German Democratic Republic—Berlin


84. Airgram A-02 From the Mission in West Berlin to the Department of State, January 5, 1973.

The Mission offered its annual policy assessment of the German Democratic Republic.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL GER E-US. Secret. Drafted on January 3 by Alexander Akalovsky (EAS), Richard C. Barkley (PS), and Felix S. Bloch (ECON); cleared by EAS, POLAD, POL, ECON, USIS, and USCOB; and approved by Klein. Repeated to Belgrade, Bonn, Bucharest, Budapest, London, Moscow, Munich, NATO, Paris, Prague, Sofia, Warsaw, CINCEUR for POLAD, CINCUSSAFE for POLAD, CINCUSAREUR for POLAD, and USELMLO/Casteau.


85. Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon, Washington, February 15, 1973.

Rogers recommended the initiation of diplomatic relations between the United States and the German Democratic Republic.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-1973, POL & DEF. Confidential. Drafted on February 13 by Sutterlin. Attached but not published is the enclosure, “Position Paper on Negotiations with the GDR on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations.” A typed note at the top of the memorandum reads: the “President wishes Dept defer negotiations until West German Parliament has ratified Basic Treaty between Federal Republic and GDR.”


86. Memorandum From Helmut Sonnenfeldt of the National Security Council staff to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (Kissinger), Washington, February 15, 1973.

Sonnenfeldt summarized a series of recent challenges of Soviet Union and East European countries to the Four Power Berlin Agreement's provisions for the Federal Republic of Germany's role in West Berlin.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 692, Country Files-Europe-Germany-Berlin, Vol. IV, May-Aug. 1971. Confidential. Sent for information. Attached but not published at Tab A is telegram 2103 from Bonn, February 9.


87. Memorandum From Secretary of State Rogers to President Nixon, Washington, June 26, 1973.

Following the West German Parliament's ratification of the Basic Treaty regulating its relations with the German Democratic Republic, Rogers suggested that the United States invite representatives of the GDR to Washington for the purposes of establishing diplomatic relations.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL GER E-US. Confidential. Rogers's February 15 memorandum to Nixon is Document 87. Sonnenfeldt forwarded Rogers's memorandum to Kissinger under a cover memorandum, July 19, with the following recommendation: “Frankly, there is no longer any specific reason for us to delay the moves outlined by the Secretary, however repulsive the whole project may be.” (National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 687, Country Files-Europe-Germany (BONN), Vol. XIII, Jan.-Sept. 1973) An undated handwritten memo from Scowcroft to Kissinger was attached to Sonnenfeldt's memorandum. It reads: “Henry-I recommend that you do go to the President on this. You will recall he has an intense interest in this issue-mostly in slowing it down.” (Ibid.)


88. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to Secretary of State Rogers, Washington, July 24, 1973.

The President approved Rogers's request to open negotiations with the German Democratic Republic on the establishment of diplomatic relations.

Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 687, Country Files-Europe-Germany (BONN), Vol. XIII, Jan.-Sept. 1973. Confidential. Rogers's June 26 memorandum to Nixon is Document 87. The United States and the German Democratic Republic formally established diplomatic relations on September 4, 1974.


89. Airgram A-230 From the Mission in West Berlin to the Embassy in the Federal Republic of Germany, October 10, 1973.

The Mission endorsed the West Berlin Parliament's request to establish and expand the presence of institutions in the Federal Republic in West Berlin consistent with the terms of the Quadripartite Agreement.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-1973, 15-2 GER B. Confidential. Drafted on October 5 by Bodde and Seligmann; cleared by Seligmann. Repeated to the Department of State. Attached but not published is the September 26 enclosure.


90. Airgram A-291 From the Mission in West Berlin to the Department of State and the Embassy in Federal Republic of Germany, December 26, 1973.

The Mission provided its annual policy assessment for 1973 and noted several aspects of the implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-1973, POL 1 GER B-US. Secret; Noforn. Drafted on December 21 by Seligmann, Greenwald, Bodde, Chapman, Thyden, and Root and cleared by USCOB, POLAD, EAS, and USIS; and approved by Klein. Repeated to London, Moscow, NATO, Paris, CINCEUR for POLAD, CINCUSAFE for POLAD, CINCUSAREUR for POLAD, USELMLO/Casteau, Bremen, DÜsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, and Stuttgart. Klein signed DK above his typeset signature.


91. Telegram 24423 From the Department of State to the Embassy in Federal Republic of Germany, February 6, 1974, 0214Z.

The Department reported on Kissinger's meeting with Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko and the Soviet objections to the establishment of a German Federal Environmental Office in West Berlin.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Foreign Policy Files, P740146-1810. Secret; EXDIS; Immediate. Drafted by George (EUR/CE); cleared by Stabler, Hartman, and Sonnenfeldt; and approved by Kissinger. Repeated to London, Paris, Moscow, Berlin, NATO. The memorandum of conversation of Kissinger's February 4 conversation with Gromyko is scheduled to be printed in Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, volume XV 1973-1976, Soviet Union, 1972-1974.


92. Memorandum of Conversation, Moscow, March 27, 1974.

Secretary of State Kissinger and Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs Gromyko met to discuss Soviet objections to the establishment of a West German Federal Environmental Office in West Berlin.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Henry Kissinger 1973-1977, Entry 5403, Box 20, Classified External Memoranda of Conversations, Sept. 1973-April 1974. Secret; Nodis. Drafted by Hartman. The meeting took place in the Foreign Ministry. For Gromyko and Kissinger's discussion of February 4, see Document 91.


93. Memorandum From the Counselor of the Department of State (Sonnenfeldt) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, July 30, 1974.

