish more of these materials in a Czech-language journal and to publish an additional issue of this journal. Part of the funds were also used in an effort to increase internal distribution. [dollar amount not declassified]

6. [4 lines not declassified] We have received repeated verification [1 line not declassified] that our literature is distributed widely in both East Europe and the USSR.

7. The preparation of this report was delayed because of the need to collate information [2 lines not declassified] All portions of this document are SECRET.

Stansfield Turner4
  1. Source: Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Office, Outside the System File, Box 51, Chron: 12/14–31/78. Secret. Sent for information. A notation on the memorandum indicates that it was returned to Henze on December 19.
  2. Secret.
  3. Turner’s March 13 memorandum dealt with the funding for the book publishing program and how the allotted funds would be used. (Carter Library, National Security Affairs, Staff Material, Horn/Special, Box 2, Chron File: 3/78) Brzezinski’s March 18 memorandum acknowledges receipt of Turner’s memorandum. (Ibid.)
  4. Turner signed “Stan Turner” above his typed signature.