Sonnenfeldt asked Kissinger to approve a U.S. objection to Soviet interference with the transit of West German property, documentation, and personnel of the Federal Environmental Office to West Berlin. Kissinger approved.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Records of Helmut Sonnenfeldt 1973-1977, Entry 5339, Box 5, Germany 1974. Secret; Sensitive; Urgent. Cleared by Hartman. Attached but not published are the Soviet response, forwarded to Sonnenfeldt under Vorontsov's July 30 memorandum, and Sonnenfeldt's summary of their July 26 telephone conversation. The West German Parliament established the Federal Office for Environmental Protection in West Berlin on July 22.


94. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, October 24, 1974, 11-11:30 a.m.

Secretary of Defense Schlesinger briefed Ambassador Cooper on the national defense aspects of his appointment as ambassador to the German Democratic Republic.

Source: Washington National Records Center, RG 330, Records of the Secretary of Defense, OSD Files: FRC 330-77-0054, 333 East Germany 27 Nov. 74. Secret. Drafted on October 25 by Hartigan and approved on November 27 by Wickham and Jordan.


95. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, November 6, 1974, 11:45 a.m.

President Ford met with Ambassador Cooper following his confirmation by the Senate as Ambassador to the German Democratic Republic.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 7, Ford, Amb. Cooper (GDR). Confidential. This meeting took place in the Oval Office.


96. Action Memorandum From Winston Lord of the Policy Planning Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, March 4, 1975.

Lord asked Kissinger to approve the Department to make arrangements for Kissinger's visit to West Berlin. Kissinger approved the recommendations.

Source: National Archives, RG 59, Policy Planning Staff, Director's Files (Winston Lord) 1969-1977, Entry 5027, Box 351, Mar. 1-15, 1975. Confidential. A handwritten notation on the top of the first page of the memorandum that reads, “Secretary approved both recommendations with note that he wished EUR and SIP begin speech preparation “immediately” RW 3/9/75.” Kissinger initialed his approval of both recommendations on March 8, by the second recommendation he wrote “Immediately” in the margin. Kissinger visited West Berlin and addressed its House of Representatives on May 21. (See “Address Before the Berlin House of Representatives,” Department of State Bulletin 77 (June 16, 1975), pp. 812-14)


97. Memorandum of Conversation, Washington, April 18, 1975, 10 a.m.

President Ford briefly met with Ambassador Cooper to discuss the latter's impressions of the German Democratic Republic.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Adviser, Memoranda of Conversations, Box 11, Ford, Amb. Cooper (GDR). Secret; Nodis.


98. Memorandum From the Deputy Secretary of State (Ingersoll) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, November 14, 1975.

Ingersoll advised Scowcroft that the Department of Defense had recommended the closure of the Army's Special Operations Field Office in Berlin. He suggested a revision of the Office's mandate but argued against its closure.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 67, NSDM 335, Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (2). Secret; Sensitive.


99. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, Attorney General Levi, and the Director of Central Intelligence (Bush), Washington, January 21, 1976.

Scowcroft issued instructions for a joint review of the legal status and current and past activities of the Special Operations Field Office in Berlin.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 66, NSDM 335, Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (2). Secret.


100. Memorandum From the Deputy Secretary of Defense (Ellsworth) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, February 6, 1976.

Ellsworth asserted that the U.S. Army's Special Operations Field Office in Berlin served primarily intelligence and diplomatic purposes rather than military ones and repeated the Department of Defense's request to divest itself of responsibility for the Office.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 66, NSDM 335, Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (2). Secret. Scowcroft's January 21 memorandum is Document 99.


101. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to President Ford, Washington, August 12, 1976.

Scowcroft summarized the results of the interagency study of the Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin and made recommendations for the revision of its mission. Ford approved the recommendations.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 67, NSDM 335, Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (3). Secret; Sensitive. Sent for action. Tab A, as signed, is Document 103. (8/13/76, NSDM 335). The interagency working group's study, forwarded to Scowcroft under a March 22 covering memorandum signed by Borg, is ibid., Box 66, NSDM 335 Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (1). At issue were conflicting interpretations of Executive Orders 11905 (1976) and10608 (1955): While the former called for the reform of intelligence gathering in general, the latter had previously assigned the majority of intelligence-gathering responsibilities in Germany to the military.


102. National Security Decision Memorandum 335, Washington, August 13, 1976.

President Ford authorized the Army to retain responsibility for the administration and staffing of the Special Operations Field Office in Berlin and introduced new restrictions and guidelines for its intelligence-gathering activities.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 67, NSDM 335, Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (3). Secret; Sensitive. Copies were sent to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretary of the Army.


103. Letter From Attorney General Levi to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, January 7, 1977.

[Source: text not declassified. 3 pages not declassified in time for publication.]


104. Memorandum From the Deputy Secretary of Defense (Ellsworth) to the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft), Washington, January 14, 1977.

Ellsworth asserted the legality of the intelligence-gathering provisions of National Security Decision Memorandum 335.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 67, NSDM 335, Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (3). Secret. Levi's January 7 letter is Document 103. NSDM 335 is Document 102. For EO11905, see the footnote to Document 101.


105. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Scowcroft) to Secretary of State Kissinger, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, Attorney General Levi, and the Director of Central Intelligence (Bush), Washington, January 18, 1977.

Scowcroft requested a reexamination of the legality of reforms to the Army's Berlin Special Operations Field Office intelligence collection activities as outlined in National Security Decision Memorandum 335.

Source: Ford Library, National Security Council, Institutional Files, Box 67, NSDM 335, Army Special Operations Field Office in Berlin (3). Secret. NSDM 335 is Document 102. Scowcroft's summary of the initial study of the Army's SOFO in Berlin is Document 101. Attorney General Levi's January 7 letter is Document 103.